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Relationship Between Culture and Economy

Critically consider the relationship between culture and economy. To what extent is it true to suggest that decline of community and the growth of competitive individualism are produced by the shifting needs of the capitalist economy? INDIVIDUALISM independent self reliance a doctrine that bases morality on the interests of the individual a social theory maintaining the political and economic independence of the individual and stressing individual initiative (Penguin English Dictionary, 2001) an economic system characterized by the profit motive and by private ownership and control of the means of production, distribution and exchange (Penguin English Dictionary, 2001) The 15th century saw the rise of humanism and the re-evaluation of the human condition in relation to his or her world. This was viewed as a journey from the dark ages of fear and oppression to the enlightened visions of individuality and hope. In reality, it was a journey that very few were privileged enough to afford. One arena for the exercise of this alternative approach was equating classical Greek and Roman cultures with what was then the rigours of contemporary religion. Already, the image of the individual is looking to another stereotype for definition. Yet how surprised these early scholars would be to find that with this individuality came loss of community spirit, apathy and destruction of the extended family in supposedly advanced societies. They would probably be less surprised to find that economics and politics are two of the tools which have been used to carve out and colour these new societies. The following essay looks at how specific these factors operate within this changing framework of postmodern (Featherstone, 1991) society. It extends its scope beyond classical economic and political theory, which is due more consideration that given here. It considered some of the literature available on the subject of culture and economics, but, in order to get a balanced view, it also tries to see what other elements contribute to the decline of community. To start with, it is necessary to understand the elements that go to make up contemporary society. To put it in Foucaultian (1983) terms, how are these discourses constructed and what are their requirements. How specific are they to each society? “They [discourses] offer us social positions and statuses: the capitalist economy makes us into ‘workers’, ‘employers’ or ‘unemployed’” (Burr, An Introduction to Social Constructivism, 1995, p.54) Culture and economics have been much studied, investigated and written about but the relationship between the two has been a difficult one to define. Guiso, Sapienza, Zingales, (2005) argue for a “heterogeneity of preferences” as affecting peoples economic choices. If one agrees with this, then the roots of this heterogeneity have to include culture. However, each of these elements of human society have only the stability of the time in which they are created. They are shifting sands and manipulated by both internal and external factors. For example, in a democracy where politicians are elected by the people, it can be supposed that they are saying what the people like to hear and promising to do what the people who elect them want. It may be a cynical view, but once in power, it appears that one form of manipulation gives way to another. As Chomsky (1992) says, propaganda is to democracies what power is to dictatorships. Political ‘spin’ both reacts and leads. Yet, as the Frankfurt School of Philosophy shows, a depressingly negative conflict between applied reason and an ability for society to cope with, and adapt positively to, change. For example, the search for ‘panaceas’ (Horkheimer, 1987) disturbs explanations of society and economics. The panacea of the poor, as the saying goes, used to be religion. Theorists now point to consumerism as the new religion, yet it fails to provide the happiness it promises. Horkheimer (1987) explores the roots from which these questions arise and examines the success of individuality and autonomy. Why, when advanced technological societies seem to provide such levels of individual choice, is there such discontent? Could it be that an undermining of certain values has rendered us instinctively insecure? Could it be that there is truth in the statement that “every aspect of culture is in the process of commodification and linkage to the sale of goods” (Herman, 1995)? If so, is individuality an illusion and humans purely commodities to be sold to whether through cultural conformity or adherence to contemporary ideals? For the purpose of this essay, certain parameters need to be placed on the issues. For example, culture, as defined by the Penguin English Dictionary (2001), is a number of things. It is mental development, namely through education. It is the “intellectual and artistic enlightenment as distinguished from vocational and technical skills”. It is the customary beliefs and social forms of specific groups. Finally it is defined as “socially transmitted pattern of human behaviour that includes thought, speech, action, institutions and artefacts” (Penguin, 2001). This essay will mostly involve the last definition of culture. Economics seems simpler to define: “A social science concerned chiefly with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services” (Penguin, 2001). However, even in these general terms it is easy to see how culture and economy inter-depend. For the purpose of this essay, culture and economics will be put in the context of capitalist economies. It will start with questioning what the needs are of a capitalist economy according to theory and actuality. It will then examine how community has changed and whether both the past society and present individuality are ideals rather than realities. This will then be put in the context of contemporary society. Whilst this essay has a specific focus, it is understood that there are many other forms of political, social and economic systems and these can have different effects depending on their societies. For example, as Paecher, in agreement with Burr’s quotation above, points out; “Different forms of discourse result in the prioritising of different forms of knowledge; change the power relations between discourses and the knowledge relations associated with them will change as well” (Paechter, Educating the Other: gender, power and schooling, 2001) This puts the issues within a cultural context. To do the same with regard to economics one could take the following example. Certain people who benefit from a technologically advanced capitalist economy would find survival extremely challenging in a subsistence economy. However, this is but one approach and one aspect of these issues. In order to see whether capitalism and the increase of individuality alone have been the reasons for a decline in the ideal of community, the ‘needs’ of all these elements of society have to be considered. The ‘needs’ of a capitalist economy can perhaps both be guided and led by the society they are integrated with. A ‘need’ to understand and quantify the changes that occur within these economies has led to works such as that done by Webber and Rigby (in Albritton et al, 2001, pp. 246-262). To take a factual analysis as typical of the more classical economics, they study the slow down in world economy that took place in the 1970’s. They concluded that a lowering profitability in the advanced economies was to blame for the slow down. They took this overview and quantified the results of economic change in order to assess what the reasons were from an analytical perspective. In reality, unemployment rose and wages, as Sennett shows, fell. He quotes a fall of 18% in American wages between 1973 and 1995 (Sennett, 1998, p.54). Whilst the division of rich and poor is as evident through history as today, the illusion that a capitalist society would benefit all individuals was dissolved. Discontent and disillusionment with political promises became part of the culture. It may be that the pressures felt by individuals to strive and survive through competitive application of business strategies has its roots in the depression and vulnerability of unemployment. Sennett talks about these changing pressures in terms of inequality within corporate structures. He has individuals required to out perform and increase skill diversity (p.55) in order to succeed. Work is therefore governed by economics on the one hand and culture on the other with politics as a mediator between desired forms of society and managed realities. In this light, the opposite of competitive individualism is unemployment and whilst fear of the latter keeps the former competitive, the cost of the latter encourages methods of achieving full employment. For example, Featherstone uses the actions of Seattle (1996) to develop its image as a “quality of life capital” (p.107). The aim was to reduce its mass unemployment by making itself attractive both within the cultural sphere above and as a thriving economic entity. This postmodernisation (Cooke, 1988; Zukin, 1988b cited in Featherstone, 1996) is, once again, a form of self-publicisation and image production – something that this essay will return to later. To return to the UK situation. A percentage of the UK population became dependent on the Welfare State for survival and became known as the long-term unemployed. Politics and economics are at the forefront when it comes to paying for unemployment. Since the 70’s, politics has tried both a carrot and stick approach to reducing outgoings on the unemployed. Behind these initiatives is the Government budget and the premise that you can measure the success of a country by its National expenditure – this will be returned to later. Politics has continued to experiment with methods of cutting the costs of the Welfare State. Programs such as working for the dole were started. Limiting the time unemployment benefit is available for has been tried. Gradually, the programs and policies work there way back to education, the family and the community. For example the Back to Basics campaign could be seen as an attempt to introduce values that would apparently aid community cohesion. However, the ethics involved required a level of appreciation and agreement with the cultural capital (Bordieu, 1987, cited in Featherstone, 1991) of that discourse. Long-term unemployment undermined the expectation and value of educational cultural capital. Yet, “western governments [tended] to view education as a principal means for alleviating social disadvantage” (Webb, Schirato
IMC Brand Campaign Plan.

Please finish the last part.(Core competencies & Sustainable Competitive Advantage)Ben and Jerry’s – Combine 2 flavors into 1 container/customizable packaging/being able to ship from online (like Graeter’s)Found a link with Ben and Jerry’s SWOT analysis, competitors, segmentation, target market, positioning, and USP. Thought that it might help in doing this rough draft that’s due tonight. https://www.mbaskool.com/brandguide/food-and-beverages/13986-ben-a-jerry.htmlCompany description (1 paragraph) Ben and Jerry’s is an ice cream company that was founded in 1978 by Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. They opened their first ice cream shop in Burlington, Vermont, and have grown the company throughout the years. Today their ice cream is sold worldwide. The company has been involved in various charity work as well as many social programs. Additionally, they have made themselves known for political stances as well as humorous names for some of their flavors. Strategic Focus & PlanNew Product Idea – the team decides on the new product extension of a current brand (describe in detail 3-5 short paragraphs)(what) Ben and Jerry’s has many different products that people are able to pick. Ben and Jerry’s has six additional pints of ice cream, not including mini cups, pint slices, as well as cookie dough chunks. The extra pints that people are able to buy are their regular ice cream, the Netflix original flavors, non-dairy, moo-phoria light ice cream, core pints, and lastly, they have frozen yogurt pints. We have decided to go with the customization of the different packaging, buy online, and have it shipped to your house for the new product idea. And lastly, to be able to combine your two favorite 16 oz flavors into one 32oz container.(who) With these new product options, we hope to expand our customer base to all ice cream lovers. We would like to appeal to customers who want to customize their ice cream containers for special occasions. We would like to reach customers who can’t decide on just one flavor of ice cream. Lastly, we would like to make our product available to be shipped, for personal enjoyment and/or to gift to ice cream lovers everywhere. (how) We plan to reach these new and existing customers in a variety of ways. We will use coupons to promote mixed flavor containers. We will use email lists to inform customers of each new product and service. We will implement an aggressive social media campaign as well as using traditional advertising channels. Goals – 3 to 5 (SMART) goals – what are you trying to achieve with this campaign (each goal must be measurable!)To reach new customers who have not bought our brand in the pastTo engage existing customers by letting them be a part of flavor decisionsTo ensure customers are getting a fulfilling experienceTo increase repeat purchasesCore competencies & Sustainable Competitive Advantage (2 paragraphs)What are you really good at (versus competitors)?How are you going to communicate this advantage?
IMC Brand Campaign Plan

PSCI 2301 UNT US & Texas Government Institutions & Policies Kamala Harris Letter

PSCI 2301 UNT US & Texas Government Institutions & Policies Kamala Harris Letter.

I’m working on a policy project and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Policy-maker LetterTopic: I would like you to write about the political issue black people experience in America, for example Police Brutality in AmericaOne of the overarching themes of PSCI 2306 is the division of policy-making power among the various branches and levels of government. Another is the importance of representation and having a government that reflects the will of the people. This assignment requires you effectively demonstrate core competencies of critical thinking, communication, social responsibility, and personal responsibility within the context of civic engagement in the U.S. political process.In this assignment, you willIdentify a current political issue that affects you and your community.Educate yourself about the issue by reading at least three articles from reputable news sources about the issue.Determine which policy-maker is in the best position to represent your interests with respect to that issue. That could be your representative in the U.S. House of Representatives, your representative in a state legislature, or some member of the executive branch. The key is that you identify a person who has some policy-making authority with respect to the issue you have chosen and a person who might listen to your position (for example, choosing your own representative to the U.S. House rather than some other representative).Draft a letter to your legislative or executive-branch policymaker in which youidentify yourself as one of the politician’s constituents;identify the political issue about which you are concerned;clearly state a position on that issue (what should the policymaker do or not do); andprovide an explanation for your position that will persuade the policymaker to agree with you.After you draft your letter and feel comfortable with both the content and format of your letter, submit the letter as the body of an e-mail addressed to your policymaker.You will turn ina .doc, .docx, or .pdf version of your letter; anda .doc, .docx, or .pdf document listing the three articles you read.For tips on writing a letter to Congress, visit https://www.thoughtco.com/write-effective-letters-to-congress-3322301
PSCI 2301 UNT US & Texas Government Institutions & Policies Kamala Harris Letter

BIO Grossmont Cuyamaca Functions of the Major Regions of the Nephron Discussion Paper

help me with my homework BIO Grossmont Cuyamaca Functions of the Major Regions of the Nephron Discussion Paper.

I’m working on a biology writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

Short Answer Pool Questions: Using our core concept of flow-down gradients, explain the movement of glucose in and out of the nephron. Using our core concept of homeostasis, explain how the kidneys are involved in controlling fluid osmolarity. Compare the structure and functions of the major regions of the nephron. Compare the structure and function of cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons. Discuss the effect of renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone on blood pressure. (Be thorough, specific, and accurate). Explain how the vertical concentration gradient in the medulla and the concentration of vasopressin influences the volume and osmolarity of urine produced. Compare the mechanism and effect of loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers). Explain the four stages of external respiration and identify the gradients (driving force) and resistance of each stage. Explain and give the formula for Boyle’s law and how changes in thoracic volume are related to Boyle’s law. Compare tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, residual volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and functional residual capacity. List the average values for each volume and capacity. Explain how local mechanisms allow for the matching of ventilation and perfusion. Explain how the oxygen dissociation curve is related to the properties and function of hemoglobin. Discuss how changes in temperature, PCO2, pH, and 2,3 DPG concentration shift the oxygen dissociation curve. Explain how oxygen dissociation curve shifts affect oxygen loading in the lungs and unloading at the tissue.
BIO Grossmont Cuyamaca Functions of the Major Regions of the Nephron Discussion Paper

Sacramento City College Descartes Sixth Meditation Quiz

Sacramento City College Descartes Sixth Meditation Quiz.

I’m working on a philosophy multi-part question and need support to help me study.

i have already finished the job, just need someone help me to seperate each anser under each question.In Meditation Six, Descartes reaches the conclusion that “I am really distinct from my body, and can exist without it” (AT 78). What considerations convince him of this? (AT 78)In Meditation Six, Descartes reaches the conclusion that corporeal things exist. What considerations convince him of this? (AT 79-80)Descartes says that “I and the body constitute one single thing” (AT 81). What does this mean, and what convinces him of it? (AT 81)At the conclusion of Meditation Six, Descartes claims that the difficulty in distinguishing being asleep from being awake should now be rejected (AT 89). What reasons does he give for this rejection? (AT 89-90)
Sacramento City College Descartes Sixth Meditation Quiz

Syracuse University Psychology Group Dynamics Questions

Syracuse University Psychology Group Dynamics Questions.

I’m working on a psychology question and need support to help me learn.

1. Show me you understand the basics of what makes a group. Groups are good! Given our on-line classroom, with most of us camera off and mic off, were we a group? Explain your reasoning.2. In our discussion of bad leaders, I brought up the toxic triangle: a combination of bad leaders, bad followers (followers to gain rewards, and followers who seek a strong leader to protect them) and a frightening environment. Why might a bad leader want to make the environment more threatening to his/her own group? Explain. 3. A key part of resolving a controversy is conceptual conflict. According to class, why does conceptual conflict ultimately push the person into adjusting their views? 4. What does it mean for a group to be conflict positive? Explain why leaders and managers would prefer conflict positivity.5.What is the goal dilemma? What happens if you set your goal too far in either direction? 6. In an integrative negotiation, only one of the five basic strategies (withdrawing, smoothing, forcing, compromising, and confronting) is appropriate. Which one and why? Show me you understand these concepts.can use “JOINING TOGETHER GROUP THEORY AND GROUP SKILLS (12th edition)” book as a source
Syracuse University Psychology Group Dynamics Questions