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Regulating Salt and Water in the Body

Regulating Salt and Water in the Body. As the human body is constantly exposed to changes in its external environment, it is important that it maintains a constant internal environment in order to survive. This process is what is referred to as homeostasis. This regulation of the body’s internal environment is essential in order to keep the systems within the body operational. As stated by World Book Online, these reactions within the body in regards to the changes in the external environment are triggered by what are known as homeostatic reflexes. (World Book Online, 2014) One of the main factors which the body must regulate is that of the amount of water which is in the cells of the body. The amount of water that you take in must be balanced against the amount of water that is excreted from the body, and the amount of sodium in the body must be kept at a certain amount in order to maintain homeostasis. The way that homeostasis regulates the amount of water and salt in the body through filtration in the kidneys. The hormone of which does this is called Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH). This is where the nervous system starts to interrelate with the excretory, endocrine and nervous systems. Osmoreceptors on the hypothalamus detect the concentration of water within the blood and then send message to the pituitary gland, which is a part of endocrine system. (APBI, 2014) The pituitary gland then either promotes the release of ADH or decreases the release of the hormone. This hormone then travels towards the kidney which affects the amount of water that the kidney then absorbs (appendix 1) because the hormone reaches its target it alters the tubules of the kidney to become more or less permeable to water depending on the needs that the body has at the time. (Frey, Atkins and Longe, 2014) If there is a high concentration of ADH in the body, this makes the tubules more permeable to water. This ensures that there is more water let into the bloodstream. Therefore if there is a low concentration of the hormone ADH it makes the tubules less permeable to water which then decreases the amount of water in the bloodstream. (Biology Online, 2000) The water which is then not reabsorbed back into the bloodstream is then excreted from the body via urine. The nervous system is invaluable to homeostasis as it controls and regulates how the body reacts to situations. If a deviation occurs in the body this acts as a stimulus to a receptor. This then sends nerve impulses to the brain. This then acts as an effector so that the body acts in such a way that a response takes place that assists the body in adapting to return to a stable, consistent environment. (Penn Medicine, 2001) The part of the brain that does this is called the hypothalamus. This is the main control center of the brain, and is the part of the brain that controls endocrine glands (such as the pituitary gland). (Penn Medicine, 2001) The nervous system is made up of both the peripheral and central systems. The peripheral nervous system includes sensory receptors. These are what are activated by the stimulus (the change in the internal or external environment). This then is transmitted to a sensory neuron which then connects to the sensory receptors in the central nervous system, of which then processes the signal and then sends a message back to an effector organ. This is done through a motor neuron. (Penn Medicine, 2001) The process of which these systems work is called negative feedback (appendix 2). During exercise especially the body must work increasingly hard in order to retain a balanced and regulated environment in order to keep body systems operational. As the body temperature increases during exercise, one of the ways that homeostasis tries to cool the body down to a regular temperature is through stimulating sweat glands to release sweat. This then stimulates the body into feeling as if it needs to consume more water, but drinking too much water during or after exercise does not necessarily replace the electrolytes lost through sweating and dilutes the sodium, nutrients and ions of which is already in the blood, which then leads to hyponatremia (or low sodium levels in the body). (Frey, Atkins and Longe, 2012) Hyponatremia causes the cells in the body to swell. This is because sodium helps the body maintain a normal blood pressure, regulates the body’s fluid balance and supports the work of the nerves and muscles in the body. Interrelationships between the endocrine, nervous the excretory systems are extremely important in homeostasis and this is one example. This is important specifically to hyponatremia because the kidney allows for filtration and reabsorption of water and salts within the body, which as aforementioned is controlled by the antidiuretic hormone which is produced by the pituitary gland. This is mostly done in within the Loop of Henle where most of the reabsorption of water occurs, which then allows for the active transport of salts to move and be reabsorbed into the body and therefore regulates the amount of salt or sodium that is in the bloodstream as well. As the sodium/salt level becomes low during hyponatremia, extra water enters the cells of the body because there is an imbalance in the amount of water concentration between the fluid that is inside and outside of the cells which then causes the water to enter the cells when it is not needed (this is commonly known as fluid overload), which then causes the aforementioned swelling. (Allaby, 2014) This is especially dangerous because this can lead to swelling of the brain, which is confined by the skull and if expands can cause major neurological damage or death. (Frey, Atkins and Longe, 2012) In some extreme cases, the swelling of the brain may push down on the spine which prevents breathing and can potentially be fatal. (Allaby, 2014) Hyponatremia may also lead to symptoms such as slurred speech, coughing up blood, and muscular cramps, but also seizures and loss of consciousness or comas. (Allaby, 2014) Throughout the past there hasn’t been any knowledge of the debilitating illness of hyponatremia, or even much acknowledgement of how life-threatening it actually is when a person consumes too much water, especially during exercise. During World War II when many soldiers fought on the Kokoda Trail there simply was not enough water being carried around with the soldiers in order for them to be affected by such illnesses as hyponatremia or water imbalance due to drinking too much water. In the future it is important that there are steps taken in order to avoid reoccurrences of these life threatening conditions, specifically on the Kokoda Trail. This may be done in many ways of which are not limited to the education of trek leaders on the trail, medics, and people that are walking to trek, as well as ensuring that there are preventative measures taken and the rapid treatment of hyponatremia is taken into consideration when planning these trips. (Rothwell, 2008) Misinformation about the amount of water that is needed for adequate hydration when doing excess amounts of exercise is one of the main causes of this issue. In regards to the Kokoda Track there is a common interpretation that when walking the trail, the person doing the exercise should drink as much water as their stomachs could tolerate. It hasn’t been until more recently that medical practitioners in this area have been aware of hyponatremia, and could fully treat people who suffered this condition. Specifically in the Kokoda Trail, there was a case in which a 43 year old, physically fit male collapsed and had a seizure during the third day of this trek due to severe hyponatremia of which stemmed from drinking too much water whilst exercising. (Rothwell, 2008) At the time that this happened, there was not adequate knowledge of how life-threatening hyponatremia was or even that it existed. The man then had to be airlifted by a helicopter to the nearest hospital in order to be successfully diagnosed and treated for hyponatremia. (Rothwell, 2008) In order to be treated for his condition, the man had to be injected and treated with saline solutions of different concentrations over a period of seven and a half days. (Rothwell, 2008) In the future, the evolution of antidiuretic drugs like ‘Samsca’ tablets of which are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration could decrease the amount of cases of hyponatremia as well as decreasing the severity of the cases of hyponatremia on the Kokoda Track. Samsca tablets are currently specifically directed at treating hyponatremia related to congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosi but could potentially evolve to be used in such situations as hyponatremia which stems from drinking excessive amounts of water whilst exercising. (Facts on File, 2009) This drug works by removing extra body water in the urine and therefore increasing the amount of sodium within the blood. (Facts on File, 2009) In conclusion, water and salt regulation in the body is one of the most important aspects of homeostasis and is an important subject that people need to be educated about because of the dire consequences that can arise from this particular type of homeostasis disruption. This is specifically important because illnesses that arise from deviations in water and salt regulation such as hyponatremia often arise from circumstances that the average person would be subject to, and yet most people are not aware of these problems. Regulating Salt and Water in the Body
The first section of my discussion will explore the teaching and training role and its responsibilities, as well as its limits. I will specify my role as an art teacher. Then, all aspects of the teaching cycle will be examined. After that, I will emphasise the importance of tutors keeping records. The second section of the essay will cover three examples of legislation relevant to teaching art. This will be supplemented with the importance of the Equality Act 2010. Taking this a step further, I summarise the codes of practice for equality and diversity for the Lancashire Adult College. And finally, I will apply this equality and diversity policy to my teaching situation. 2) Roles and Responsibilities I am Christie, and I plan to show how role and responsibility will allow me to teach arts and crafts, in non-compulsory education. A role can be defined as “The function assumed or part played by a person … in a particular situation” (Oxford, 2010). Also, I would add that it is wide ranging. Table 1 (Appendix 1) provides a brief outline of roles that an effective tutor has, but this list is non-exhaustive. Table 1 derives from me attending a Taste of Teaching workshop, at Lancashire College (2010). Each workshop attendee added their own definition of a tutor’s role, evidently dependant on personal experience. As Wilson (2008) states, ‘The role and responsibility of the teacher is a complex one.’ The teacher’s roles and responsibilities are essential for the tutor to effectively use the assessment framework of the teaching/training cycle. The Teaching Cycle All aspects of the teaching cycle are important. It is a process of planning, teaching, assessing and reviewing. Figure 1 (Appendix 1) further illustrates this process. There are six elements to the teaching cycle – and the cycle starts with the reason or requirement for the course, set out in the rationale. As part of this, the main aim or goal is to meet the requirement or standards of the awarding body. An example of a rationale is Government regulations from 2007 that require further education tutors to have a minimum qualification in the Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS). Other requirements may be outlined by a Head of Department such as Art, or a community organisation requesting a course. Wilson (2009) ensures that teaching should be a structured process following a cycle which is utilised to ensure achievement. Once the rationale has been established, the core of the teaching cycle rotates in the order in Figure 1, i.e. next is the learner needs, and so on. However, at any point the tutor will review and change as needed. For example, a student may bring up an issue that has been missed in the lecture, and the tutor may incorporate this change immediately. Figure 2 (Appendix 1) is an adaptation of the teaching cycle in Figure 1, and clearly illustrates the review process, with the central circle labelled ‘ongoing evaluation,’ radiating to all the surrounding circles. Next, the second stage of the teaching cycle is identifying learners’ needs. This would include an initial assessment by form filling or informal interview to determine what stage of development a student is at and individual needs, such as adaptations for a disability like repetitive strain injury. A learning artist needs to have the practical skills to create, and they need to have confidence in their own ideas. Key roles for teaching art are to give confidence, develop skills and to be non-judgmental. I must also inspire creativity that will facilitate an individual’s ideas and design solutions. Background experience is important for the third teaching stage – lesson planning. My background is in graphic design, and my arts and crafts hobbies provide practical experience. My lesson planning role would be to ensure that all activities are relevant to learning that art form. I will need to apply my technical knowledge to any arts medium being taught, such as the correct adhesive for mosaics. Once the lesson planning has been established, it is a case of knowing the best way to deliver the lesson. To deliver a lesson effectively, an arts tutor has the right skills, attitude, knowledge, and teaching experience. For teaching mosaics, a small presentation on health and safety is a priority, plus a bit of history. Then, a practical demonstration of how it is done comes next and this will include all the methods and materials. I will supplement this with written instructions to help students who may learn more effectively though written learning. The fifth part of the cycle is the assessment of learning against outcomes, and my role is to ensure that my instructions have been clear enough for the student to make a mosaic, as outlined in the learning outcomes. This assessment is used in the sixth part, where I need to evaluate my own teaching, through student feedback and learning outcomes. For teaching mosaics, I would handout a feedback form, and look at the art to see how the student understood my instructions, and developed their own ideas. This teaching cycle is an effective process, but I have other roles that indirectly affect learning, such as completing my own development, and attending meetings. However, outside of my role are students’ personal issues. Examples include student assistance for finances, counselling, hearing, English language, or dyslexia. Within the Lancashire Adult Learning College, I would refer them to one of the teams, such as Learner Support Team, Skills for Life Team, Counselling staff, or Information, Advice and Guidance staff. 3) Keeping Records There are various records and data a teacher must maintain, but I will explain the most relevant to teaching mosaics in a one day workshop. Records can show proof of progression, such as exams, class and workshop activities, or assignments, but I would prefer to use photos of how mosaic work was completed, and fill in a learning outcomes form. Lesson plans are important for clarity on materials and methods, but other records are useful, such as venue information, and register of attendees. Arguably, the most important record is the Health

Project Deliverable 4: Infrastructure and Security

Project Deliverable 4: Infrastructure and Security. I need support with this Programming question so I can learn better.

This assignment consists of two (2) sections: an infrastructure document and a revised Gantt chart or project plan. You must submit both sections as separate files for the completion of this assignment. Label each file name according to the section of the assignment for which it is written. Additionally, you may create and / or assume all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment.
The last section of the project plan will present the infrastructure in accordance with the parameters set forth at the outset of the project. The network solution that is chosen should support the conceived information system and allow for scalability. The network infrastructure will support organizational operations; therefore, a pictorial view of workstations, servers, routers, bridges, gateways, and access points should be used. In addition, access paths for Internet access should be depicted. A narrative should be included to explain all the nodes of the network and the rationale for the design. Lastly, using the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA) Triangle, define the organizational security policy. CIA is a widely used benchmark for evaluation of information systems security.
Section 1: Infrastructure Document

Write a five to ten (5-10) page infrastructure document in which you:

Design a logical and physical topographical layout of the planned network through the use of graphical tools in Microsoft Word or Visio, or an open source alternative such as Dia. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.
Illustrate the possible placement of servers including access paths to the Internet and firewalls. Note: Facility limitations, workstations, printers, routers, switches, bridges and access points should be considered in the illustration.
Explain the rationale for the logical and physical topographical layout of the planned network.
Create a comprehensive security policy for the company that will:

i.Protect the company infrastructure and assets by applying the principals of CIA. Note: CIA is a widely used benchmark for evaluation of information systems security, focusing on the three core goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.
ii.Address ethical aspects related to employee behavior, contractors, password usage, and access to networked resources and information.

Section 2: Revised Gantt Chart / Project Plan
Use Microsoft Project or an open source alternative, such as Open Project, to:

Update the Gantt chart or project plan (summary and detail) template, from Project Deliverable 3: Database and Programming Design, with all the project tasks.

Project Deliverable 4: Infrastructure and Security

San Diego Mesa College Document for Analysis Papers

write my term paper San Diego Mesa College Document for Analysis Papers.

DOCUMENT FOR ANALYSIS #1 – REFER TO MODULE/CHAPTER 2 – POSITIVE/GOOD NEWS MESSAGE – GRANTING A CLAIM (25 POINTS TOTAL)INSTRUCTIONS:Review the three-part writing process section of Module/Chapter 2 beginning on page 57 for planning your business messages. Remember that planning starts with the audience analysis and that your message should contain three or four blocks/paragraphs (direct or indirect with buffer opening; content/reasons; goodwill and/or action closing).Step 1: List five (5) weaknesses in the ineffective message below granting a claim for a color laser received in damaged condition. The weaknesses should be based on the planning and writing skills learned in Module/Chapter 2 (1-point each / 5-points total)Step 2: Using the appropriate message outline to prepare and write the letter for a positive/good news message – Granting a Claim (appropriate document format/open/body/close)Step 3: Upload your revised file in Microsoft Word format. Use the message plan as a grading rubric to ensure you meet the highest level of competency.DOCUMENT FOR ANALYSIS #2 – REFER TO CHAPTER 6 – ADJUSTMENT REFUSAL (25 POINTS TOTAL)INSTRUCTIONS:Review the three-part writing process section of Module/Chapter 2 beginning on page 57 for planning your business messages. Remember that planning starts with the audience analysis and that your message should contain three or four blocks/paragraphs (direct or indirect with buffer opening; content/reasons; goodwill and/or action closing).Step 1: List five (5) weaknesses in the ineffective negative/bad news message below denying an insurance claim (1-point each / 5-points total). The weaknesses should be based on the planning and writing skills learned in Module/Chapter 2 (1-point each / 5-points total)Step 2: Using the appropriate message outline to prepare and write the letter for an Indirect Order – Negative Message, Adjustment Refusal (appropriate document format/open/body/close).Step 3: Upload your revised file in Microsoft Word format. Use the message plan as a grading rubric to ensure you meet the highest level of competency.DOCUMENT FOR ANALYSIS #3 – PERSUASIVE EXTERNAL REQUEST (25 POINTS TOTAL)INSTRUCTIONS:Step 1: List five (5) weaknesses in the persuasive request message below. It is written by the membership chairperson of a chapter of the Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE), a service organization consisting of retired executives who donate their managerial talents to small businesses in the area. The recipients of the message are recently retired executives. (1-point each / 5-points total)Step 2: Using the appropriate message outline to prepare and write the message for a Persuasive Request message (letter format/open/body/close).Step 3: Upload your revised file in Microsoft Word format. Use the message plan as a grading rubric to ensure you meet the highest level of competency.
San Diego Mesa College Document for Analysis Papers

University of Phoenix Evaluating Internal Controls Robatellis Pizzeria Case Study

University of Phoenix Evaluating Internal Controls Robatellis Pizzeria Case Study.

Considering the nature of the relationship between Robatelli’s Pizzeria home office and its franchise owners, the company may be quite vulnerable to theft or fraudulent financial reporting committed by these franchise owners.
In 700 to 1,050 words, discuss the following:

Describe three components of the fraud triangle and how each would relate to a franchise owner’s likelihood to defraud Robatelli’s Pizzeria.
Identify three types of fraud to which Robatelli’s Pizzeria may be susceptible.
Indicate whether the fraud is classified as management fraud, employee fraud, vendor fraud, customer fraud, or computer fraud for each.
Suggest an internal control that could be implemented to prevent or detect the potential fraud for each.
Design a 5- to 6-bulleted item code of ethics for Robatelli’s Pizzeria. You may find guidance by searching the Internet for examples.

University of Phoenix Evaluating Internal Controls Robatellis Pizzeria Case Study

Mercer University 8:46 Dave Chappelle Video Analysis

Mercer University 8:46 Dave Chappelle Video Analysis. this week, use the video below to guide you as you begin creating your database. Your database needs to be 500 words this week. continue from paper 1 Race/ManwoodHow do race & manhood interact in Dave Chappelle’s 8:46 to shape meaning?I chose Dave Chappelle as my comedian because I have always found him humorous. I love watching his skits on the Chappelle show. Another reason I chose Chappelle is that his comedy sketches often had inventive ideas and put a new spin on issues. One of my favorite sketches involved musical instruments. Chappelle and John Mayer played the guitar, drums, and piano in front of different racial crowds and compared their reactions to each instrument. I wholeheartedly enjoy Chappelle’s insight, inventiveness, and his ability to take an idea and reinterpret in a way that makes the audience ponder. It is this exact cleverness, perception, and forward-thinking that made me choose Dave Chappelle as the comedian for my topic.I chose Dave Chappelle’s comedy special 8:46 seconds because it is one of his newer works. Before watching it, I only knew that the 8:4 stood for the time of George Floyd’s death. I chose the theme of race for my topic because Chappelle often discussed this in his comedy show, The Chappelle Show. Skits that discussed race included Prince, Clayton Bigsby the world’s only Black White Supremacist, and of Chad trying to live in “reality tv home”. Further, the theme of race was chosen because of its relevancy in contemporary society with racial injustice and the Black Lives Matter movement. The topic of manhood was chosen because I am not familiar with Dave Chappelle utilizing the theme as much. Also, I am personally not as familiar with this topic, making it challenging for me. In all, Dave Chappelle has always interested me as a comedian due to his wittiness. I am familiar with his earlier sketches that often discussed the theme of race and the subject interested me because of current events. I am not as familiar with the subject of manhood allowing me to learn. Last, Chappelle’s new comedy special 8:48 discussed George Floyd which intrigued me.
Mercer University 8:46 Dave Chappelle Video Analysis

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