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Reflection on Self Development in Mental Health Nursing

The Nurse Association (ANA) (2003) defines nursing as the promotion, protection and improvement of health and abilities, stopping of illness and injury, relief of suffering through identification, medical care and support in the care of individuals, families, societies and citizenry (Nancy, 2001 p.2).Generally nursing is liable to the society for providing quality, economical as well as improving the care rendered. Hence, nurses are responsible for their patients’ standard of health. The area of practice I would like to develop in this regard is mental health. The World health Organisation (WHO) (2009) defines mental health as a state of well-being where all individual notices his or her own potential, can cope with normal stressful events of life, can be fruitful and productive, and is able to contribute meaningfully to his or her society. For a person to live happily and meaningfully in life, mental health is important as well as physical health. Inadequate mental health can interfere with keeping meaningful relationships, having a sense of fulfilment in one’s self, work and ability to perform in daily activities of life. Mental illness can obstruct one’s interest in sleep, food and sexual contact. How we cope with life situations, the way we think and feel can be defined as mental health. By description mental health could be defined as a state of well-being which enables one to be fruitful, being able to live in peace with other people, adjusts to alteration and been able to handle difficult situations. Health conditions marked by alteration or abnormalities in mood, thinking or behaviour (or a mixture of the three) that causes discomfort or impair functioning is known as mental disorder. Giving a lot of definition without going into thorough details is difficult. One huge reason that is partly responsible for the difficulty in defining mental health, mental disorder and mental illness is the differentiation between mental and physical health which is largely pretended. Our ability to think, feel and respond is governed by our brain. The brain needs constant supply of oxygen and nutrients like any other organ in the body because it can also be damaged by thyroid issues, tumours and physical trauma. Mental health and physical health are interweaved (Linda, 2010, p.334). STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES ANALYSIS OF MY CURRENT KNOWLEDGE BASE ON MENTAL HEALTH My main tool as a mental health nurse is caring for the elderly living with dementia. As a mental health nurse I show compassion for the people I am dealing with by showing care towards them. Regrettably, there is still some stigma attached to mental illness. Combating this and helping the individuals and their families deal with it is the key part of my job. The danger of violence is often associated with this branch of nursing and one of the special skills required is to spot a build-up of tension and defuse it. Dealing with the behaviour and human mind is not an exact science. The job of helping people back to mental health is every bit as valuable and satisfying as caring for those with a physical illness. Showing professional compassion in my field of practice as a mental health nurse is a very important strength that I possess. For true care to take place feeling compassionate and empathetic towards a stranger is a must; a good feedback feeling is set into motion by doing this. Feelings are important in a human’s life. I will say compassion is strength because it is a very important ingredient in nursing profession. Compassion is more than just showing pity or concern; and some dictionary definitions indicate that compassion is part of caring because it involves suffering with the person (Moya, 1992 p 5). As a mental health nurse, it is my duty to understand how to care for the elderly with dementia because their cognitive and affective states are conflicting. Now my experience with the elderly does not appear to me differently put myself into the private world of my patient and this is what empathy and care requires. Moya (1992, p 8) suggested that though as mortals we may find true empathy hard to practice because true empathy is only possible among archangels. My weakness on my current knowledge based on this area unfortunately is lack of Confidence which is evident in certain instances. Public speaking, presentation and demonstration of procedures to nursing assistance plague me. It is one thing to be nonchalant and laid back when speaking with your family and friends, but in a professional environment the whole mood and interpretation of things changes. It all comes down to one thing, the amount of self -esteem that i have and i am willing to exert. CLEAR STATEMENT FOR PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE Snow (1991, pp. 195-197) identifies compassion as pain, sorrow or grief for someone else. Emotions help me focus my moral actions. From my personal knowledge as a mental health nurse, compassion should be totally added in my concept of care. Furthermore the role of a Registered nurse is to improve the health and well-being of the people. My aim in focus is to strive for moral height because I have the opportunity as a nurse to give attention to the pain and suffering of my patients (Ferrel, 2005, p. 86), with a workable process in leadership and putting more compassion in practice. Putting compassion into nursing care is really not an easy task as it involves a lot of work. How this will be achieved is by involving in a compassion program for qualified nurses; going into wards that are already selected for excellence in compassion. In addition getting myself in an NHS Lothian centre for compassionate care which is also called the ”beacon ward” where patients can be asked what we the nurses are doing right and tell us how can improve health (2008) puts it as bottling the magic formula and sharing it. The beacon ward will involve me using an “all about me” sheet which patients will fill when admitted. This form is not about their medical conditions; about how they will love to be addressed and who is important to them. This gives me an opportunity to look at people values and beliefs. DEVELOPING KNOWLEGDE IN THIS AREA My professional role and expectation from my clients as a mental health nurse is to win trust and establish contact with my clients. They find it difficult to gain trust and build good relationships with professionals in this field. In achieving this, competence is needed. What is competence? Spencer
Family Therapy Description Case Study. Abstract The paper aims at discussing the worth of the structural family therapy model offered by Salvador Minuchin in the middle of the 20th century. The Duncan’s family is taken for the analysis with its main problem – the inability to talk the things that bother openly. The implementation of the model as well as the comparison with the ways of how other authors use the same model proves its effectiveness and the necessity to provide families with help on a professional level. It is not enough to define the problem and offer a solution. The SFT model aims at explaining the roles of each member of the family and the description of the changes that can be made. In the paper, the evaluation of different situations is given in order to understand how it is necessary to use the SFT model and benefit from it within a short period of time. Summary and Examination of a Family The family consists of 4 members: Mr. and Mrs. Duncan (both are the 37-year-old White Americans), Jimmy (an adopted 8-year-old White American son), and Sunny (a native American-born 3-month-old daughter). Paul and Jane Duncan started dating at school. They truly believed they had to be together all the time. When they finished their education, got the degrees, and found jobs (at the age of 25), they wanted to have a baby. Still, they faced certain medical difficulties and agreed to adoption in several years. Jimmy seemed to be a new brief for their family. They loved the boy the most. Jimmy does not know he is adopted. Jane stopped working and devoted herself to the child. As soon as Jimmy started visiting a kindergarten, Jane returned to work and earned good money. When she was 35, she got to know she was pregnant. She gave a birth to an amazing Sunny but did not quit. Paul had some difficulties at work and agreed to take care of the baby so Jane could continue working. Parents never distinguish their children. No serious quarrels took place in the family. A number of problems took place. Jane Duncan: she likes her job and hates her inability to stay with a child at the same time. She stops paying much attention to Paul as her husband. She likes the way he treats children, still, she wants him to find a good job soon. Paul Duncan: he enjoys the time when he should not go for a work and does not pay much attention to the search of a new one. He likes sitting with babies, but he wants his wife paying more attention to him. Jimmy: he is envious with his sister having more attention of his father. He faced certain problems at school and participated in different fights without serious reasons. Sunny: she is a calm child with a number of demands inherent to her age. Structural Family Therapy Model by Salvador Minuchin Structural family therapy is a model offered by Salvador Minuchin to provide families with the necessary portion of the treatment and professional help. The chosen approach should correspond to a number of issues discussed below. Goals: the family has to be evaluated in regards to the functions each member of the family has; the analysis of the current state of affairs based on the information taken from each family member separately and the whole family at the same time is necessary; the distribution of the duties has to be offered; the necessity to re-align the roles of each member in the frames of one whole and the boundaries of relations for a family takes place. Interventions: the organization of a group communication; a clear identification of functions and explanations of the choices; the combination of the functions of the father and the son (it is possible for Paul to talk more with Jimmy and asks him to assist in sitting with Sunny; still, it should be not in a form of an order, but in a form of a request, a desire to have some portion of help and understanding); the communication with Jane and evaluation her own attitude to the situation when a mother works and a father is employed; the promotion of open talks between all members of the family. The SFT model is an opportunity to understand what makes each member of the family does the things he/she finds inappropriate or unpleasant and define the alternatives. Examination of Research Articles There are many studies that are based on the structural family therapy model. The example is the work by Weaver, Greeno, Marcus, Fusco, Zimmerman, and Anderson (2013) about the simultaneous effects SFT can have on child and maternal mental health symptomatology in regards to the needs of different family members. It introduces the evaluation of several families with mothers and children developing different relations, the main problem of which is the inability to develop good relations because of depressions or inabilities to control their own behavior. The identification of the subsystems, their roles, and boundaries is a crucial step of the structural approach with the help of which the families can develop better relations. Another article written by Epstein, Berger, Fang, and Messina (2012) proves that the SFT model is one of the best options to analyze Chinese families that truly believe in the power of family regardless members’ work, ethnicity, or age. The main problem of the families lies in a diversity of cultures that are usually inherent to a number of families. The model helps to realize how it is necessary to define the boundaries and find the most appropriate solution. Problem from the Family Perspective The problem of the family under consideration is the inability to talk about personal discontents openly. In spite of so many years living together, Paul and Jane cannot face the truth and realize that some problems and inabilities to solve them take place. The family is in need of professional help within the frames of which a therapist is able to involve Paul, Jane, and Jimmy in an open discussion during which it is possible to discuss what bother each member of the family. References Epstein, N.B., Berger, A.T., Fang, J.J.,Family Therapy Description Case Study
Popular Methods for Pricing American Options. Chapter 1 – Introduction American options are financial derivatives, an instrument whose value is derived from an underlying asset, usually a stock. Black and Scholes (1973) described an option as: “a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset, subject to certain conditions, within a specified period of time”. The main question of this dissertation is how American options can be valued. The option value is only known with certainty when the option is exercised, either at maturity or not. When the owner decides to exercise the option or it is the option maturity time, it is possible to determine the price of the option as the strike will be exchanged by the asset in the case that the conditions are favourable for the owner of the option. When the one buys the option, she does not know what will be the future price of the underlying asset, and assuming it follows a random process it is hard to put a price on such contract without knowing what will be the price change. This non linear feature of the option makes calculating the price to pay for such contracts a challenging process and has been the focus of a large number of financial studies and publications. This dissertation deals with the most popular methods for pricing American options and their implementation in MatLab®, including a graphic user interface. The methods studied include the Black and Scholes (1973) European option pricing as the starting point, followed by the Barone Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytical approximation. Then the binomial and trinomial lattice methods presented in Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (1979) are considered also as the Finite difference approximations models AAA. The most sophisticated method is the Least Squares Monte Carlo simulation presented in Longstaff and Schwartz (2001). The analysis of the different option pricing methods in this dissertation follow most of the assumptions made by Black and Scholes (1973), the short term interest rate and the dividend are assumed to be known and constant, the underlying stock follows a log normal distributed geometric Brownian motion, the markets are frictionless and finally it exists the possibility of forming a riskless portfolio, consisting of the option and underlying stock. The dissertation is organised as follows: a brief literature survey is provided in the next Chapter. The analytical approximation method and the numerical methods used are described on Chapter 3 and their implementation in Matlab environment is given in chapter 4. Numerical results are given in Chapter 5. The conclusion and future developments are presented in Chapter 6. Chapter 2 provides a survey of some of the most relevant publications in American Option Pricing, with focus on analytical approximations, lattice and finite difference methods, more precisely, binomial and trinomial trees, explicit, implicit and Crank Nicolson Scheme, and also on Monte Carlo Simulation. Chapter 3 provides a description of the methods used, their advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Here the required equations will be derived and the solution for the pricing of American options will be provided. Chapter 4 focus on the algorithms used and their implementation on the MatLab environment, also as the procedures for the development of the GUI for easier user interface. On Chapter 5 results and their comparison are shown for the different methods used, with the required figures to support the numerical answers. In the final chapter the dissertation is concluded and a summary of the findings is provided, also as with further work on this subject. Chapter 2 – Literature Survey Black and Scholes (1973) and Merton (1973) developed the first analytical closed form solution for the pricing of European type options and certain types of American options, such as American call options on non dividend paying stocks. “The option pricing model developed by Black and Scholes and extended by Merton gives rise to partial differential equations governing the value of an option” Schwartz (1976). Black and Scholes (1973) develop their model on the basis of the no arbitrage theory, “If options are correctly priced in the market, it should not be possible to make sure profits by creating portfolios of long and short positions in options and their underlying stocks” Black and Scholes (1973). The Black and Scholes (1973) model valued European options on non dividend paying stocks, and with a number of quite restrictive assumptions, constant and known interest rates, the markets are frictionless with no transaction costs and penalties for short selling. The Black and Scholes (1973) model also assumes that the underlying stocks follow a random walk. Due to all this assumptions the pricing model Black and Scholes (1973) proposed was of easy use, and there is only the need to input the required values on the proposed pricing equation. The model they have proposed does not take into consideration early exercise of the option so it is inaccurate for pricing American Options. One of the most popular analytical approximation models that starts from the Black and Scholes (1973) model and adjusts it to consider the scenario of early exercise strategies is the work by Baron Adesi and Whaley (1987) which was based on the paper by MacMillan (1986). Baron Adesi and Whaley (1987) consider that the Black and Scholes (1973) partial differential equation must apply to the early exercise premium as this is just the difference between the American and the European option prices, which are also priced by the same partial differential equation. After some transformation they end with an easily solvable through an interactive process second order differential equation. When closed form solutions, like the Black and Scholes (1973) valuation model cannot be derived, numerical methods must be developed. These are computational methods where the values for the underlying assets are modelled up to maturity and the price of the options is derived from them. In the case of American options this is a complex process, as the modelled price changes may have to be adjusted to include dividend payments and the derivation of the option price must also include the possibility of early exercise. Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (1979) developed a simple discrete time lattice model to deal with the complexity of option valuation, as they considered the methods of Black and Scholes (1973) “quite advanced and have tended to obscure the underlying economics” Cos, Ross and Rubinstein (1979). The use of lattice models such as the one by Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (1979) is the simplicity of its application. The most significant drawback of the Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (1979) model, is to increase its accuracy the number of time intervals must increase, in order to approach a continuous time model, which will significantly increase the computational time, needed for processing the entire tree in order to derive the option value. Others such as Hull and White (1988), (1993) and Trigeorgis (1991) have extended the model of Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (1979). Hull and White (1988) present a study of the use of lattice models for underlying assets with known dividends instead of known divided yields. They also consider the use of a control variate to price a option numerically, by a the lattice model, using the price of a similar option calculated analytically. While Trigeorgis (1991) proposes “a log transformed variation of binomial option pricing designed to overcome problems of consistency, stability and efficiency encountered in the Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (1979)” focusing on the pricing of exotic options. Hull and White (1993) also present an application of binomial and trinomial procedures for exotic path dependent options, where they developed a model faster than Monte Carlo simulation and faster than other numerical methods. Usually the analytical procedures are applicable to simple payoffs of the American Options, but in the cases where this is not possible numerical solutions must be developed. Geske and Shastri (1985) give a detailed comparison of the lattice methods to the different numerical methods, finite difference methods and other simulation methods. The model proposed by Brennan and Schwartz (1978) for valuing options was the first approach that used the finite difference method. This approach was used due to the fact that most of the times an analytical solution for the option pricing problem does not exist. The finite difference method uses the heat equation derived from the Black and Sholes PDE to obtain an approximation of the option price. Courtadon (1998) goes further to reduce the approximation error of the Brennan and Schwartz (1978) model but only applies his findings only to simple option pay offs. Geske and Shastri (1985) give a good description of the finite difference method: “The finite difference technique analyze the partial differential equation (…) by using discrete estimates of the changes in the options value for small changes in time or the underlying stock price to form equations as approximations to the continuous partial derivatives.” Usually the approximations is done using forward, backward or central difference theorem, which respectively result in the explicit, implicit and Crank Nicolson schemes, the procedure used in this study will be shown further in the paper. In this case as with most of the methods for pricing options, the most significant drawback is the duality between accuracy and processing time. In order to increase accuracy the time and stock change steps must be smaller, increasing their number and the number of computations to make, this issue also affects the stability and convergence of the methods. Another approach used for solving the option pricing problem, especially for path dependent American options is the use of simulation. This means that the option price is derived from a simulated underlying asset price, usually using a Monte Carlo simulation method. Boyle (1977) and Schwartz (1977) pioneered the use of Monte Carlo simulation which is nowadays used to price complex options contracts. The Monte Carlo simulation method is very powerful in terms of its flexibility to generate the returns of the underlying asset of the options, by changing the random variables used to generate the process a new returns distribution may be easily obtained, Boyle (1977). Boyle (1977) introduces the Monte Carlo technique for pricing European option where there is a dividend payment, but Schwartz (1977) was the true pioneer, pricing American options, with the underlying asset paying discrete dividends, and also deriving an optimal strategy for early exercise of the option, which is the crucial point for pricing American type options. Schwartz (1997) focused on a particular type of contract, warrants, so in fairness his first model is not exactly on an American type option. Tilley (1993) was one of the first to fully focus on the pricing of American option using a Monte Carlo simulation method as he mentioned that simulation methods were reserved for exotic options or other complex debt products. His findings are only applied to American options on non dividend paying stocks, but he develops an important part of the model which is the optimal early exercise option. Carriere (1996) presents a development of the Monte Carlo simulation method presented by Tilley (1993). The paper by Carriere (1996) presents a model where the optima early exercise strategy is based on conditional expectations of Markov processes by carrying a nonparametric regression on the simulated underlying asset return paths. Brodie and Glasserman (1997) extended the previous studies by considering an upper and lower converging bounds of the option price. These estimated bounds are calculated using a high and a low bias, which “Combining the two estimators yields a confidence interval for the true price.” Brodie and Glasserman (1997) One of the most important papers, and probably one of the most used ones, is the paper by LongstaffPopular Methods for Pricing American Options
Brent J. Sackett Referee Report 3: Copelovitch, M. S., Pevehouse, J. C. (2013). Ties that Bind? Preferential Trade Agreements and Exchange Rate Policy Choice. International Studies Quarterly, 57(2): 385-399 Summary This paper assesses the effect of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on exchange rate policies. When a country joins a PTA, the government’s ability to employ trade protection is constrained. This increases incentives to maintain fiscal and monetary autonomy in order to manipulate its domestic political economy. One way to do this is by implementing a flexible exchange rate policy. The authors argue that a PTA with a nation’s “base” country (the country to whom they have traditionally fixed their currency, or a country where they have extensive trade ties), makes a country less likely to adopt a fixed exchange rate. In addition, this paper argues that countries who have signed a base PTA will also tend to maintain an undervalued exchange rate level. Using an original data set of 99 countries from 1975 to 2004, the authors find empirical support for their argument. Evaluation My overall impression of this article is positive. In fact, I would say this article will be excellent after a few methodological problems are corrected. The paper clearly identifies a research question and provides an important insight that expands our understanding of exchange rate policy. However, I will present some comments and recommendations for improvement. Comment 1 (Theory and Causal Mechanism) In general, the theory and hypotheses are clearly presented and easy to understand. However, one part of the theoretical link between PTAs and exchange rate policy is missing and should be discussed more thoroughly. This may simply be a matter of terminology, or it may indicate a missing link in the causal chain. The authors assert that “PTAs generally commit members to more extensive free trade (2).” This seems to indicate the causal mechanism behind the story: PTAs tie the hands of governments who want to employ trade protection, so they resort to exchange rate policy instead of tariffs or other means. However, PTAs are not all the same in the way they constrain behavior regarding trade protection (Baccini, Dür, Elsig

Ethical Views On The Subject Of Cosmetics Testing Philosophy Essay

In order to guarantee the safety of cosmetics which include harmful chemicals, many enterprises which produce cosmetics including harmful chemicals would do animal and (or) human tests, as Dutch Cosmetics would do for getting the market access for its newly developed glow-in-the-dark make-up. As for Dutch Cosmetics, it will confront an ethical puzzle: whether animals can be injected high doses of burning chemicals which will make them painful and harmed, and whether unsuspecting people in a developing country can be conducted chemical tests which may harm them. This essay will firstly argue and solve the puzzle from the viewpoint of utilitarianism, following that it will do it from the viewpoint of Kantian ethics, and finally it will do it from the viewpoint of Virtue ethics. The viewpoint of Utilitarianism From the viewpoint of Utilitarianism, which is an ethics based on consequence (Ethical Theory, p. 38), “the greatest good (happiness/pleasure) for greatest number” is the criteria to justify one act (Ethical Theory, p. 38), animal and human testing is not the right thing. According to Mill, pleasures not only include base and physical ones, but also higher, aesthetical and intellectual ones (Ethical Theory, p. 40). Obviously, Utilitarianism is applied for selecting one right act among a few acts, by subtracting pain from pleasure. The act whose total net is greatest is the right act. The greatest number includes all concerned who are affected by the proposed action. Maybe it includes every person on the earth and animal (Ethical Theory, p. 40). For chemical tests would be conducted by Dutch Cosmetics to get the market access for its newly developed glow-in-the-dark make-up, the following people and animals would be affected: – Animals. Puppies and kittens that are so near and sentient with us will be harmed by high dose of burning chemicals and will pain. Certainly, they can not get any pleasures from the experiment. – Unsuspecting people in a developing country. Unsuspecting people in a developing country who will be conducted test probably will be harmed by burning chemicals. – Consumers. They are capable of getting some pleasures from beautiful, trendy and stimulative glow-in-the-dark make-up. However, such thing may be harmful to their health due to the make-up includes burning chemicals, and they must pay money which can give them other pleasures for it. Besides, they may feel painful when they know the producing of the cosmetic they are consuming has done harm on animals and people, for many people would feel uncomfortable when they see animal painful or even think of their pain. – Myself. As the vice-president of Dutch Cosmetics to make decision, I must consider all pleasures and pain of greatest number including myself. As a person, I dislike paining puppies and kittens. Maybe I am indifferent of them, the probability of the former is greater, and conducting chemical tests on unsuspecting people in a developing country perhaps irritates my feelings of justice. As a manager and decision maker, I should think about the profit of the company, which means I have to concern the benefits and costs, the risk of the experiment, etc. Consequently, more profits will give me more income, and maybe advance, which perhaps will give me pleasure. Nonetheless, I maybe feel painful on account of public unsatisfaction if my decision irritates popular due to the harm on animals and people conducted chemical tests. – Investors in Dutch Cosmetics. If the glow-in-the-dark make-up is popular, they will make profits certainly, which may make them happy. But as a person, an investor maybe feels painful because his investment harms animals and people. – Labourers. On one hand, they face painful animals and cheated people conducted chemical tests directly, which perhaps makes them painful. On the other hand, they get work and salary due to the experiment, which may make them happy. Clearly, it is possible for them to get other job which may make them happier. – Co-workers. They would get more income if the new product is successful, which might make them happy. However, they perhaps feel painful because their own company does harms on animals and people conducted tests. To judge if the proposed experiment is the right act, the net total calculated by abstracting pain from pleasure must be compared with that of undoing animal experiment and chemical tests on unsuspecting people. The alternative that tests are conducted on people who give informed consent can be supposed. Often the data from animal experiment is not fit for people because they have different attributes. in the exploitation of new type of cosmetics, pleasures people get are less than the pain animals suffered, that’s why Harold Fenberg, the chairperson of the American Accreditation for the Care of Laboratory Animal Committee stated that “the testing of cosmetics is frivolous and should be abolished” (Jamieson and Regan, 1982, p. 140). As to tests conducted on unsuspecting people in a developing country, if the fact of tests is known by these people, they will feel irritated and painful by such cheating act, albeit there is no law to crack down on such action, which would lead to the company to lose the market in this country. If the alternative that test is conducted on people who give informed consent is adopted, there won’t be such pain and disadvantage. So from the viewpoint of Utilitarianism, it is apparent that it is not the right thing to do for Dutch company to inject puppies an kittens with high dose of burning chemicals and conduct tests on unsuspecting people in a developing country. The viewpoint of Kantian ethics According to Kantian viewpoint, human testing is not permitted, but whether animal test is the right thing is unknown. Kantian ethics considers that rationality justifies act. Kantian ethics is principal-based ethics which considers not consequence but intent (Ethical theory, p. 42). It permits no contradictions, so it is consequence-based for logic (Ethical theory, p. 43). One important element of Kantian ethics is respect for persons, which is expressed by Kant through his practical imperative: “Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means” (Ethical theory, p. 43). Since Kant understands persons to be essentially rational beings with free will, respect for persons means respect for their autonomy (Ethical theory, p. 43). According to Kantian ethics, respect for persons’ autonomy is a moral principle which can’t be violated. Therefore, for Dutch Cosmetics, conducting tests on unsuspecting people is not permitted. As regard to injecting high doses of burning chemicals into puppies and kittens, animal testing does not belong to one of Kantian ethics’ principles, so it is not known whether it is right. The viewpoint of Virtue ethics From the viewpoint of Virtue ethics conducting tests on unsuspecting people in developing country is not right, injecting high doses of burning chemicals is not the right act too. Virtue ethics asks “what’s the right kind of person to be?” instead of asking “what’s the right thing to do?” (Ethical theory, p. 44), and the answer is “a virtuous person” (Ethical theory, p. 44). Aristotle, an ancient Greek virtue ethicist listed standard four of the ancient Greeks-justice, temperance, courage, and wisdom-and adds a few others such as veracity, modesty, etc. William David Ross, a twentieth-century thinker, listed virtues such as fidelity, justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, etc. (Ethical theory, p. 44). So according to Virtue ethics, justice, veracity, and beneficence are important virtues which do not permit treating people unequally, cheatingly and maleficently, which means it is not right conducting tests on unsuspecting people. Aristotle considered that all virtues are at the midpoint between two extremes, his list of virtues are justified by their qualities that enable us to experience eudamonia, which is achieved by developing our unique human function, that of rationality (Ethical theory, p. 44). So according to Aristotle, rationality is the base of his ethics, as well as Kantian ethics, the difference is that the principles in Kantian ethics permit no exception, while virtues in Aristotle ethics are elastic. In view of above, injecting burning chemicals will be right if it is rational and not excessive, but it is not rational if it has little advantages to people and makes great pain to puppies and kittens. Obviously it is not the right thing to inject high doses of burning chemicals into puppies and kittens for a new type of glow-in -the -dark make-up according to Virtue ethics. Conclusion In conclusion, from the viewpoints of all aforementioned ethics, tests conducted on unsuspecting people are immoral, even if the reasons are different. Injecting puppies and kittens with high doses of burning chemicals does not accord with the principle of Utilitarianism that the greatest good for the greatest number justifies an act, and does not tally with Virtue ethics which emphasizes the rationality of act. The three ethics in essence all considers the rationality of act as most important, the difference among them is that Kantian ethics considers rationality of act from universality, Utilitarianism considers rationality of act from consequence, which counts into specific circumstances, and Virtue ethics considers rationality of act from human being, so in legislative regard Kantian ethics plays an important role because of its universality, for example, human testing is not allowed without participating party’s informed consent in many countries’ law and international treaties such as Nuremberg Code. Utilitarianism can be a useful analytical method in many specific circumstances. Virtue ethics trains people more happy. The analysis from the three ethics’ viewpoint illustrates that the right course Dutch Cosmetics should adopt is conducting tests on people who give informed consent, instead of animal experiment and tests on unsuspecting people in a developing country.

Chapter 18 presented special risk management issues with Blue Wood Chocolates and chapter 19 presents various financial risks at Kilgore Custom Milling. If Blue Wood Chocolate and Kilgore Custom Milling are to develop a risk management framework, who sho

help writing Chapter 18 presented special risk management issues with Blue Wood Chocolates and chapter 19 presents various financial risks at Kilgore Custom Milling. If Blue Wood Chocolate and Kilgore Custom Milling are to develop a risk management framework, who sho. Can you help me understand this Article Writing question?

Chapter 18 presented special risk management issues with Blue Wood Chocolates and chapter 19 presents various financial risks at Kilgore Custom Milling. If Blue Wood Chocolate and Kilgore Custom Milling are to develop a risk management framework, who should lead the process at each company? Should a Chief Risk Officer (CRO) be appointed? If so, to whom should he/she report and have access to? How could smaller companies without the resources for a dedicated CRO deal with ERM? What is the role of the board of directors in such a process?
Assignment Requirements:

As indicated above, if Blue Wood Chocolate and Kilgore Custom Milling are to develop a risk management framework, who should lead the process at each company?
Should a Chief Risk Officer (CRO) be appointed?

If so, to whom should he/she report and have access to?

How could smaller companies without the resources for a dedicated CRO deal with ERM?
What is the role of the board of directors in such a process?

Minimum 500 words. No plagiarism and please DO NOT give others content.
Chapter 18 presented special risk management issues with Blue Wood Chocolates and chapter 19 presents various financial risks at Kilgore Custom Milling. If Blue Wood Chocolate and Kilgore Custom Milling are to develop a risk management framework, who sho

POLS 212 Perspectival Approach by Arendt on The Declaration of Human Rights Paper

POLS 212 Perspectival Approach by Arendt on The Declaration of Human Rights Paper.

Arendt Reading Analysis Paper
Respond to one of these questions. Word Count: 700-800. More is not necessarily better. PDF or doc. format.
1. Arendt describes the paradox of human rights by saying: “If a human being loses his political status, he should, according to the implications of the inborn and inalienable rights of man, come under exactly the situation for which the declaration of such general rights provided. Actually the opposite is the case”. Why does she think this? Ask what a smart critic might say, and take a stand in this debate. If it’s helpful to your argument you can explore how this plays out in a contemporary or historical example.
2.Article 1 of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights says: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Arendt responds to this by saying “We are not born equal; we become equal as members of a group on the strength of our decision to guarantee ourselves mutually equal rights”. What does she mean by this? See if you can identify the difference in these positions for Arendt, and ask pose a potential objection to her account.

POLS 212 Perspectival Approach by Arendt on The Declaration of Human Rights Paper

NRSE 4530 Discussion board: Family care of the Mental Health patient.

NRSE 4530 Discussion board: Family care of the Mental Health patient.. I don’t know how to handle this Nursing question and need guidance.

Write: 3-4 well developed paragraphs (minimum 600-700 words
For this discussion, discuss the benefits and barriers to incorporating the family into care of the mental health patient. You are caring for a patient who has just been diagnosed with a mental health issue. Describe benefits and barriers that may occur when incorporating the family into caring for this patient.
Original post must include 2 references- 1 peer reviewed AND 1 course material.
NRSE 4530 Discussion board: Family care of the Mental Health patient.