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Recent Copyright Battles For Music And Movies Media Essay

As a fact, one of the principles of American law is that the author of a particular product within a certain period of time can reap the fruits of their intellectual creations. Copyright is a form of protection that U.S. law provides an “original works of authorship”, it includes including literary, dramatic, musical, architectural, cartographic, choreographic, pantomimic, graphic, sculptural, and audiovisual creative works. The term “copyright” literally means the right to copy. Today, this term is denoting the set of exclusive rights provided by law to authors in terms of protection of their works. Copyright owner has the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, and in the case of certain works, to public perform or display the work; create derivative works and grant the right of others to do the same on certain conditions. Copyright protection does not extend to any idea, procedure, process, slogans, principles or discoveries. It should be noted that intellectual property in the United States is secured by the Constitution of the United States and by number of different regulatory acts. As a fact, Uruguay Round Act Agreements have restored copyright to certain foreign works that are protected by copyright in the country of origin, but were in the public domain in the United States. Also, abolished outdated provisions of the Law on Amendments to the “Act of software products” (1990) established legal procedures to prevent unauthorized recording and distribution of sound recordings non studious performances of music and music videos, as stated in “Copyright Battles Are About Controlling New Technologies”. Copyright infringement involves the unauthorized owner dissemination of material protected by copyright, such as software, music, movies, books, computer games. Intellectual property rights are protected by the laws of most countries. Copyright infringement is usually understood as follows: Make a copy and its sale; Make a copy and send it to someone else; In some cases, the resale of legally purchased copies. In this essay I would like more closely consider music and movies copyright infringement and describe current controversies between supporters and opponents of further hard copyright defending. As a rule, illegal distribution of movies/TV shows copies with recording them to CD/DVD disk and by copying and distribution over social computer networks or Internet, can be carried out in order to take profit (sale of counterfeit products in shops, stalls) and without (distribution of copies of films on local area networks via the Internet, share movies with friends). Commercial products of this kind is characterized by that may appear before the official release of the movie (known cases of appearance in the sale unfinished working version of the film stolen from a film crew). The recording quality can be a very concede a licensed copy, and virtually has no different from it – depending on how the copy and the further processing. There is a system of symbols types of unauthorized copies that are distributed over a network (abbreviations added to the file), as described in “The Record Industry Continues Battle Against Free Music Downloads” It can be said that illegal copying and distribution of musical compositions copies includes the sale of music albums on audio cassettes and compact discs. By “audio piracy” concerns and disseminate music over computer networks. Exchange of musical compositions in the Internet took a truly grand scale through the development of P2P-technology. There are many different peer networks, with millions of participants and terabytes of music. It should be noted that one of the most famous cases in copyright field was Capitol vs. Thomas. Jammie Thomas-Rasset (was born in 1977) is a U.S. citizen who was sued by Capitol Records because of file sharing. Her case is considered as a precedent. She is accused of having distributed 24 songs on Kazaa file-sharing hosting. Her case is considered as the first of several thousand cases in which action is taken under the aegis of the RIAA legal action against illegal file sharing. She was initially sentenced by a court to claim damages in the amount of 222 000 U.S. dollars. The sentence was later overturned because of procedural error. The process was due to the decision of Judge Michael J. Davis in September 2008, negotiated by U.S. District Court in Duluth, Minnesota again. It was initially questioned the validity of the evidence. As a fact, on June 18, 2009 Jammie Thomas was sentenced to a fine of 1.92 million U.S. dollars. After the sentence Joe Sibley, her lawyer went to appeal. As a fact, in January 2010, Judge Michael Davis reduced the fine to 2 250 dollars per song. Consequently, she has to pay a $54,000 fine. The prosecution and defense went against the verdict. In November 2010, the jury has spoken in the third case against Jammie Thomas the verdict. She was sentenced to a total compensation of $1.5 million. The jury was set for each of Jammie Thomas popular songs 62,500 dollars. The defense has over U.S. media and already announced further steps against the verdict. However, this process is not the only case of music intellectual property infringements, as stated in “The Battle Over Music Piracy”. In my opinion, an increasing number of such cases show determination of intellectual property owners to fight without any compromises. It is no doubt that music and movie industry around the world brings a lot of money. Consequently, this activity is directly linked with phenomenon audio and video piracy. Audio/video piracy is the illegal production and distribution audio/video discs or cassettes with stored music/movie phonograms (records). Illegal, it is called because it is made without the knowledge and consent of the author and producer of the phonogram (copyright holders) i.e. in violation of copyright and related rights in musical/movies works and the proper track. In order to understand the essence of the above offenses, you need to imagine the nature of copyright. With respect to business entity music/video copyright can be explained as follows. Copyright – is a right arising from any person whose creative effort has created some work. Most of all – it is the authors of words and music. Creator of the product has the right to be recognized as author of the work, can authorize or prohibit the use of the product under the name of the author or under a pseudonym; he has the right to publish a product. Adjacent to the right – is a right that arises from the producer of the phonogram. This is a legal person, on the initiative, by which forces and means was recording of music performance (soundtrack). Owners of related rights in the record business often are the record companies. As a rule, owners of copyright and related rights (rights holders) are entitled to remuneration for each form of exploitation of musical works and phonograms, including printing and distribution of works and phonograms on physical media. Naturally, in case of duplicating and distributing pirated works and phonograms owners do not receive remuneration. Audio piracy can not be considered as only U.S. phenomenon, it rather refers to the phenomena of countries that do not collide in this phenomenon. (An example often cited Japan). During 2008, the number sold in the world of pirate music CDs has increased by 950 million units (almost 50-percent growth per year) and reached a record in the history of the mark in 1.9 billion. This is evidenced by the report of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). Growth trends persist even today, as described in “Copyright Battles Are About Controlling New Technologies”. As a fact, for the prosperity of piracy in the world, there are good preconditions. Firstly, it is standard of living in different countries. CDs are not essential commodities. This is not food, for that always pays as much as requested, so buyers are choosing the cheaper pirated products. Secondly, only the government can solve this problem, if show its interest, which is not visible in so-called 3rd world countries. Audio piracy is a serious, profitable, well-organized business, to defeat which needs a serious legislative framework and the will of the executive power. Here you can quickly earn good money, and the risk of serious punishment is still minimal, so that piracy continues to flourish. It seems that the fight against audio/video piracy must be conducted in three main areas: 1. Law enforcement activities. 2. Courting. 3. Corporate regulation. As a fact, we are well aware that law enforcement do not consider serious enough fight for copyrights, despite all the efforts in this area are undertaken by interested associations and organizations. All of these efforts, unfortunately, do not give the desired effect. You do very well penetrate that if a policeman should be wrestling with robbery and banditry, and thus to check the contents of the neighboring stall, which sold counterfeit tapes, of course, in a stall, he will be the last step. And he came back and got a small “kickback” for the family, will consider its task accomplished. Unfortunately, this happens all the time, and we all know that. Therefore it is difficult to say that governments of many countries is actively fighting piracy, despite the seizures, raids on warehouses and factories that produce pirated products. This is only a few cases and they are in any case do not show the trend. Trend is until enough permissive, as described in “The Battle Over Music Piracy”. As for the judicial part of the fight against piracy, then there are obvious signs. The courts in CIS countries, Russia and China finally began to consider such claims, and already understand how they should act. But, given the total workload of our judicial system, there is nothing that can be joyful. Apparently, the judicial decisions that protect the interests of copyright holders can be counted on the fingers. Third – it is corporate regulation. Those who are interested in protecting copyright and related rights are and must make special efforts to ensure that these rights are somehow protected. I mean associations, producers and record companies. The purpose of such associations – is to develop a unified strategy behavior in the market for replacement audio piracy with market economic levers. Among such measures could be introducing a special brand owner, to prevent unfair competition, development of a unified pricing policy, etc. It remains to note that achieving positive results requires hard work on all three fronts. Otherwise, there is no any unexpected police raid, there is no optimization of legislative regulation, or self-sacrificing work of associations and corporations in various market segments, the results did not yield. It should be mentioned that today, in Brazil is preparing legislation that will change the whole system upside down. They want to formally allow file-sharing (with a pair of paying dollars for the right to use) and to prohibit harassment sharing services and their consumers. If this law came into force, Brazil will be offshore which will move all the social networking and file sharing, which got the authorities of individual countries, including United States. And the prosecution games will be simply impossible, as stated in “Copyright Battles Are About Controlling New Technologies”. As a fact, current trends are aimed against the copyright holders. On January 1, 2006 was founded the first Pirate Party in the world. Its aim is the abolition of copyright and patent law and, thus, the legalization of “piracy”. The first among similar parties, it has succeeded at the highest level of legislation and in 2009 received one seat in the European Parliament of the 18 seats allotted to Sweden. Following the Swedish Pirate Party were founded US Pirate Party, the Pirate Party of Germany and others. A typical program of a pirate party contains such provisions and requirements: Reduction of copyright term. The real copyright term at the moment is about four generations, which many believe is a prohibitively long time. And always prolongs term has no different from the eternal protection. Legislative prohibition of secret information-gathering about privacy. Preventing censorship via the Internet. While it does not exist, however, the assurances of the US Pirate Party, its appearance in the U.S. – is a matter of time. To sum it up, I would like to say that society should look for other ways to combat the scourge. And here are two ways: To give people reasonable, not so high prices for products of intellectual property, licensing content to make cheap and accessible; Enable file sharing, to cease harassment of consumers, merchants, to pursue only pirates (using media), and sites that sell pirated files from their servers. Moreover, it should not be prohibited to give a friend a book to read, a movie to watch. These are the things on that commerce and profiting to pursue, primarily due to the fact that they do not pay royalties. They can be and are happy to pay the author, but the exclusive rights to works from publishers, and they inflate their prices to avoid competition and pursue pirates (competitors) under the law. That is to the detriment of both author and consumer. I think that the problem is that consumers have fewer opportunities of access to culture and education, since all it is too expensive. Even the publishers in a wacky situation – they spend huge amounts of money on lawyers, PR (published in the media) and GR (working with officials). Their money does not pay off. Everyone would be better to move to a new system with a much cheaper intellectual property. But monopoly and collusion publishers do not allow us to move forward into a new era of direct relations between authors and their readers/fans.
Physical Impacts of Alcohol Abuse. Alcohol use and abuse can affect the liver, central nervous system and the kidneys. The result of the constant use of alcohol can be noted and examined in patients using numerous methods. These methods utilize the body’s reaction towards alcohol using biochemical markers like γ-glutamyl tranferase (GGT), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Although biochemical markers can easily tell the clinician about the use and abuse of alcohol, genetic markers may also contribute to the dependence of alcohol. Alcohol use and abuse is associated with multiple illnesses such as cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol consumption has many negative effects that increase with age, ranging from short term reactions like dehydration and ethanol poisoning to chronic reactions like liver failure and alcoholic fatty liver disease. The result of alcohol consumption is reactive changes in the body such as an increase of enzymatic activity and concentration as well as the decrease of enzymatic activity and concentration due to tissue destruction. The enzyme γ-glutamyl tranferase (GGT) activity is one of the most sensitive tests for alcohol use. The enzymes activity rises when there is acute hepatocellular damage present commonly is patients with alcoholic liver disease (G. Bbosa, D. Kyegombe, W. Anokbonggo, A. Lubega, A. Mugisha and J. Ogwal-Okeng, 2014). GGT is such a sensitive marker that the levels will also be increased even if no hepatic or biliary damage is present in the patient suffering from alcoholism. GGT levels increase drastically in the serum of patients abusing alcohol chronically, an increase of 2-3 times the normal value is most commonly present (S. Kavitha, V. Venkatraman and K. Jeyaprakash, 2013). GGT serum levels can also be raised in patients with digestive disorders and mostly only indicates alcoholism in patients who abuse the substance excessively. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are more commonly decreased in older patients suffering from alcoholism than in younger patients and are used rather as a confirmation marker than an initial indicator. The HDL-C levels in the serum will be decreased in the patients presenting with alcohol abuse (S. Kavitha, V. Venkatraman and K. Jeyaprakash, 2013). The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) can be used to indicate alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis, but proves difficult to provide accurate results in the absence of liver damage. The enzyme is also found in multiple other organs like the brain and the kidneys and is more likely to be used as a confirmation of liver disease than a definitive diagnosis (D. Adler, 2013). The levels of AST in the patients’ serum will be increased up to 4 times the normal ranges in cases of liver damage. The increased AST levels, when indicating alcoholic liver disease, is most likely due to cellular necrosis due to excessive alcohol consumption. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is overly produced in patients with hepatic injury and in alcoholic patients (M. Hyder, M. Hasan and A. Mohieldein, 2013). The disadvantage of this test in that the levels only significantly increases if severe hepatic damage is already present, but the major advantage is that ALT is only present in the liver (R. Van Dyke, 2012). ALT will be increased 4-6X in cases of alcoholic cirrhosis and 7-10X in cases of alcoholism with alcoholic liver disease. The ratio of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) can also indicate alcoholic liver disease with a ratio greater than 2:1 with respect to AST:ALT. This result is mostly due to low ALT levels in the serum because of hepatic necrosis, pyridoxal-5’-phosphate deficiency or mitochondrial AST leakage (M. Adak, A. Thakur and K. Adhikari, 2012). The ratio is mostly used as an affirmative test as the ratio only rises above 2 in severe cases of alcoholic liver disease. Sialic acid Genetic predispositions to alcoholism have not been completely identified, but studies have indicated genes that may be responsible. These genes are known as the Mpdz, the Kcnj9 and the GABRA2 genes. Although these genes are used theoretical markers rather than actual indicator to alcohol dependence there is a correlation between the severity of the withdrawal symptoms and the risk of alcohol dependence (K. Buck, L. Milner, D. Denmark, S. Grant and L. Kozell, 2012). The GABRA2 gene is located on chromosome 4p12 and regulates the production of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) which acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2014). Alcohol can affect the signalling pathway of the GABA system if a variation is present in the GABRA2 gene increasing the pleasure derived from the consumption of alcohol above normal levels which can greatly increase the risk of alcoholism in the persons who have this variation (D. Dick and A. Agrawal, 2008). Alcoholism poses a serious health threat to the medical community causing many serious complications in a healthy lifestyle. Testing for GGT is seen as the most sensitive test, but has the one drawback of having quite a bit of interferences, which can be cancelled out if brought into the equation. ALT and AST tests the livers general homeostasis and should rather be handled as a complimentary test along with a test such as GGT in order to confirm a diagnosis. Genetic markers for alcohol abuse have not been fully discovered as of yet, although a variation in GABRA2 is known to increase the risk of alcohol dependence due to its effects on the GABA pathway when alcohol is consumed. References: G. Bbosa, D. Kyegombe, W. Anokbonggo, A. Lubega, A. Mugisha and J. Ogwal-Okeng. (2014). Chronic Alcohol Consumption Affects Serum Enzymes Levels in the HIV-Infected Patients on Stavudine (d4T)/Lamivudine (3TC)/Nevirapine (NVP) Treatment Regimen. PharmacologyPhysical Impacts of Alcohol Abuse

The Issues Of Fresh Water In Singapore Environmental Sciences Essay

Singapore is an island and urban city state with no rural hinterland and hence, it has been depending on Malaysia for nearly forty percent or more of its water supply. However, Singapore is not short of fresh water as it receives an average of around 2,400 mm of rainfall annually. The only constraint faced by the country is capturing and storing as much of this rainfall as possible, on limited amounts of land areas, so as to achieve self-efficiency in water issues. Recycling efforts in Singapore started in 1966 when the Jurong Industrial Water Treatment Plant was commissioned to supply industrial water to the Jurong Industrial Estate (JIE). This water comes from treated sewerage effluent and is meant for industrial use in the Jurong area as well as by several oil refineries. The Singapore government encourages industry and private enterprises to recycle water. Also, tax rebates have been provided for factories that install water-saving plants. Bottles of NEWater Singapore has also developed ‘NEWater’, a three-stage process which brings waste-water to a quality that is better than that produced by the Public Utilities Board (PUB). Treatment begins with Microfiltration to remove suspended solids, colloidal particles, bacteria and viruses. The next process is Reverse Osmosis, which involves applying of pressure for water to flow from the concentrated side to the less concentrated side through a semi-permeable membrane to remove inorganics like heavy metals, such as nitrate, chloride, sulphate etc. The third process, Ultra-violet disinfection, is a safety back-up to remove any bacteria or viruses that cannot be removed by Reserve Osmosis. Desalination is a process of removing excess salt from water (eg. seawater) to enable it for drinking purposes. It has been used to augment water for some time, but it was not adopted as a matter of policy until recent years. This method is considered successful, as this source of supply produce 12% of Singapore’s daily water needs. Although desalination costs under current improved technology are higher than traditional means of treatment, Singapore has decided to go ahead in the belief that new technologies will reduce the costs further. 3. Impoundments and reservoirs Singapore has several impounding reservoirs inland including Seletar, Peirce and MacRitchie etc. To increase storage capacity, seven reservoirs have been developed by damming the river mouths. It was in that context that a plan to maximise collection of surface resources by extending the present 24.3 square miles of collection grounds to 156 square miles (about 75% of the island’s total area) was proposed. However, geological conditions limited the availability of groundwater, hence the plan focused on retrieval of stormwater and water recycling instead. Another reservoir which was built in the recent years was Marina Barrage, which was officially opened on 30th October 2008. Marina Barrage is a dam built across the Marina Channel. Water flows into the reservoir from some of Singapore’s most well-known waterways, including the Singapore River, Stamford Canal, Rochor Canal, Geylang River and the country’s longest river, Kallang River. Marina Barrage was envisioned by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew in 1987, after the great clean-up of the Singapore and Kallang Rivers. Building the barrage on the soft sea bed amidst changing currents and constantly moving marine traffic was a major challenge. From the air, the pump house of the barrage looks like that number ‘9’, which signifies ‘longevity’ in Chinese. This major engineering achievement is symbolic of Singapore’s development as a City of Gardens and Water. How Marina Barrage works? The Barrage acts as a physical barrier to separate the reservoir from the sea. The steel crest gates of the Barrage will act as a tidal barrier to keep the high tides out. Under normal conditions, the crest gates will remain in an upright position to isolate the reservoir from the sea. During heavy rains that collide with low tide, the steel crest will be lowered to release excess storm water into the sea. During heavy rains that collide with high tide, the steel crest gates remain erect, hence storm water cannot flow out to sea naturally. Instead, large drainage pumps will be operated to pump water out to sea. With the Barrage in place, the pockets of low-lying areas in the city will no longer be prone to flooding. 4. Stormwater run-off Harnessing stormwater at minimum cost requires proper land-use planning and pollution control to ensure that stormwater run-off can be efficiently collected and that pollution levels are low. Stormwater harvesting from urban land was consistent with the overall policy of land use in this land-scarce republic, in which land was seen as too valuable for its use to be restricted to a single purpose such as for housing. In the words of the Minister for National Development: “If we designate more land for water catchments, there will be less land for housing and other developments. The reverse is also true. Optimising and maximising the use of land and water helped the country to overcome constraints to a certain extent.” (Adapted from: The Straits Times,1996) Singapore was the first country in South-East Asia (SEA) to develop viable stormwater run-off schemes. Among the various schemes, the Bedok and Lower Seletar Schemes are the largest. Surface water for these schemes comes mainly from the housing estates and new towns of Ang Mo Kio, Bedok, Tampines and Yishun and the area near Changi International Airport. Water is conveyed to the storage reservoirs of Bedok and Lower Seletar. One important feature of this scheme is the emphasis on close co-ordination between several agencies, such as the Housing Board Development (HDB), the Ministry of the Environment (ENV) and the Planning Department, in order to ensure that water collected from urban surfaces is low in pollutants. In addition, the drainage system designed in such a way that it channels water through concrete channels to suitable collection ponds situated at topographic low points. An automatic monitoring system ensures that only discharges produced by heavy storms resulting in run-off above a certain volume are collected. One example of the innovative approach to stormwater collection is making use of the empty space under the interchange of the Seletar and Bukit Timah expressways for a water collection pond. 5. Conservation of water “In addition to developing and diversifying water resources, water conservation is also key to ensuring a sustainable water supply. Through our various water conservation initiatives, Singapore has managed to reduce domestic water consumption from 172 litres per capita per day in 1995 to 157 litres in 2007.”(Adapted from “Conserve, Values and Enjoy” by Ministry of Environment and Water Resources, 08 July 2008) It is a difficult task to keep looking for new sources of water, but the situation can be improved if we can control our ever-increasing demand of water. To provide water for all, PUB calls on all Singaporean to play our part in water conservation and to keep our water catchments and waterways clean so that we can enjoy our water resources. One way to discourage excessive use of water is to impose water conservation tax on the amount of water used. This additional tax is added to the price of the water consumed by households and varies according to the amount of water they use. A household that consumes more water will pay higher taxes compared to household that used less water. Additionally, there are varieties of activities organised to teach Singaporeans to view water as a scarce and precious resource, and to use it wisely. Water conservation talks are conducted in schools and leaflets on water conservation are distributed to households. Water-rationing exercises, where the supply of water to some homes is temporarily cut off, are also carried out in housing estates. Effectiveness of the solutions implemented by government So far, Singapore has been able to tackle the problem of a limited supply of fresh water with the introduction of water reclamation, desalination of sea water and impoundments. Technological innovations in modern society have enabled us to have larger catchment areas, to build dams and to obtain fresh water from sea water and used water. Policies aimed at water conservation have also produced certain positive results. Based on the research conducted by the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, the domestic water use per person has generally fallen between 1995 and 2007, from 172 litres per day to 157 litres per day. This means that Singaporeans are more aware of the challenge they are to face nowadays. Introduction of water conservation taxes and activities about water conservation also help to spread awareness about the importance of water conservation. Recommendations regarding the current policies from our committee Government can introduce fine of a certain amount of money for over-usage of water. This means that if the households use unusually large amount of water every months, the government could send down the letters to inform them that they have used too much water compared with the national average, and they should manage their usage well from now on or the authority would have to take action in order to save water. In case if the household owners do not take mind of the warnings, they would be fined. Similarly, households have done well in controlling the water usages should be rewards for their effort put in. For example, tax-relief can be introduced to residents who use water-saving devices at home. Measures like this can encourage the people to install water-saving devices in their houses, hence the overall usage of water would gradually drop to an acceptable level, and the people can be satisfied with rewards given by government for their well-being as the citizens. Examples of water-saving devices: Shower head Water-saving tap Toilet stop Such water-saving devices help reduces water usage at our homes. We uses 9 litres of water whenever we flush the toilet. A toilet stop can be used to cut down the usage of 9 litres. It is added to the toilet flushing mechanism to stop the flushing when the handle is released. Thus if used wisely it allows people to save up to 20% of their total water bill.

This project was developed for learners entering a variety of disciplines. It will enable a deeper understanding of how

assignment helper This project was developed for learners entering a variety of disciplines. It will enable a deeper understanding of how data informs solutions to practical problems with potential impact on your organization or industry. Over this two-week period, you will use mathematical operations and data analysis to solve problems and inform decision making. Using a method similar to the qualitative research process, you will identify an issue and use mathematical formulas or an analytic tool to derive a solution. You will construct graphs, charts, and tables as necessary to inform analysis and interpretation. You will evaluate the results, draw and validate analyses, and communicate key mathematical information. Choose the instructions for the program in which you are currently enrolled as you proceed throughout this project. You will first be presented with a scenario, then guided through your specific path as you advance through the project steps.

California College San Diego Week 15 Family Tree Learning Activity 3

California College San Diego Week 15 Family Tree Learning Activity 3.

I’m working on a communications multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Learning Activity 3—Due Week 15Family Ancestors/Family Tree Activity (FT)For this activity I would like you to do some family research into the origins of your family. Trace your ancestors’ dates of marriage, number of children, dates of death or divorce, and remarriages. Interview various family members about when your family came to the United States, why they came, how life was at the beginning, what hardships they faced, and what traditions have been passed down from generation to generation. Go back as far as you can. This activity takes some time and some effort on your part; it is never too early to start on this project. Every family has a history worth preserving; begin by calling, emailing, writing, or looking online for relatives. Family Narrative:This is the written part of the assignment. After completing your family tree diagram you will write a personal narrative about your family, tell some of the stories you have gathered doing your family research. When did your family come to America, what were the circumstances? Like many of you my family came looking for a better life, they arrived right after a war and had great hopes for a different future. Please try to address these questions in your narrative.• What differences in levels of education, occupation, marriage ages, birthrates, divorce, and any other “family events” did you discover? • Is there a pattern of education, transportation, food habits, and so forth for other generations of your family? • How do previous generations compare to the current one in your family? • What trends do you see from your research that tell you what future families may look like? Extra Credit:Create a Family Tree diagraming as many of your family members as you can, at the very least you need to include your parents and siblings, spouse (if you have one), children (if you have any) For each person please include their birth date, death date (if they have passed), marriage date, and career. Birth date is noted like this: b. 11/5/77 Death date is noted like this: d. 6/8/17 Marriage date is noted like this: m. 8/16/80There are many online family tree templates you may use; here is an example of one I found:…
California College San Diego Week 15 Family Tree Learning Activity 3

University of Miami Organizational Strategy of Papa Johns Case Study

University of Miami Organizational Strategy of Papa Johns Case Study.

Organizational strategies include three dimensions, which are defined as corporate, firm, and business level. It must be understood that all of these dimensions although seemingly operate separately- they act are interrelated and assisting the firm to achieve a competitive advantage.In this assignment we will review a case on Papa Johns. Papa Johns is the 3rd largest pizza chain in the US and the company has more than 35,000 locations, which over 600. Papa Johns is a global chain that operates around the world. However, like many companies Papa Johns have had issues with rapid turnover, training, and the recruitment of drivers. There are also other competitive services that has entered the space of delivery services, as well, forcing Papa Johns to adjust its strategy to remain viable.The appropriate strategy of growth, stability, or retrenchment hinges on the firms situation.In this assignment, you are to read the case in your text. There are also links in your text that you can refer too. After an assessment of Papa Johns, you should answer the following questions for this mini case study.Case Discussion QuestionsAfter an assessment of Papa Johns, you should answer the following questions for this mini case study.Does saturation of the market suggest a stability strategy for Papa John’s, or are there sufficient opportunities globally to justify aggressive growth? ExplainTo what extent do low-cost pizza providers pose a threat to Papa John’s? Identify some of the organization’s characteristics associated with corporate strategies.How has Covid-19 affected Papa John’s corporate strategy to maintain a competitive advantage over it’s rivals? Identify the various means of pursuing corporate growth after this pandemic.Discuss the applications and limitations of generic business strategies and strategic groups in this new climate.Parameters of this assignment:Minimum of Two to Three pages in APA style format.
University of Miami Organizational Strategy of Papa Johns Case Study