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Real-Time Business Scenario Activity, management homework help

Real-Time Business Scenario Activity, management homework help.

Real-Time Business Scenario Activity Critical thinking, reasoning abilities, and content specific competencies are essential skillsets for business leaders. The ethical application of these skillsets to business principles in a 21st century globalized economy is essential to all professionals and as such, are part of the program objectives for graduate business education. Graduate Business Learners should gain a broad view of organizational performance factors from the general management perspective. Activities are designed to develop the skills needed for effective leadership and management in the 21st century globalized business economy. These skills promote and integrate program outcomes and include decision-making, strategic management, creativity and innovation, leadership, problem-solving, and real-time business application. Activities will also develop research and writing skills that accompany high level responsibility in the academic and business environments. These skill sets will empower business managers, executives, and leaders to perform in a dynamic environment where market expansion is global. Excellence in these areas are essential to organizational viability and will allow Learners to add value to their respective firms and to grow both personally and professionally. The application of concepts learned is a very important aspect to the Kent State learning model. Through practical experience and research, it provides the opportunity for graduate level business learners to understand how business integrates these concepts and closes the loop on what is learned to competitive advantage. The first part of your assignment is to choose a topic from the assigned readings that can be related to business operations in general, and present a summary. Your summary should demonstrate your understanding of the major concepts as they relate to the learning objectives and course material. Subsequent to your summary and working with your chosen topic, use your textbook, articles, journals, and the Internet, and present the topic as it is applied in a real-time business scenario (within 1 year). Your analysis should include how it benefited the organization, solved a business problem, and/or added value to the firm. Please follow the Essay Format listed in resources, under additional resources. All assignments must be in APA 6th ed. format. Assignment Outcomes Solve communication issues and plan for managing stress Demonstrate ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology Analyze and evaluate your overall comprehension of the course relative to a broad-based evaluation of your understanding of the course concepts
Real-Time Business Scenario Activity, management homework help

The scope of the research This research will revolve around establishing the level of employee satisfaction as influencing organizational performance in five organizations across the UAE. The research will be carried out in stages. The first stage will involve establishing the research objectives after which empirical literature will be located to understand the current position of the research topic. The last part will involve actual research, interpretation of the findings, and relation of the findings to the empirical literature. Research background Despite the fact that employee motivation and satisfaction are significant elements in the optimal performance matrix for an organization, the aspect of balance has always been very challenging in most organizations in the UAE. Through a relevant program training model, the concentration evaluation should remain active in developing dependence of interest attached to an activity, creating proactive relationships, and monitoring interaction with physical aspects of team evaluation. Eventually, this pays off since that individual will learn to appreciate the essence of learning and need to stay active (Bohlander
(Research Paper) Why the US needs black lawyers even more than it needs black police.

Research Topic Why the US needs black lawyers even more than it needs black policeThe goal of this research paper is to determine if having a Black lawyer increase the possibility of a positive judicial outcomeThere is a significant racial disparity in the criminal justice system. Studies show that white attorneys might have biases that result in less favorable outcomes for their black clients. Unconscious racial bias taints legal decision making (policing, charging, trials). Race also plays a role in court: Defendant race, victim race, and juror race all contribute to trial outcomes. (Sommers & Marotta, 2014)Yes, there is strong evidence that shows clear racial bias towards black people in the CJT system. The prosecutorial restraint white prosecutors have recently displayed toward police doesn’t extend to black defendants. A 2011 study of the New York County district attorney’s office (DANY) found black defendants 19% more likely than white defendants to be offered plea deals that included jail or prison time. Black people charged with misdemeanor offenses or drug offenses were also more likely than white people to be held in jail or prison at their arraignment. (Young, 2018) Such biases are responsible for the huge incarceration rates we see currently.Attached below is a outline
(Research Paper) Why the US needs black lawyers even more than it needs black police

It is interesting to see the ways children react to the sound of music. From infants to adulthood, we see the effects that music can have on us. Pica (2000) noted that there are numerous studies done to determine the way music changes our emotions and even improves our health. How does music affect us? Is physical development a crucial part of young children’s growth? Are children’s moods affected when they hear music? Will their physical capabilities be challenged when they respond to the various types of music? There are similar and differing views on the implementation of physical and music education. The various views to the above questions will be explored and discussed in the following paragraphs. Wiles and Bondi (2007) had put across that health and physical education are closely related. Generally, when a person consistently leads an active lifestyle, it will be noted that the health of that person will be better as compared to the less active. Thus, many schools will implement physical education as part of their curriculum. Along with physical education, some schools, especially preschool centres, physical activity sessions are accompanied by music. What is the first thing that comes to our minds when we hear about physical development? Pica (1999) said that one will usually link physical development with children and movement. He went on to state that the best way for children to learn and retain information will be through hands on experiences. As young children are naturally curious, it is common to see that in many early childhood settings, the contemporary method used to ensure more effective learning will be through doing, more than just listening. Taras, as cited in Pica (1999) added to this by saying that physical activities, when included in children’s daily lives can help them comprehend things more easily. As Hannaford, cited in Pica (1999:1) had put it, “movement activates the neural wiring throughout the body, making the whole body the instrument of learning.” Bearing this in mind, physical activities should be encouraged in young children’s lives. Waller (2009) implied that there is a link between physical and health and that a child who is less active in the early years is not very likely to be involved in sporting activities when at an older age. Physically active young children tend to be healthier physically and mentally. According to the UK guidelines, it is recommended that children have at least sixty minutes of physical activities per day in order to achieve good health and The National Health School Standard (NHSS) advocates having two hours of exercise per student, per week. Pryke, as cited in Waller (2009) pointed out that these exercises should be made enjoyable. Physical activities that involve music and movements that are suitable for the children’s age will engage children meaningfully and allow them to grow in their self esteem in a fun way. Waters and Begley, as cited in Waller (2009) discovered that children who are more confident and have good development of physical skills are more popular among their peers. Dombro, Colker and Dodge (1998) added that healthier children have more energy to discover and learn about things that surround them. Therefore, the importance of developing children’s physical abilities should not be belittled. Besides confidence, other aspects of development are also improved along with good physical skills. A Roman poet, by the name of Juvenal observed the people around him and realized that those who were physically fit were more intelligent (Harvey, 1994). Jim Lavin, as cited in Cooper, Hilary, Sixsmith, Chris (2003) noted that physical development is about body coordination and control of the movements, as described in the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage (DFEE/QCA 2000). He agreed with the idea that the ability to master good coordination and control will foster children’s self-esteem. Therefore, it is good to have more opportunities provided for children to work out different movements. Children in the two to three years of age, though physically unstable, are already moving about eagerly and will not cease to explore various movements repeatedly in an attempt to have more practice (Charlesworth, 2000). It was also implied that children of the same age do not have identical skills. According to Charlesworth, big blocks, climbing structures, balancing equipment and ramps can be used for physical play. While children try out their skills on the various equipments, music can be used in the background to enforce movements. Lewis and Catherwood (1996) had put across the idea that it is necessary for the fundamentals of gross motor skills to be achieved in order to proceed to the next level. That is to say that gross motor development is progressive and therefore, they argued that children who are provided the appropriate support in learning will progress faster, this affecting not just the physical aspect but also on other areas growth. Zelazo, as cited in Lewis and Catherwood (1996) stated an example that if support is given to a baby who is attempting to walk, it will result in the baby becoming more motivated to do so independently when given the chance to try. Similarly, children learn faster in the other activities that require physical skills. For young children who are already walking on their own, providing music as a source of support can be beneficial. With action songs, children are guided in a relaxed atmosphere to work out the muscles in the different parts of their body. As physical activity is necessary for children’s gross motor development, Worthham (1994) suggested that a mixture of both formal and informal learning, in and out of the classrooms will give children the chance to try out new skills and further develop their capabilities. The environment is a factor to developing good motor skills. The classroom environment should allow children to feel comfortable towards learning (Rubin and Merrion, 1995). In a longitudinal study done on four children, it was observed that physical environment and human environment affect children’s development, including the physical aspect (Burton L. White Jean Carew Watts,1973). When there is limited space, children might be constraint to smaller movements and thus, not be able to move about as freely as they would like to. Thus, learning will be compromised. Young children are generally curious beings. Worthham (1994) pointed out that children of very young age move around a lot and they are developing their fine and gross motor skills. According to her, the two to three year-olds are constantly trying out new challenges to achieve new skills. Worthham has emphasized the need for adults to match the children’s development to the learning opportunities that are provided for these young preschoolers in order for them to gain good confidence and become willing learners who strive to excel. This attitude will follow them through to their later years, enabling them to respond positively when they are faced with challenges and are expected to achieve certain results. How do early childhood practitioners and adults at home engage children to develop good physical skills in a fun and interactive manner? Besides discussing the benefits of young children having good physical development, this piece of literature review also sets out to explore how music can aid them in developing in that area. Pica (1999) suggested that music and movement are interrelated and that whenever children are given the chance to move to the sound of music, such experiences can help them to remember and learn better. There are different styles of implementing lessons. Smidt (1998) pointed out that children learn about things around them through interacting and experiencing. Katz and David Elkind, as cited in Smidt (1998) do not agree with complete formal learning at a very young age as it stifles children’s creativity, causing them to be over reliant on adults instead of being independent learners. It was emphasized that though learning objectives can be met within a short time, the children’s long term learning should also be considered. In the words of John Dewey, as cited in Wiles, Bondi (2007:183), “The aim of education is to develop the power of self control in each student. The primary source of control does not reside in the teachers, but with the student…. Developing experiences for students, and activities that will guide them, is the task at hand.” In order to motivate young children to move physically in a relaxed atmosphere, there is a need for music to be introduced. With the aid of music, children can be left on their own for short periods of time to explore with different movements independently. Some structured lessons can also be conducted as a guide to children’s physical development. It will be interesting to discover the ways that people learn to enjoy music. Green, as cited in Lines (2009) informed of a project which was centered on music, conducted in secondary schools in UK, the students learn well through informal settings and achieved the objectives of self learning through intrinsic motivation. Lines (2009) however warned that we should not rule out the fact that young people can learn through formal settings as well. It will be interesting to discover how children of very young age respond naturally to music before and even after they have been through some guided lessons. Very often, young children are exposed to action songs. It is important to note that besides action songs, music can also motivate young children to move along in an expressive manner. Though informal learning can be beneficial to the learners, Harvey (1994) on the other hand explored the benefits children can derive from schooling at a very young age. He interviewed the parents and found that children at the very young age, who were exposed to learning which is intentionally arranged by their parents, continued learning throughout the later years. Results showed that the parents were more involved too. Lloyd (1990) supported the idea of structured learning by stating that only elaborate preparation by the teacher can lead to creative movement experiences. However, there is a contrasting view that music and movement can be learnt and enjoyed in an informal way too. In a survey which was conducted on young Singaporeans’ preferences on the list of activities which they will indulge in during their free time, it has been noted by Chew, Jiun and Tan (1998) that one of the top choices is enjoyment of music. Interestingly, it was reflected that a high percentage of young people who took part in this survey chose listening to music over all the other rest of the activities listed, which include shopping, watching programs on television, etc. It has been reviewed that some music has been known to affect people in a negative way, whether consciously or otherwise. Tricia (1994) explores the possibility of rap music influencing people to turn violent. In the same way, she noted that there were some critics who viewed hip hop music as influencing speech and singing. Therefore, it is crucial to be selective in the music that we expose young children to. Goldmied and Jackson (1994) warned about careful selection of music and reiterated that tapes with bad quality and inappropriate sounds should be avoided. They did not fail to point out that very young children love music and do not tire of listening to the same piece of music many times, even moving their bodies to the music that they hear. A wide variety of music can lead to more in-depth exploration in the physical aspect. Children can learn to be more receptive and in turn, more expressive with their body movements. For some, particular types of music can be unpleasant. However, on the whole, if the type of music is cautiously selected, it soothes the ears and will even urge us to move our bodies according to its rhythm. In that, our physical ability is challenged. Pica (1999) asserted that in music, tempo can be used as a way to encourage different pace of movement. For example, the concepts of the music terms- ‘accelerando’ and ‘ritardando’ can be taught to children. The above music terms refer to moving from slow to fast and from fast to slow respectively. This will enable young children to work out their muscles in a progressive manner and also enables cooling down at the end of each session whenever necessary. Pica (1999) had also discovered that young children can easily understand the mood of each song and be affected by it. He went on further to state that children are more sensitive than adults in this aspect and also more willing to express their feelings using their body movements. It has been pointed out by Goldschmied and Jackson (1994) that very young children, even unborn babies can respond to music and had reported that it was found out by a researcher- Moog (1997) that children before the age of two prefer instrumental music the most. It is only after the age of two that children begin to like action songs. Regardless of the age, both types of music can be introduced to the children simultaneously. Edelstein, Choksy, Lehman, Sigurdsson, Woods (1980) also suggested in one of their strategies in teaching music, to allow free or structured movements according to the beat of various tempo. The tempo can be created using musical instruments or be observed in an instrumental piece of music. For example, marching to the beat of the drum or swaying to the rhythm of a piece of slow music can enable children to work out their movements. Children will gain confidence in a non-threatening atmosphere when they are provided the opportunities to exercise their bodies using this method. As physical development can be positively encouraged when accompanied by music, it will be beneficial for music to be introduced at the very young age. In the process, formal and informal learning must take place at the same time so that children are guided through lessons to unleash their potential and not be derived of the opportunities to explore physical movements as well as to enjoy carefully selected music at their own pace.

CBFS Testing Application Testing Importance and Types of Testing Essay

CBFS Testing Application Testing Importance and Types of Testing Essay.

(Code: A98/ date 2/7/2020)******Which subject: Project implementation follow points:1_Testing and evaluation:What is Testing application means and how can be done the importance of testing 2_Testing strategy:Introduction of test strategy What’s the best test strategy type can be used for a mobile application?A description of (analytical strategy).3_Test plan:What is test plan ,why its important and how we can make a test plan 4_ critical evaluation:Explain about it and why it’s importantCalculations or thury: Theory How many words: Total words 1500Turniti report needed Similarity less than 5% .All the requirements here up ,
CBFS Testing Application Testing Importance and Types of Testing Essay

HSC 300 Stratford University Public Health Presentation

custom writing service HSC 300 Stratford University Public Health Presentation.

In 2014 there was a major outbreak of Ebola in western Africa. Healthcare workers from around the world responded and were subsequently exposed, some losing their life to the disease. There was widespread concern from home countries about the possible spread of this disease out of the quarantined area and globally. Such epidemics are a health thread that stretches well beyond the initial outbreak site. This has occurred also with SARS, Bird Flu, and MERS. With the easy and speed of global transportation, it has increased the likelihood of an outbreak spreading even before it has been established that it is a threat. In addition to infectious disease threats, there are other emergencies that threaten the health of a community, state, or country such as natural disasters, bioterrorism, chemical emergencies, blast injuries, radiation emergencies, etc). This means that countries and local communities must be prepared to protect the health of the citizens.As a new healthcare worker for the CDC you will work with a team to investigate the risks, needs, resources, and services that would be needed in the case of a widespread outbreak. This will include:assessing the communitydetermining the possible risks and weak points in the health systemdetermining the current and needed resources and servicesdeveloping a plan of action in the event of an outbreak or emergency either from within the country or from a global source.You will have one deliverable: a PowerPoint type oral report which could be given to the local community leaders who will carry out the CDC plan.
HSC 300 Stratford University Public Health Presentation

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation And Motivational Theories Business Essay

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation And Motivational Theories Business Essay. Motivation is the source of individual’s action and determines the reason for their behavior. Motivation is something that enables individuals to be goal oriented and it inspires the individuals to work on the direction of the goal or objectives set by the organization. It drives the people to achieve the goal. It is related to distinct form of emotion. There are several motivational theories for an organization. These theories help in motivating the employees in the organization. TYPES OF MOTIVATION There are two types of motivation. They are: Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that interests an individual to do a task. The individual may be driven out by interest or enjoyment by the task itself. This type does not require external pressure. People get motivated by their own interests. Extrinsic motivation forms out from an individual. The workers will be forced to do the job or task. In this type of motivation the workers are rewarded with money, promotion, and threat of punishment. A crowd cheering is also one form of extrinsic motivation. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Incentive theory Need hierarchy theory Herzberg’s two factor theory X theory and Y theory INCENTIVE THEORY Incentive theory is based on the rewards. The reward may be tangible or intangible. The rewards are given after some action or job. These rewards are provided for the workers who are performing well in the organization. Incentives are provided so that the workers get motivated about their works and the rewards and will perform further. If a person receives any sort of incentives his or her performance will increase even more. This effect can be seen right after the person receives the reward. While giving incentive to one person other people in the organization also gets motivated. Incentive theory is used in many organizations. These strategies also act as an additional profit for an employee. Incentives are given in terms of money, promotion and free home etc. NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Maslow’s theory is one of most popular theory of motivation. Need hierarchy theory is formulated by Maslow. Human beings have wants and desires in their life to influence their own behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence the behavior. Satisfied need does not influence. Since the needs are many in humans life. The needs will be prioritized by our own. They are arranged in a order according to the importance, from basic to complex. The person advance to the next level of need only if the lower level need is satisfied. The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show. Needs from basic level to complex level: Physiology (hunger, thirst and sleep) Safety/security/shelter/health Belongingness/love/friendship Self-esteem/recognition/achievement Self actualization HERBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY Frederick Herzberg two-factor theory is both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. It concludes that certain things in the organization or workplace result in job satisfaction. If not, they won’t lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction at all. The factors that motivate people can change over a period of time but “respect for me as a person” is one of the best motivating factors at any stages of life. Herzberg distinguishes into: Motivators Hygiene factors Motivators; (Example, challenging work, recognition, responsibility.) Gives positive satisfaction. Hygiene factor (e.g job satisfaction, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but will result in de-motivation if it is absent. The name hygiene factor is used because, it’s like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier but absence will lead to deterioration. This theory is sometimes called as motivator’s hygiene theory or dual structure theory. X and Y THEORY OF MOTIVATION Theory X and theory Y are the human motivation theories. It is developed by Douglas McGregor. These theories describe two different aspects towards the workforce motivation. McGregor felt that the companies follow either one or the other approach. X theory: The management assumes that the employees are actually lazy and they try to avoid the work. They also dislike the work. As a result of this management believes that workers must be closely supervised or watched and controls should be set. There should be a narrow span of control to avoid such issues. If the organizational goals are to be met the management should be stern on the employees. The X theory managers will heavily rely on the threats and coercion of the employees. The employees in the management will prefer to be directed towards the goal. Y theory: In this theory, management sees the employees are so interested and excited about the work allotted. The employees may be ambitious or self-motivated and exercise self-control of the work. It is believed that employees enjoy about their mental and physical duties. The right job to the right employees is the key to achieve organizational goals. The people in the organization work as being as natural as play and rest. The people will do self-direction and control towards the objective that has been already set by the organization. GOOGLE’S MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES Google Inc. is the world famous American public corporation that specializes in internet search, cloud computing and online advertising. The Chief Executive Officer of Google Inc. is Mr. Eric Schmidt. The overall culture of the firm is as such that employees are always motivated to do more. The company supports innovation and abilities and skills. So people from all over the world can join the organization, based on their capabilities. There is no formal hierarchy, so everyone is at the same level and is open to speak his/her mind. This supports innovation and an open culture where employees do not face any threat. Employees have numerous workplace attractions that keep them motivated like a 24 hour dough nut shop, snack rooms, Google café, workout rooms, and higher power workstations. As a motivational technique, Google uses a system called Innovation Time Off, where the employees can spend their 20% of their working time on projects that interests them. This motivates the workers to stay on the job. They enjoy working new services like Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense etc. They also create come jokes within and about the firm. The “Googolplex” is the headquarters of Google situated in California. The lobby has a piano, lava lamps, old server clusters and projection of search queries on the wall with hallways full or exercise balls and bicycles. Each and every employee is free to access the corporate recreation center. Google generate a truly unique and attractive working environment for their employees. According to Hammonds, Google is a ‘geeks dream house’. The employees in Google are motivated for working in Google which is not a thing in other firms. Google offers a high employment that they receive 1000 applications a day. The truth is people are desperate to work in Google. They treat their employee as their own family members. They put up activities like free movie nights for employees and families, and free ski holidays and other social trips have already created a social bond between employees. By provision for free holidays, sports facilities at work, nursery care for children and 25 holidays a year, Google encourages its employees to work hard and strive for the achievement of goals. Unlike other firms the Google’s hierarchy is very flat. This helps in accomplishing the goals very fast. There will be free transfer of communication within the firm. The employees are given the high responsibility. They are the key for their ultimate success. Google encourages innovation and empowerment because they have talented workforces in the world. Google has identified why people join their organization Lending a helping hand Life is beautiful Appreciation is the best motivation Work and play are not mutually exclusive We love our employees, and we want them to know it Innovation is our bloodline Good company everywhere you look Uniting the world, one user at a time Boldly go where no one has ever gone before There is such thing as a free lunch after all. Google Inc. follows Y theory of motivation. They let the employees to work on what they are interested. They attract people by their own facilities. Employees are satisfied by their job. Google is the job satisfaction provider for the people. Rewards, promotions are also provided but the primary thing is the allocation of the job. Measures to improve Google Inc. Quality programs Managerial roles Performance appraisals Stress management Leadership style There should be more advertisement Employees plans must be strengthened New motivational plans must be formulated Servers should be fast Better job satisfaction All should be treated the same CONCLUSION Google is the number one search engine. It already overtook Yahoo! Google is the fastest growing company now. They started off with the search engine but at present they are providing software (Android) for mobile phones. That is actually a great technological growth. By this fast growth companies like Apple Corporation and Microsoft are in threat. Google will surely lead the world in technology by adopting some different and powerful strategies. Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation And Motivational Theories Business Essay

BUSI 506 Liberty University Legal Aspects in Healthcare Management Discussion

BUSI 506 Liberty University Legal Aspects in Healthcare Management Discussion.

You are replying to another students discussion Board Post. Here is the original instructions that this student was answering:Chapters 10, 11, and 12 of the Pozgar text each address a different area of practice within the healthcare environment. Identify the chapter that most closely applies to your personal area of practice (current or aspirational), read that chapter, and be prepared to explore the legal and ethical issues in that practice area.Chapter 10: Medical staff organization and malpracticeChapter 11: Nursing and the lawChapter 12: Hospital departments and allied professionalsPrompt: Based on the chapter you selected, your personal experience, and a biblical worldview, write a Discussion Board Forum thread identifying and analyzing the legal and ethical issues specific to your area of practice.Your analysis must be supported by at least 4 scholarly sources, including the textbook chapter(s) and the Bible, cited in current APA format (note that this is a different requirement than the previous Discussion Board Forums). Upload a Word document copy of the post into SafeAssign for plagiarism review; then, copy and paste the content into the Discussion Board Forum (do not post with attachments). Title your thread with the area of practice that you analyzed.Here is the instructions given for creating a reply. I attached my original post for comparison as in in the reply instructions:Reply prompt: Respond to threads posted by 2 classmates who analyzed a different area of practice than you did. Compare and contrast the legal and ethical issues of your area of practice with those explored by other students. Each reply must be supported by 4 scholarly sources, including the textbook chapter and the Bible, cited in current APA format (note that this is a different requirement than the previous Discussion Board Forums).Here is the students original post that you are responding to:Allied Professionals Legal and Ethical Issues Aeromedical TechnicianEmergency The basic principle of emergency care is that personnel do no further harm do no harm is one of the mottos of EMS. A health care provider usually avoids legal exposure if he or she acts in good faith and according to the appropriate standard of care for the emergency medical care or immediate care or treatment is often provided by a Medic. In the United States Air Force Reserves, the Aeromedical Technician is the first link in the chain of prehospital care and providing competent emergency care that conforms with the standard of care. The Medical Education and Training College (METC) teaches technicians how to avoid civil and criminal actions in a court of law. Emergency medicine on military bases is problematic due to the broader availability of emergency medical care, and the more complex the care is, the more difficult the job becomes; therefore, in this discussion, there are a few basics that will be shared from the legal and ethical training the main objective is consent and the different components of consent. Scripture guides us in Genesis 41:44 it states, “Pharaoh said to Joseph, I am Pharaoh, but no one will be able to raise his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt without your permission”(NIV). Consent is permission to render care. “Consent should be written and recorded in addition to the consent form a record of what has been discussed whether that be contemporaneous documentation hard copies, this information is important even if the patient chooses not to undergo treatment” (Tingle, 2016, p. 1269). A person must give instant consent for treatment, and it has to be informed; if the patient is conscious and alert and capable of making an informed decision, they have the right to refuse care. The foundation of consent and decision-making capacity is that the patient must understand and process information provided to them, and they can make an informed choice regarding medical care that is appropriate for them. Patient autonomy is the patient’s right to make decisions about their health and their care that they receive; furthermore, in determining a patient’s decision-making capacity, the process a medical technician will need to consider are; is the patient’s intellectual capacity impaired by mental limitations or dementia? Do they have some mental issue or dementia that causes them not to be competent to make those decisions? Are they of legal age? However, in most states, the legal age is 18 years old. Unfortunately, most bases have an issue of service members being impaired by alcohol drugs; furthermore, this is one of the significant issues medical technicians have to encounter daily because alcohol drug injuries and illnesses can make service members have decision-making issues. A typical day of work involves questions that a medical technician will have to put forth on the job questions such as does the service member appear to be experiencing significant pain? Or are there any apparent hearing or visual problems? Is there a language barrier? Does the patient appear to understand what the technician is telling them? Is the service member asking rational questions that may demonstrate an understanding of the information? During the training, these are the questions an aeromedical technician must bear in mind while on duty. Medical Technicians must focus on this relevant type of consent that is expressed. Another form of consent that is widely seen all the time is expressed consent. This form of consent has several essential questions that must be considered. If the service member acknowledges that he or she wants the technician to provide care or transport to be valid; the service member must provide informed consent, which means the technician has explained the treatment being offered along with the risks, benefits, and alternatives as well as the potential consequences of refusing treatment. Informed consent is valid if given orally; it does not have to be in writing, and the medical technician documents when a service member provides informed consent or has their partner witnessed the service member’s consent. At times in this line of work, people think when they call an ambulance, they automatically get the help; unfortunately, that does not consent the request for an ambulance to come does not form that expressed or informed consent a service member or civilian must give consent. Gathering information is an essential step in a technician’s work line; for example, if the technician needs to check the patient’s pulse, they must ask is it ok. As mentioned earlier in the discussion, everything that a technician does or needs to do involves informing, and that is when a patient is awake conscious and can make those decisions, that is, expressed consent. Implied consent is different because it applies to those unconscious and otherwise incapable of making a rational, informed decision about care; implied consent applies when a severe medical condition exists; implied consent should never be used unless there is a threat to life limb. “The importance of consent and the concept of autonomy become the over-riding ethical principle for the basis of consent. It is the ethical principle of autonomy on which information disclosure and the process of consent is based” (Cole, 2012, p. 552). Furthermore, sometimes what represents a severe threat is unclear, and it may become a legal question; it is a good idea to try to get consent from a spouse or relative before treating based on implied consent. The principle of implied consent is known as the emergency doctrine that every medic must be aware that there will protect the medical technician as a care provider regarding consent. If the patient meets these criteria, involuntary consent applies to patients who are mentally ill in some behavior or psychological crisis which may be developmentally delayed these are the things that apply to involuntary consent; it is imperative if, at all possible, the technician obtain consent from the guardian or a close relative if available for the patient. It is not always possible to gain permission; therefore, medical technicians’ recommendation outside the scope of practice on a military base is to gain knowledge on local provisions. “There are twenty-eight states with emancipation statutes that set forth the procedure for obtaining emancipation status” (Cataldo, 2014, p. 592). Many states have protective custody statutes that allow such a person to be taken under law enforcement authority to a medical facility. Emergency medical technician generally never have this protective custody statute, but it does apply to law enforcement; however, EMT’s do work with law enforcement quite closely on these types of calls for minors and consent. In most cases, the parent or legal guardian can consent for anyone under the legal age to consent; however, the minor can consent in some states, but it depends on their age and maturity. “The regulations that describe the scope of practice for emergency services personnel vary from state to state”(Pozgar, 2019, p. 296). The legal issue that some EMT’s will face on the street during a call is the issue of emancipated minors. An emancipated minor is somebody who is under the legal age in a given state; for example, in Montana, emancipation must be ordered by the court, so anyone who is an emancipated minor has to be legally emancipated, and the fact that the individual is 17 and they state that they can take care of themselves or because of marriage does not apply. Another fact to consider for the allied health professional in this career is that some states consider minors to be emancipated if they are married, especially if they are members of the Armed Services or parents. “In loco parentis, a Latin phrase meaning in place of the parent is used to describe any other guardian or individual serving the role of a child’s parent”(Mohammed et al., 2014). Teachers and school officials may act in place of parents; this is called in loco parentis, and they can provide consent for treatment to injuries that occur in a school or camp setting. Furthermore, when kids go to school, parents sign off on an emergency treatment form so that if something happens and they cannot reach the parents, this can be taken care of quickly if a real emergency exists. No consensus available the consent to treat the minor is implied. In this discussion, as mentioned earlier, as with an adult, if the medical technician cannot reach them, then they can treat them under implied consent, never withholding lifesaving care for a minor because the person authorized to provide consent is not available. ReferencesCataldo, M. A. (2014). Safe Haven: Granting Support to Victims of Child Abuse Who Have Been Judicially Emancipated. Family Court Review, 52(3), 592-609. https://doi-org/10.1111/fcre.12109.Cole, C. A. (2012). Implied consent and nursing practice: Ethical or convenient? Nursing Ethics, 19(4), 550-557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733011436028.Mohammed, M. O. B. Gbenu, J. P. & Lawal, R. O. (2014). Planning the Teacher as in Loco Parentis for an Effective School System. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(16), 318-321. doi: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n16p318.Pozgar, G. D. (2019). NVPMD: Legal aspects of health care administration. 13E-Liberty Custom. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett. ISBN: 9781284170931.Tingle, J. (2016). Obtaining informed consent to treatment: new legal dimensions. British Journal of Nursing, 25(22), 1268-1269. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2016.25.22.1268.The Holy Bible, New International Version: containing the Old Testament and the New Testament. (, 1984”). International Bible Society. (Original work published 1973)
BUSI 506 Liberty University Legal Aspects in Healthcare Management Discussion