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Reading Reflection and Reading Annotation Duarte, Network Sovereignty Paper

Reading Reflection and Reading Annotation Duarte, Network Sovereignty Paper.

Part1: Reading Reflection: 1. Who is the author? What are their qualifications? Academic affiliations? Other work?2. What is the research question that the author is trying to answer?3. Restate the author’s argument concisely.4. How is the author building their argument? What is the method of their research? For example, are they conducting interviews, analyzing films, etc.5. What sources are cited? In other words, what is the author’s evidence? Or where are they getting their data from?6. Who is the author in conversation with? Who is the audience?7. When was the text written? How does this affect the argument?Part2: Reading Annotation: What counts as meaningful engagement with the text? Highlight the corresponding words in the text.Take a screenshot or copy the text and mark the page.1.Identify passages that are confusing, ask/ answer clarifying questions2.Try to reword difficult passages to make them more understandable3. Reword or summarize key concepts or passages4. Link key terms and ideas to outside materials or other course readings5. Ask/ answer a discussion question (see below)(If you want to answer a discussion question, I dropped two pictures)Elements of a thought-provoking question (this is different from a clarifying question):It cannot be answered with a yes or no, or a quick Google searchIt doesn’t ask for personal opinions, but prompts thoughtful analysis or reflectionCan refer to specific passages to preface the question and provide context
Reading Reflection and Reading Annotation Duarte, Network Sovereignty Paper

Writer’s Choice. Paper details   Prior to completing the assignment, review The attached file You are a manager with five years of experience and need to write a report for senior management on how your firm can avoid the threat of a Federal Trade Commission investigation if you were to merge with other health care organizations. Research on your own to select a health care organization in the United States that has been charged with an antitrust action within the last five years and use this information as the basis for your paper. In your report Summarize the charges and rebuttal or mitigation of charges used by the health care organization you researched. Discuss lessons learned and propose actions that can be taken by your management to avoid similar anti- trust actions in your proposed merger. Your paper must include an introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Your paper must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center. Utilize three scholarly and/or peer-reviewed sources (excluding the course text) that were published within the last five years. Cite your sources within the text of your paperWriter’s Choice

Analysis of the Differences Between Laws and Ethics Essay

Analysis of the Differences Between Laws and Ethics Essay. Ethics refers to a set of rules or guiding principles that inform and govern people’s conduct in various situations and circumstances. For example, different professions have different codes of ethics that determine how they behave and act. Ethics influence behavior and decisions in various ways. In addition, it can be classified into different groups including personal ethics, professional ethics, and universal ethics that govern society. On the other hand, law refers to rules or codes of practice that are created and reinforced by an authority such as a government in order to bring order and cohesion. Law is compelling because failure to adhere to its precepts leads to punishment. Moreover, law is diverse because its implementation includes various forms including constitutions, policies, terms of service, and other forms of legal provisions. Law and ethics have several similarities. First, they influence human conduct and decisions in order to benefit individuals and society. People follow ethics because it represents principles and values that direct society. On the other hand, people follow law because it creates a common ground to unify people and create order among individuals in society. Second, they serve the main aim in society. They improve the moral status of individuals in society. Law enforces certain rules with a punishment threat if broken. Ethics relies on people’s rationality and sensibilities in order to influence people’s behaviors. They are both responsible for maintenance of order and social cohesion. Law and ethics have several differences. Law is compelling while ethics is not. Breaking law results in punishment while acting without regard to ethics does not have punishment. Acting ethically is a personal responsibility while obeying law is mandatory for everyone. Again, they influence people’s conduct in different ways. Ethics usually affects people’s behavior with regard to how they treat those who are close to them or those whom they interact with regularly. In contrast, law affects people’s behavior with regard to people whom they rarely interact with. Ethics is defined by the values, customs, or beliefs of a community or society. In contrast, law is defined by universally accepted standards and behaviors. Ethics is immune to societal or communal change while law is not immune to change. Ethics changes only when the morals, perceptions, and values of society change. On the contrary, law can be changed by an act of a governing body or a decision by lawmakers. Ethics tells people what they ought to do and in what ways. For example, business people are expected to serve their customers with honesty and fairness. This concept does not apply to law because it tells people what they are not supposed to do and what they must do. It has prohibitions and mandates. Unlike ethics, it does not tell people what they should do and in what ways. Finally, ethics influences individuals internally while law influences people externally. While law is enforced, ethics is not. In conclusion, law and ethics are similar because they aim to promote order and cohesion in society. In addition, they influence behavior in ways that benefit individuals and society. On the other hand, they are different in several ways. Law is enforced while ethics is not. Law is easily changed while ethics is immune to changes. Changes depend on shifts in people’s moral values and cultures. Finally, law is binding because it tells people what they cannot do and what they must do. Ethics tells people what they ought to do. People are free to either adhere to ethics or not. On the contrary, it is mandatory to follow law. Analysis of the Differences Between Laws and Ethics Essay

Drug Discovery Process Of The Bio Pharmaceutical Industry Biology Essay

essay writer Drug Discovery Process Of The Bio Pharmaceutical Industry Biology Essay. The development of new pharmaceutical products is a long, expensive and uncertain process. It takes an average of 10 to 15 years for a new drug to move from the discovery phase into the marketplace, and the average cost for the development of a new drug is approximately $800 million. Out of 6000 compounds initially screened, only 6 are selected to move onto clinical trials, and out of those 6, only 1 compound is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the product is introduced into the market. The low success rates associated with new drug development is what makes the demand for resources at different stages of the development pipeline highly variable and very difficult to predict. Even after a drug is launched into the market, success is not guaranteed as toxic side effects may erupt when the drug is introduced to a larger sample of diverse population. This unpredictable process together with the company’s annual fixed cost of Research and Development creates a major financial risk. Nevertheless, pharmaceutical firms decide to undertake this risky process because of the opportunity to develop a “blockbuster” drug, a drug that generates $1 billion or more each year in sales revenue for the company, and has the capacity to meet unmet medical needs of the population. Pre-Discovery To Understand the Disease Before any potential new medicine can be discovered, scientists work to understand the causes as well as other underlying factors in relation to the disease to be treated as well as possible. Target Identification (Choose a molecule to target with a drug) Once they have enough understanding of the underlying cause of a disease, pharmaceutical researchers select a “target” for a potential new medicine. A target is generally a single molecule, such as a gene or protein, which is involved in a particular disease. Even at this early stage in drug discovery it is critical that researchers pick a target that is “drugable,” i.e., one that can potentially interact with and be affected by a drug molecule. Target Validation (Test the target and confirm its role in the disease) After choosing a potential target, scientists must show that it actually is involved in the disease and can be acted upon by a drug. Target validation is crucial to help scientists avoid research paths that look promising, but ultimately lead to dead ends. Researchers demonstrate that a particular target is relevant to the disease being studied through complicated experiments in both living cells and in animal models of disease. Various stages in Drug Development Process The drug development process is highly regulated and follows a number of well-defined steps and milestones. Discovery and screening stage Emerging tools in molecular biology, cell biology and combinatorial chemistry help researchers understand diseases and identify specific targets for new drugs. Once a specific target is identified, drug development starts with the screening of a large number of compounds to find the non-toxic compounds with the desired biological effects. Typically, thousands of chemical compounds are tested in test tubes or individual cells (tissue cultures). Drug companies maintain large libraries of newly synthesized or isolated compounds. Compound from these libraries are tested for biological activity. Preclinical testing Preclinical testing involves a series of short term and long term animal and laboratory tests to generate data on if a compound is safe and worthwhile to test on people. The aim of preclinical testing is to understand what happens when the drug is metabolized, as well as to generate information about the optimal dose for the clinical trials. Animal studies provide data on the absorption, distribution and excretion of the compound. The chemical properties of the discovered compounds are studied in significant detail at this step. Steps for synthesis and purification are developed at this time. These help identify any acute toxicity issues that may arise. It usually takes 3-4 years to gather data in support of Investigational New Drug Application (IND). This application notifies the Food and Drug Authority (FDA) of the drug sponsor’s intent to conduct clinical research on human. In parallel with the animal studies, the company has to conduct studies to determine how to manufacture reproducible batches over time. Clinical trials The ultimate goal of clinical trials is to determine whether the drug works well enough in patients. The trials should address: whether the risk of toxic side effects outweighs the therapeutic benefit; which dose regimen provides the best response and the least number of side effects; if the drug is better than existing treatments or not. Clinical trials are divided in three phases Phase I (PI): In Phase I trials, the candidate drug is tested in people for the first time. These studies are usually conducted with about 20 to 100 healthy volunteers. The main goal of a Phase I trial is to discover if the drug is safe for humans. Researchers look at the pharmacokinetics of a drug: How is it absorbed? How is it metabolized and excreted from the body? They also study the pharmacologics of a drug: effects of the drug on the functioning of the human body. These closely monitored trials are designed to help researchers determine what the safe dosage range is and if it should move on to further development. Phase II (PII): The goal of this phase is to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication and how the drug behaves in people. These studies typically include 100-500 patients with a target disease or indication, divided into several subgroups. The subgroups are administered the drug in different dosages, by different routes, and on different schedules. Efforts are made to determine the common short term side effects and other risks associated with the drug when used on human beings. Phase III (PIII): The studies in this phase are conducted over a long term and on a large sample of 1000-1500 patient volunteers. The basic aim of this phase is to generate statistically significant data, about to evaluate the risks and benefits associated with the drug. The effectiveness and safety of the drug is carefully examined and dosing regiments duly noted which will lead to the FDA and the international regulatory agencies to approve the new drug. The results from these studies are used to develop the DRUG LABEL. The Drug Discovery process has many issues like Long Lead Times and Uncertainty that are plaguing the whole process and causing disturbances/tremors along the lines of New Product Development. Literature review A stochastic programming approach for clinical trial planning in new drug development Matthew Colvin, Christos T. Maravelias Due to changing circumstances in the managed-health-care environment, the profit margins of pharmaceutical companies and the productivity of their Research and Development (RDrug Discovery Process Of The Bio Pharmaceutical Industry Biology Essay

Recruitment Strategies – Global Business Management Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Effective global recruitment strategies Conclusion References Introduction One of the main roles of human resource management is to ensure that they equip organizations with staffs who are best qualified and productive. They do this through the process of recruitment. More often than not, the recruitment process does regenerate into a period of instability in an organization especially when it is done in a disorganized manner. It is with this respect that strategic recruitment has become essential especially in transnational organizations. This paper discusses how strategic recruitment can be done in a multinational manufacturing firm (Compton, Morrissey

ENT 527 Phoenix Week 4 Traditional to Transformational Management Presentation

ENT 527 Phoenix Week 4 Traditional to Transformational Management Presentation.

Create an implementation strategy for the innovative product or process you selected. Assume you concluded to continue with the development of your innovation in Wk 4.Prepare an 8- to 10-slide presentation with speaker notes. Complete the following in your presentation.Identify the organizational resources necessary to implement and assess whether the organization has the resources or must hire or contract to get there.Explain any ethical, legal, and regulatory implications related to the implementation.Identify regulatory stakeholders that may influence the approval and implementation of your innovation.Identify legal mechanisms to protect the innovation through patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets.Identify any ethical issues related to the implementation of the innovation.Establish a timeline for deploying your innovation. Include major tasks or milestones that must be accomplished to roll out your innovation.Cite any references to support your assignment.Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
ENT 527 Phoenix Week 4 Traditional to Transformational Management Presentation

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