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This is where the people, The President of the United States, or Governor of one of the states introduce policy. This is usually brought about because of their agenda and is discussed with agencies and or departments for development and implementation. Upon research being concluded the policy is then considered for adoption by Congress.

If it succeeds in getting adopted it is then passed into law, and scheduled for the implementation stage. This is where government executes an adopted policy that is specified by Legislation or the policy action. It is at this stage that various government agencies and departments whom are responsible for that respective area of policy are formally made responsible. This happens after a bill becomes law. Upon policy completing the Implementation Stage, It then moves to the Evaluation Stage. General judgments about cost, impact, goal attainment, program effectiveness, and quality are then determined.

The is done because bureaucrats, community leaders, elected officials, policy makers, and the public want to know what policies work and those that don’t. It is through evaluation that we can determine whether a policy’s effects are intended or unintended, or whether the results are positive or negative for the target population and society as a whole. This concludes the 5 stages to policy making. There are some additional tools that are used in conjunction with the 5 Stages of Policy Making listed above. Administrative Discretion is one.

It is the exercise of professional expertise and judgment, as opposed to strict adherence to regulations or statues in making a decision, or performing official acts or duties. It is an informal action, and those who use it must remember that it is not protected by the safe guards inherent in formal procedure. Yet, it’s commonly used in policy making. Another tool used is Rulemaking. It’s the process that executive and independent agencies use to put regulations into effect. Rulemaking results as a byproduct of Legislation passing statues to set broad policy mandates that allow agencies to make more detailed regulations.

An additional tool in the policy making process is Administrative Adjudication by which an administrative agency issues an order which can be affirmative, declaratory, injunctive, or negative in form. It applies the agencies to the past actions of a particular party, and results in an order for or against that party. Policy making also involves the use of discussion where the process is used to debate a certain topic, exchange ideas, or to reach a decision. This concludes the additional tools that are used to create policy in government.

There are 3 types of presidents’ management styles. The 1st is the Pyramid Model is based on a military chain of command that emphasizes a powerful Chief of Staff that is highly visible and accessible to the press. It portrays the president sitting atop the pyramid removed from advisors and interest below him. The Chief of staff has a great deal of authority and acts as a clearinghouse for information and access to the president. An advantage is that the president receives information through the Chief of Staff, and isn’t burdened with the details of running the White House.

A disadvantage is that might not get all of the information that may be needed from the Chief of Staff. The 2nd model presidents’ have used is the Hub and Spoke Model. It can be visualized as a circular structure based on The New Deal White House System of management. This model has the president playing a dominant role in the everyday affairs in the White House. The Chief of staff has diminished power and is less well known to the public. The president must have strong leadership skills and an eye for detail in order to successfully carry out the Hub and Spoke Model.

An advantage is that the president directly controls his administration. A disadvantage is that a president can lose sight of the forest for the trees. The 3rd model presidents’ use is the Ad Hoc Structure the combine’s leadership and management tactics that a CEO of a large corporation might use. It employs committees, special advisors, and tasks forces to help develop and implement policies. Throughout the history of the U. S. Presidency there have been some Great, Near Great, and Poor president’s. The criteria to meet those standards are as follows.

Law Question

The industry standards that guide operational improvement of criminal justice programs provide a framework for evaluation and measurement of outcomes. This structure helps to ensure validity, reliability, and comparability between programs, evaluations, and evaluators.
In this summative assessment, you look at how industry standard techniques and methods guide organizational improvements in a specific policy or program evaluation. The concepts you have learned in this course will help you collect information, deliver a solution with measurable outcomes, and develop a design approach.
Select an example of a new or previously discussed policy or program evaluation. You may choose one of the case studies on this week’s University Library page, or research another policy or program evaluation.
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-Microsoft ® Word paper in which you do the following for your chosen policy or program evaluation:
Identify the set of industry standards to guide the evaluation.
Analyze how the industry standards provide the framework to guide the evaluation.
Identify the necessary data to perform an evaluation.
Describe how the data should be interpreted.
Describe how you will measure outcomes based on industry standards in evaluation.
Explain how the program can be improved and how the results will be utilized for improvement.
Describe the evolution of this policy through continual evaluation.
Format your paper according to APA guidelines using at least 3 peer reviewed sources.
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