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Raspberry Pi Foundation DDoS Attack

E Crime The perfect ‘E Crime’ – The Raspberry Pi Foundation Assessment: The perfect ‘E Crime’ – The Raspberry Pi Foundation Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Aim 1.2 Methodology 1.3 Justification 2 What is E-Crime? 2.1 Types of E-Crime? 3 The Raspberry Pi Foundation 4 The Attack 5 DoS attacks 5.1 DDoS attacks 5.2 Botnets 5.3 Protocol Attack 5.4 SYN Flood 6 Tools 6.1 High orbit ion cannon 6.1.1 High Orbit Ion Cannon Capabilities 6.2 Apache Killer 7 Defending DDoS 7.1 DDoS Defence System 7.2 DDoS Defence System Benefits 8 Example of a DoS attack 8.1 DoSing a website 8.1.1 The Result 9 Possible Perpetrators 9.1 Threat Agents 9.2 Who are the perpetrators? 10 Conclusion 11 References Figure 1 – DDoS Attack Figure 2 – High Orbit Ion Cannon Figure 3 – Apache Killer Figure 4 – DDoS Defence System Figure 5 – Command Prompt Figure 6 – Low Orbit Ion Cannon ready Figure 7 – Low Orbit Ion Cannon attacking Figure 8 – Low Orbit Ion Cannon URL Figure 9 – Result of a successful DoS on a website 1 Introduction In this report the information will be based around a case study of an e crime against a SME (small-medium enterprise) that has taken place during the past 10 years. The story that has been chosen is the Raspberry Pi Foundation that was hit by DDoS attack on the 7th march 2013. The report will then explain how a cyber-criminal might have conducted this particular crime and try to assess the method and processes they might have used, including the tools, both hardware and software. While discussing tools, the report will show an example of how the tools are used to commit the crimes used from the story. The report will also show how you can defend systems from the attack that was chosen. 1.1 Aim The aim of this report is to demonstrate an understanding of cyber-attacks that are used against small, medium enterprises, and the tools (software and hardware) they use to be able to carry out these attacks. 1.2 Methodology This report was compiled utilising secondary resources, including a variety of books obtained from the library, as well as internet sources such as website’s and PDF’s. 1.3 Justification E-Crime Wales have documented that a Denial of service attack is one of the most common types of E-crime. (E-Crime Wales, 2012) Denial of service attack was chosen because it’s one of the most common e-Crimes out there, it is also probably one of the easiest attacks to perform, the tools used for this type of are attack are freely available to find and download, easy to use and very powerful. The company chosen was a SME and the attack was done in the last ten years. 2 What is E-Crime? E-Crime is a criminal activity where a computer or computer network is the source, tool, target, or place of a crime. E-Crime is not necessarily just for computing purposes; E-Crime’s can also be crimes such as – fraud, theft, blackmail, forgery and embezzlement. E-Crime is quite difficult to become aware of and also punish because of how difficult it is, and also because attackers are able to hack victims thousands of miles away. Due to E-Crime getting a lot bigger and technology is becoming more advanced, new threats are rising very quickly and are also quite difficult for companies and people to react to them. (E-Crime Wales, 2011) 2.1 Types of E-Crime? According to the UK Government, around 87% of small businesses were victims of a security incident in 2013 up 10% and the average cost of a company’s worst incident was £35,000 – £65,000 (Gov, 2013) In Wales alone it is estimated that attacks from e-criminals cost the economy around one billion. This includes financial loss, interruption of business, theft of valuable data, identity theft and a lot more caused by unauthorized access to systems. (Prior, N, 2013) Types of E-Crime are as follows: Hardware Theft Identity Theft Phishing Pharming Malware Virus’s Cyber Terrorism 3 The Raspberry Pi Foundation The Raspberry Pi Foundation is charity that was founded in 2006 which is supported by the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory and Broadcom. The charity is there to promote computer science in schools, and is the developer of the single board computer the Raspberry Pi. In 2011, the Raspberry Pi Foundation developed a single-board computer named the Raspberry Pi. The Foundation’s goal was to offer two versions, priced at around £30. The Foundation started accepting orders for the higher priced model on 29 February 2012. (Raspberry,FAQ, 2009) 4 The Attack The main attack was the third attack of out of seven days. The foundation was attacked on the afternoon of the 3rd march, where the site was disrupted for about an hour. The foundation was then again attacked two days later on the 5th march, but nothing happened and the attackers gave up after a few hours, finally on the evening of 7th March 2013, the Raspberry Pi Foundation website was attacked by a nasty Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. The servers where hit by a SYN flood, a botnet that contained around 1 million nodes. This caused the website to become very slow, especially the forum pages. The website was also down for a few hours. This attack proved to be the worst out of the three attempts. 5 DoS attacks DoS refers to “Denial of service” attack. A DoS attack is an attack that can make a web resource unavailable to its users by flooding the target URL with more requests than the server can handle. That means that regular traffic on the website will be either slowed down or completely interrupted. (Bull Guard, 2012) 5.1 DDoS attacks DDos refers to “distributed denial of service” attack. A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is a DoS attack that comes from more than one source at the same time. A DDoS attack is generated using thousands can be up to hundreds of thousands of zombie machines. The machines used in such attacks are known as “botnets” in this attack there were around one million nodes in the botnet. The botnets are normally infected with malicious software, so they can be remotely controlled by the attacker. Attackers usually create the denial-of-service by either consuming server bandwidth or impairing the server itself. Targets are normally web servers, DNS servers, application servers, routers, firewalls and Internet bandwidth. (Verisign, 2012) Figure 1 – DDoS Attack 5.2 Botnets Criminals use bots to infect large numbers of computers. These computers form a network, or a botnet. Criminals use botnets to send out spam email messages, spread viruses, attack computers and servers, and commit other kinds of crime and fraud. If a computer becomes part of a botnet, then the computer might slow down and maybe unintentionally be helping criminals. (E-CrimeWales, 2011) 5.3 Protocol Attack The attack used against the raspberry pi foundation was a SYN flood from a botnet. This is called a protocol attack. Protocol attacks include attacks such as SYN floods, fragmented packet attacks ETC. These types of attacks target server resources, firewalls and load balancers, and is measured in Packets per second. 5.4 SYN Flood A SYN flood DDoS attack exploits a weakness in the TCP connection sequence which is known as the three way handshake, SYN requests to start a TCP connection with a host must be answered by a SYN-ACK response from that host, and then confirmed by an ACK (ACKnowledge) response from the requester. In a SYN flood attack, the requester sends multiple SYN requests, but sometimes it doesn’t respond to the host’s SYN-ACK response, or sends the SYN requests from a spoofed IP address. Either way, the host system continues to wait for acknowledgement, binding resources until no new connections can be made, and then resulting in a denial of service attack. (Incapsula, 2012) 6 Tools 6.1 High orbit ion cannon Figure 2 – High Orbit Ion Cannon (Breeden, J, 2012) The High Orbit Ion Cannon is a tool used mainly by anonymous but also used by other hacktivists. The High Orbit Ion Cannon is an upgrade of the Low Orbit Ion Cannon, but it seems that the High Orbit Ion Cannon is mainly used to just DoS websites instead of servers, which you can do on the Low Orbit Ion Cannon. The High Orbit Ion Cannon is able to use custom scripts to target more than just a website’s home page. Instead of visiting the site from a fake user, the High Orbit Ion Cannon targets sub-pages. So the attackers try to visit the welcome page, help pages, article pages and anything else a victim site has to offer. This method prevents some firewalls from recognising that the website is being attacked. Even if they do detect what’s happening, they will have trouble shutting down because the software is sending multiple fake users to multiple pages within a domain. (Breeden, J, 2012) The High Orbit Ion Cannon is really not that powerful for single users if they want to attack a big organisation, Anonymous say at least 50 people need to attack a big organisation in order to take the website down. In this instance a single user could of used this type of tool to bring down the Raspberry Pi Foundation website for a few hours, mainly because the Foundation wouldn’t have (or very little) Anti DDoS software to have been able to stop the attack. (Breeden, J, 2012) 6.1.1 High Orbit Ion Cannon Capabilities High-speed multi-threaded HTTP Flooding Simultaneously flood up to multiple websites at once Scripted Boosters to handle DDoS counter measures and increase DoS output. Generating Multiple HTTP Header to create the genuine traffic flow scenario. (Avkash, K, 2012) 6.2 Apache Killer Figure 3 – Apache Killer (Expert Hacker Home, 2012) Apache killer is a DDOS/DOS tool written in Perl which sends HTTP get requests with multiple byte ranges, these byte rangesoccupya wide variety of portions in the memory space. Byte Range helps browsers or downloading applications to download required parts of files. This helps reduce bandwidth usage. While the script sends dozens of unsorted components in the request header to cause the apacheserver to malfunction. (Rafayhackingarticles, 2012) If the attack is successful the results can be devastating and can end up in rendering the original operating system unusable only if the requests are sent parallel. (Hoffman, S, 2011). 7 Defending DDoS There are a number of ways to defend against DDoS attacks: Black-holing or sinkholing: This approach blocks all traffic and diverts it to a black hole, where it is discarded. The downside is that all traffic is discarded good and bad, packet-filtering and rate-limiting measures simply shut everything down, denying access to legitimate users. (ComputerWorld Inc, 2004) Routers and firewalls: Routers can be configured to stop simple ping attacks by filtering nonessential protocols and can also stop invalid IP addresses. However, routers are pretty much useless against a more sophisticated spoof attack and application-level attacks using valid IP addresses. Firewalls can shut down a specific flow associated with an attack, but like routers, they can’t perform anti-spoofing. (ComputerWorld Inc, 2004) 7.1 DDoS Defence System Figure 4 – DDoS Defence System (Coreo Network Security, 2012) The DDoS Defence System (DDS) prevents DDoS attacks from crippling firewalls, intrusion prevention systems (IPS), switches and targeted web and DNS servers. It stops all types of DDoS attacks and maintains full availability without effecting performance. DDS provides maximum protection for critical IT assets while allowing full access to legitimate users and applications. (Coreo Network Security, 2012) DDS detects and blocks all forms of DDoS attacks, including: Application layer Network layer flooding Specially crafted exploits Reflective Outbound attacks 7.2 DDoS Defence System Benefits Detects and mitigates both traditional network-layer DDoS attacks and more advanced application-layer attacks Protects your network, allowing legitimate communications to pass without delay provides automated real-time defence against identified DDoS attack sources 8 Example of a DoS attack The following attack was performed in a virtual environment using DoS and DDoS software. In the example the DoS tool that was used was the Low Orbit Ion Cannon and Windows server 2008. Figure 5 – Command Prompt As you can see in figure 5, it shows a simple IPconfig command to show the IP address for the attack. Figure 6 – Low Orbit Ion Cannon ready In Figure 6 you can see that the Low Orbit Ion Cannon is ready to set off. As you can see the Server 2008 IP address has been locked on ready for it to be DoS’ed. Just underneath the address you can see the speed of the attack, the faster it is the more requests that are sent to the server, underneath that it then shows the method, port, thread and timeout for the attack. Figure 7 – Low Orbit Ion Cannon attacking As from figure 6 you can see all the things are the same and ready to go. After clicking “IMMA CHARGIN MAH LAZER” you can see the attack is working by looking at the bottom of Figure 7 where it is showing the number of requests being sent. That number was just after around one minute of the server being attacked, so the amount requested would be a lot higher after around five minutes time which would probably be enough time. The purpose of Dos’ing a server is so that it stops any requests to that server, it sends multiple fake requests to the server stopping anything else being connected to it. 8.1 DoSing a website Figure 8 – Low Orbit Ion Cannon URL The Low Orbit Ion Cannon can also be used to DoS a website, by simply typing in the website you want to DoS in the URL tab, click lock on and then fire the cannon. The purpose of DoSing a website is by flooding the target URL with more requests than the server can handle causing the website to crash and to be temporarily unavailable. 8.1.1 The Result Figure 9 – Result of a successful DoS on a website If a DoS/DDoS attack is successful on a website then this is normally what you’ll see when you try to access the website, the DoS attack has clearly crashed the website and caused it to offline. 9 Possible Perpetrators The Possible perpetrators could be a number of people or organised crime. Even though there is no evidence from the foundation on who was behind the attack or the location it came. 9.1 Threat Agents The possible threat agents that could have been behind this attack are as follows Employees Government agencies Hacktivists groups e.g. Anonymous Organised criminals 9.2 Who are the perpetrators? From conducting the research there is no evidence of who was behind the attack and where that attack had come from. Looking at the possible threat agents it’s very unlikely that the attack could of come from a government agency or a type of hacktivist group such as anonymous, Lulzsec etc, if the attack came from one of them two types of threat agents the attack could have been a lot more sophisticated and could have caused a lot more damage. The Raspberry Pi Foundation quote that the attacker was probably “ an angry confused kid” which is easy to believe considering the attack was attempted multiple times throughout that week, but its possible that the attack may not be linked to the same person, it could also be the same attacker with help from others to make sure the attack was successful or it could have been another attacker. The foundation says that the attack was probably for financial gain but there is no comment of any data being stolen. 10 Conclusion Throughout the report it shows how frightening it is that any sorts of hacker or hacktivist group are willing to attack anyone. It’s scary to think that even charity websites are vulnerable to attacks. Looking at this attack the foundation is lucky that it wasn’t attacked by a bigger threat agent from a hacktivist group which could have caused a lot more damage. The report also shows how easy it is to get your hands on the tools that are commonly used, how easy they are to use and how powerful they actually are. The examples of the attacks show how powerful the tools can be, the Low Orbit Ion Cannon sends a high amount of requests to servers and websites in a short space of time. 11 References Raspberry, FAQ. (2009). About Us. Available: Last accessed 19/03/2014. E-Crime Wales. (2011). What is e-Crime?. Available: Last accessed 17/03/2014. Breeden, J. (2012). Hacker’s new firepower adds firepower to DDOS. Available: Last accessed 18/03/2014. Expert, Hacker Home. (2012). Latest Methods of DDoS attacks. Available: Last accessed 18/03/2013. E-Crime, Wales. (2011). Botnets Explained. Available: Last accessed 26/03/2014. Coreo Network Security. (2012). How to stop DDoS Attacks. Available: Last accessed 27/03/2014. ComputerWorld Inc. (2004). How to defend against DDoS attacks. Available: Last accessed 27/03/2014. Bull Guard. (2012). What are DoS and DDoS attacks?. Available: Last accessed 20/03/2014. Verisign. (2012). What is a DDoS attacks?. Available: Last accessed 20/03/2014. Incapsula. (2012). DDoS Attack Types. Available: Last accessed 20/03/2014. rafayhackingarticles. (2012). Apache Killer. Available: Last accessed 23/03/2014. Hoffman, S. (2011). Apache Killer Tool Exploits DoS Flaw. Available: Last accessed 23/03/2014. Avkash, K. (2012). High Orbit Vs Low Orbit. Available Last accessed 23/03/2014. E-Crime Wales. (2012). Denial of Service. Available: Last accessed 20/03/2013. Prior, N. (2013). Wales E-Crime. Available: Last accessed 30/03/2014 Gov. (2013). Small Business Breaches. Available: Last accessed 30/03/2014. 1
Grand Canyon University Implementation of Long Term Oxygen Therapy Discussion.

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*** Make a Comment***Practice change that resulted from research efforts was oxygen use in patients with COPD. Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) at home has been demonstrated to improve survival in patients with COPD and severe resting hypoxemia. These results form the basis for reimbursement and prescription of LTOT to this day. Recent work has demonstrated no outcome benefit of LTOT in stable COPD patients with moderate desaturation at rest or during activity. Oxygen therapy during activity and exercise has been shown to alleviate symptoms and maintain arterial oxygen saturation, but not improve long-term outcomes. Oxygen therapy in COPD has a number of physiologic, functional, and biologic effects, not all of which are completely understood. Oxygen therapy in exacerbations of COPD can be both helpful and harmful. Some barriers that may appear during the implementations of practice change effort are:Individual barriers like lack of nursing knowledge, skills and awareness regarding changes, lack of professional characteristics. Organizational barriers like limited organization resources, lack of support and supervision, lack of time, lack of training and education.
Grand Canyon University Implementation of Long Term Oxygen Therapy Discussion

IND 301 Excelsior Outdoor Spaces to Connect Children with Natural World Research.

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Final ProjectOver the last six modules, you built toward this culminating moment: the submission of your final project. This week you will be drafting a research paper of 6-7 pages (approximately 1500-1750 words) that builds on your previous Milestone work. Use the Final Project Template for an example of how to create and format your final paper.Begin by reading pages 7.8-7.13 in the webtext before beginning this assignment.Step 1: Reflect on Previous Milestone Feedback and Make AdjustmentsEach week after you submitted a Milestone assignment, your instructor
provided you with feedback, often including suggestions for
improvement. Take stock of that feedback and incorporate it. This might
mean adjusting the wording of your thesis statement, replacing a source,
fixing errors in your APA formatting, rewriting your introduction, or
rethinking your organization of paragraphs. In addition to your
instructor’s feedback, make sure to use your peer’s feedback on
Milestone 5 as well – what suggestions did they have to improve your
introduction and outline? Did they understand your argument and if not,
how can you communicate it more clearly?Step 2: Use Your Outline to Draft Your PaperUsing your Milestone 5 outline, begin to flesh out each of your body
paragraphs by adding evidence from your sources that support your thesis
(along with proper in-text citations for ideas or quotes from your
sources). Make sure to include transitions between paragraphs and wrap
up your paper with a conclusion paragraph that reiterates your thesis
argument and offers some concluding thoughts.Step 3: Review and Edit Your WorkOnce you have a full draft written, make sure to re-read it carefully
with an eye on the details like spelling, grammar, punctuation,
sentence clarity, and word choice. Go back to the Writing Refresher
section of the course for help with any weak areas of your writing. Try
reading it aloud to catch errors you might otherwise miss in print.Step 4: Submit to the Canvas and Review Your Turnitin Report. Make Changes If Needed and Resubmit.As you learned in Module 4, Excelsior uses Turnitin
in the Canvas dropbox as a learning tool for students. Plan to submit
to the dropbox a few days early if you can so you have time to review
your Turnitin report and similarity score. If your score comes back
high, revise your content to make sure you are using original writing,
citing ideas from others, and properly putting the exact words of others
in quotation marks.Note: you can resubmit to the dropbox up until the
due date for this assignment, which is Sunday night at 11:59 pm ET of
Module 7. After that due date has passed, your most recent submission is
considered final.Resources
Final Project Template (Word document)Writing RefresherSubmission Instructions: Submit a completed 6-7 page (approx. 1500-1750
words) research paper on your topic choice made in Module 1 that
incorporates your work from Milestones 1-6. Use the Final Project Template for an example of how to create and format your final paper.It should include:At least 5 referencesA title page and reference page in APA styleIn-text citations in APA formatAn introductory paragraph with your clear, one-sentence thesis statement (this should NOT be underlined at this point)Body paragraphs that use information from the sources as evidence to prove the thesis statementA conclusion paragraph that offers final thoughts and reiterates the thesis statementProper spelling, syntax, and grammarImprovements based on your instructor’s feedback on your previous
milestone work (i.e. to the thesis statement, introduction,
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IND 301 Excelsior Outdoor Spaces to Connect Children with Natural World Research

4-2 Scenario Analysis: Cars Sold Assignment

4-2 Scenario Analysis: Cars Sold Assignment.

A finance manager employed by an automobile dealership believes that
the number of cars sold in his local market can be predicted by the
interest rate charged for a loan.

Interest Rate (%)
Number of Cars Sold (100s)





The finance manager performed a regression analysis of the number of
cars sold and interest rates using the sample of data above. Shown below
is a portion of the regression output.

Regression Statistics

Multiple R




Interest Rate

Are there factors other than interest rate charged for a loan that
the finance manager should consider in predicting future car sales?
Is interest rate charged for a loan the most important factor to be
considered in predicting future car sales? Explain your reasoning.The
dealership’s vice-president of marketing has requested a sales forecast
at the prevailing interest rate of 7%.
As finance manager, what reasons would you convey to the vice-president in recommending this forecasting model?
Is the prediction of car sales at 7% a reflection of the current
downturn in the economy? How might this impact the dealership’s
4-2 Scenario Analysis: Cars Sold Assignment

AUHS Sony Playstation & Microsoft Xbox Brand Personality Analysis Essay

online assignment help AUHS Sony Playstation & Microsoft Xbox Brand Personality Analysis Essay.

Provide an in depth discussion around the branding elements of two competitors – Microsoft Xbox and Sony PlayStation. Section 1 (4 pages) Sony PlayStation as a header. Each brand element (8 see below) as a subheader. Section 2 (4 pages) Microsoft Xbox as a header. Each brand element (8 see below) as a subheader.Also discuss the following questions for each competitor: 1. How strong are the companies’ brands in the market? 2. What are the factors contributing to their strengths and weaknesses? 3. How are these two brands competing against each other? How strong is their global performance?4. How do consumers perceive their brands?5. Are there any sub-brands? Are there any brand extensions?THE BRAND ELEMENTS: 1. Brand Personality2. Brand Image3.Brand Identity4.Brand Differentiation5. Brand Positioning6.Brand Communication7. Brand Loyalty8. Brand Equity (INCLUDING financial equity)Also, include a one page table in an appendix that compares the two brands. Lastly, provide your recommendation if another tech company should consider competing with Xbox and PlayStation and your rationale for your recommendation. References should be in APA format. Please do not use any blogs or wikipedia. at least 2 scholarly articles and other non scholarly reputable sources, such as Yahoo Finance, Forbes, the company websites, etc
AUHS Sony Playstation & Microsoft Xbox Brand Personality Analysis Essay

UF Digital Transformation and Cyber Security During Covid 19 Discussion

UF Digital Transformation and Cyber Security During Covid 19 Discussion.

Assignment 1 (Current Event)***Instructions are below but I can choose an article to summarize and make it easier for you***Students will be required to read a current event/news about Privacy, latest cases about privacy violations, or related topic and write a summary. The paper will allow the students to get familiar with current threats, trends and security risks, and the challenges of managing the information systems that help assure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. You are encouraged to respond creatively, but you must cite credible sources to support your work.You should write two separate sections subtitled Summary and Analysis, together not exceeding two pages in length. As the name suggests, the first should summarize the source. The second should describe both its potential business impact and why you consider it significant.There are many excellent sources of current news about the topics covered in the class. They include, but are not limited to, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Business Week, CIO, Information Week, Fortune, Wired, Inc., Fast Company, Computerworld, etc., all widely available in the libraries and on the Internet. Alternatively, you may select an article from a journal, which covers these issues, such as Sloan Management Review, Harvard Business Review, California Management Review, etc. and certainly from any of the other relevant journals and magazines.This assignment may NOT contain more than 20% of its content quoted from another source.Submission Requirements:· Format: Microsoft Word or PDF· Font: Arial 12-point, double-spaced
· Citation Style: Follow APA style guide· Length: 4 pages (Not including title of the references page)· Must include:o Titleo Overall Introductiono Summaryo A paragraph with your own conclusiono References
UF Digital Transformation and Cyber Security During Covid 19 Discussion

COUC 504 Liberty University Acculturation Level & Cultural Identity Development Essay

COUC 504 Liberty University Acculturation Level & Cultural Identity Development Essay.

Individual Encounter and Synthesis You will conduct an in-depth, 1-hour interview with an individual or married couple from your selected cultural group in order to develop an understanding of the cultural factors that helped shape that individual’s or couple’s cultural identity. A variety of issues may be explored in the interview. The knowledge you gained from the Research and Events parts of the Cultural Immersion Project as well as your sense of the person/couple you interview will guide you in how personal you can get with your questions. Cultural groups and individuals vary on how private they are. Use their feedback regarding what areas you can probe. If the person is very open, go deeper. If not, respect that cultural boundary and ask yourself why that boundary is there. Issues that you may wish to explore during the interview include, but are not limited to, the following: Early childhood experiences and parental values;Earliest memories of recognizing membership in a culturally different group;The role of religion/spirituality;Immigration experiences;Similarities/differences between couples’ interactions in the U.S. to couples’ interactions in the individual’s culture;School experiences as a member of a cultural minority;Experiences with subtle racism or discrimination;Experiences with overt racism or discrimination;Ways the person/couple chose his/her/their career(s) or made career choices;The experience of being culturally different;Attitudes regarding the majority culture;Extent of desire to assimilate majority cultural attitudes, values, and lifestyles;Feelings of oppression;Feelings of anger toward majority culture;From the person’s/couple’s own cultural background, any potential racist attitudes toward or stereotyping of individuals from other particular cultures; and/orStrengths identified from the person’s/couple’s cultural background that help him/her/them cope with living in the U.S. Once your interview is complete, you will answer the questions listed below. First person may be used in your answers, and you must observe correct and current APA style. The paper must have a correct title page, and you must use a reference page (no abstract is needed). A word estimate is beside each question; however, the quality of your answer is more important than the word count. You may expand further, but you do not have to do so. In addition, your paper must be supported by at least 2 scholarly sources, and at least 2 internet and/or media sources, used in project part 1. It is recommended that you use the following questions as level 1 headings to organize your paper (you can shorten the question into a level 1 heading/title). A template is provided for this assignment to help with APA formatting and organization.
COUC 504 Liberty University Acculturation Level & Cultural Identity Development Essay

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