Get help from the best in academic writing.

Rasmussen Protein Energy Malnutrition Classification and Evolution Research Paper

Rasmussen Protein Energy Malnutrition Classification and Evolution Research Paper.

Nutrition plays a vital role in a person’s overall health and well-being. Not getting enough of the recommended nutrients over the long-term can lead to malnutrition which often results in disease and illness.In a 3-page paper, written in APA format using proper spelling/grammar, address the following:Define malnutrition and identify a specific disease that can result from it.Perform library research about the selected disease, and explain its physiological effects on a person’s body. Describe the relationship between specific foods/nutrients and the disease. Use the questions below to guide your response.Does research indicate that a lack of specific foods/nutrients increase a person’s chance of contracting the disease?Are there specific foods/nutrients that should be avoided by an individual afflicted with the disease?How do specific foods/nutrients work physiologically within the body to help combat the disease?Evaluate nutritional recommendations to help combat the disease.Cite at least 3 credible references and present the resources in APA format on the References page.For information about the impact of diseases on body systems and assessing the credibility of resources, consult the resources below.How do I know if a source is credible? I need to find information about a disease and the body system it impacts.Submit your completed assignment to the drop box below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document. (Mac users, please remember to append the “.docx” extension to the filename.) The name of the file should be your first initial and last name, followed by an underscore and the name of the assignment, and an underscore and the date. An example is shown below:Jstudent_exampleproblem_101504Need Help? Click here for complete drop box instructions.
Rasmussen Protein Energy Malnutrition Classification and Evolution Research Paper

Table of Contents Crisis Communication Conflict Management Risk Management, Experience and Training Conclusion References American health care organizations face unique challenges presented by crises and conflicts that pose risk to the attainment of the organization’s goals (Borkowski, 2011). Conflicts arise out of stressful and emotional encounters and form a natural part of relationships. Conflicts are necessary for organizational growth depending on their management. In hospitals, the unexpected is always arising and personnel are always dealing with life-and-death issues that require most immediate actions and there are no provisions second trials. Health care organizations are social systems that involve people interacting with each other to preserve the health and personal integrity of patients. Damaging crises may befall hospitals at any time. Disasters like staff-related disgrace immediately put the specific hospital on the limelight. Crisis communication determines the impact of the crisis on a health care organization. Crisis communication and response have a large significance in restoring the organization’s status and their effectiveness depends on skills of the crisis communicators and their understanding of crisis management (Braun, Wlneman, Finn, Barbera, Schmaltz,

An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 1.7 ✕ 106 m/s in a magn

An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 1.7 ✕ 106 m/s in a magn.

An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 1.7 ✕ 106 m/s in a magnetic field when it is moving southward. The force is upward and of magnitude 2.5 ✕ 10-12 N. What are the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field?
An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 1.7 ✕ 106 m/s in a magn

St Petersburg Foreign Direct Investments in China and the United States Discussion

order essay cheap St Petersburg Foreign Direct Investments in China and the United States Discussion.

I’m working on a business writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

Research a current event on FDI (i.e. newspaper article or other publication dated within the past 12 months , must be available publicly online) that illustrates a concept from this week’s lesson. Be sure to use credible sources for this current event.·Write an essay illustrating the lesson concept and explaining how it connects to your current event. This original post must contain a minimum of 300 words. All statements in the post that are not general knowledge should be cited to their source. Be sure to clearly relate the current event to the lesson concepts. . All citations should be in APA format with a reference listing at the bottom of the post in APA format (be sure to include a link to the website of your current event in the reference listing
St Petersburg Foreign Direct Investments in China and the United States Discussion

Strategic Planning in the Australian Coffee market

Industry/Market definition The Australian Coffee Industry comprises all the firms that offer products for sale that are derived from coffee beans. There are pure coffee products, ie whole and ground coffee beans, and instant coffee products. Each kind of product has its own target market. A market is “the set of all actual and potential buyers of a product” (Kotler et al 1998, p885). The pure coffee market consists of all the actual and potential buyers of whole or ground coffee beans. The instant coffee market consists of all the actual and potential buyers of instant coffee. For the purposes of this assignment, I will focus on the instant coffee market in Australia. Part1 Macroenvironment The marketing environment within which a company operates is dynamic. Its consists of a microenvironment, and a macroenvironment. The microenvironment is “the forces close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers.” The macroenvironment is “the larger societal forces that affect the whole microenvironment,” (Kotler et al 1998, pp885-886) The macroenvironment consists of six types of forces: demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural forces. A company’s marketing strategy must take into account changes and trends in these environments that can present opportunities or pose threats. A successful firm is one that regularly modifies it marketing mix and strategies to adapt to these changes (Czinkota et al 2000, p17). Below I will outline the six macroenvironmental forces, and how they may affect the instant coffee market in Australia. Demographic environment Demographics are the “study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, sex, race, occupations and other statistics” (Kotler et al 1998, p105). The demographic environment consists of all the aforementioned demographic variables, and their ability to affect the Australian instant coffee market. The importance of the demographic environment lies in the fact that all demand for a product derives ultimately from people (Cannon 1998, p41). Kotler et al (1998, p113) noted that demographic developments have “transformed the Australian marketplace from a mass market into more fragmented micro-markets differentiated by age, sex, geography, lifestyle, ethic background, education and other factors.” Recent demographic trends in Australia are a better-educated and more white-collar population, increasing ethnic diversity, and changing age structures. The implications of such changes are that organisations must now design products and marketing programs for the specific micro-markets they wish to target. While all demographic variables have the potential to affect the instant coffee market in Australia, the area of particular significance is the emergence of ethnic micro-markets. Ethnic communities now make up a significant – and growing – part of the Australian population, who have clear product and brand preferences (Bradmore et al 1997, p88). Thus, there is now demand for a wider variety of coffee styles to suit ethnic tastes, which requires the development of new products and marketing strategies. For example, since ninety-five percent of all coffee drunk by Italians is espresso, (Barton 2000), many companies have developed instant espresso products. Economic environment The economic environment consists of the “factors that affect consumer buying power and spending patterns” (Kotler et al 1998, p113). Factor include income and employment levels, inflation levels, savings and credit conditions, the value of the Australian dollar and so on. This aspect of the macroenvironment is important to the Australian instant coffee market, as it is to any market, because consumers must have the purchasing power to back up their desire for the products. However, since non-price factors, such as branding, are a significant basis for competition for coffee products (IBIS World 2000, p8), changes in retail coffee prices will not have a huge effect on the market share of any one manufacturer. Despite that, economic factors that do affect the Australian coffee market include the value of the Australian dollar. Virtually all coffee beans are imported, and their prices vary with changes in the relative exchange rates (IBIS World 2000, p15). A low value of the Australian dollar, as is the present case, drives up input prices for manufacturers, which may be passed onto consumers. Furthermore, the Association of Coffee Producing Countries, which accounts for three quarters of world coffee-bean production, has announced plans to restrict the output of beans, which would mean it could control prices (Crawford 2000, p1). The effect of this possible price control is not yet known, but it could drive smaller manufacturers out of the market if the price increases are too high. Also, another issue is the level of disposable income of Australians. With an increase in income, consumers are increasingly likely to purchase higher quality products rather than to simply purchase more. Thus there is a growing market for higher quality and priced instant coffee. As noted in the IBIS World Report for C2179 Food Manufacturing, “higher income facilitated the successful introduction of specialty…coffee products.” (IBIS World 2000, p7). The GST is not applicable to coffee products, but GST on pure coffee products served at commercial premises could increase the market potential for instant coffee. Natural environment The natural environment concerns the “natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities” (Kotler et al 1998, p116). Today, there is a growing awareness of the need to preserve our planet, and that includes the need to protect our natural environment from the potentially harmful affects of industrial activities. Since coffee producers make use of the natural environment, there is a potential for this aspect of the macroenvironment to be quite significant to the Australian coffee industry. Consumers, more than ever, are beginning to boycott products that have been manufactured in such a way as to damage the environment. This is putting pressure on manufactures to ensure all procedures are environmentally friendly, or risk losing market share. Such issues that involve coffee manufacturing are the use of pesticides and chemicals, pollution from manufacturing plants, excessive water use in the production stage, and the effect of farming the land in regard to future erosion and depletion of natural minerals. Also, the supply and price of coffee beans to the Australian Coffee market is at the mercy of the natural elements. The IBIS World (2000, p27) Industry Report stated that “coffee bean prices are forecast to increase sharply…(as)…the result of poor seasonal conditions in Central America and low stocks.” Technological environment The technological environment is the “forces that affect new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities” (Kotler et al 1998, p889). Since coffee was discovered in around 1000AD (Nescafé 2000), the methods used to grow, harvest, process and manufacture coffee products has certainly evolved. The use of irrigation systems, fertilisers, machinery in the harvest process, and the introduction of automated, computer controlled equipment (in Australian processing plants) has raised efficiency and, in many cases, has also improved product quality (IBIS World 2000, p25). However, the most recent influential forces concern advances in manufacturing processes, and developments of new coffee machines for home use. New technologies had made it possible for Australian instant coffee manufacturers to produce a wider range of products, of higher quality. For example, Nescafé have recently introduced a new instant Café Latte range, and also new instant Espresso. Also, using freeze-dried technology, instant coffee has a significantly longer shelf life than any product in the pure coffee market, which is a significant advantage. However, over the past few decades, the development of inexpensive coffee perculators and plungers has increased the attractiveness of pure coffee products, often at the expense of the instant coffee market. For example, Melitta House of Coffee recently introduced a coffee maker that makes 10-15 cups of coffee as quickly as boiling a jug. Lastly, the advent Internet shopping is allowing consumers to make purchases on-line, and from foreign suppliers, thus posing a threat to the size and profitability of the Australian coffee market. Political environment The political environment consists of the “laws, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and limit various organisations and individuals in the society” (Kotler et al 1998, p887). Like in all markets, organisations that operate in the Australian instant coffee market are subject to laws that regulate virtually all aspects of their business, including such areas as food and health safety, pollution emissions, and advertising and labelling requirements. However, the political environment does not have large impact on the Australian coffee market. Cultural environment The cultural environment consists of the “institutions and forces that affect society’s basic values, perceptions and behaviours” (Kotler et al 1998, p882). Changes in Australian culture, and the emergence of varied sub-cultures can have a large impact on the instant coffee market in Australia. As Hugh Mackay, chairman of Mackay Research Pty Ltd stated: “Anyone who is serious about communicating with contemporary Australians…needs to understand the most contemporary trends in attitudes and behaviour.” (Bradmore et al 1997, p62) Recent trends in Australia that are having a particular affect on the instant coffee market are the redefinition of health and associated anxieties about diet, fitness and stress, and the recent emergence of a young Australian coffee culture. Australians are, more than ever, concerned about their health. There is a wealth of research linking caffeine to many ailments, and thus, this is increasing demand for the ‘healthy’ alternative – decaffeinated products. There is also the threat the consumers could boycott coffee products all together, and switch to another beverage, such as tea, which is well known for its positive health benefits. In addition, the market for all types of coffee is benefiting from an “era of coffee in Australia…A real coffee culture is growing.” (Miller 2000, p3) People are not only drinking more coffee, but becoming coffee connoisseurs. Coffee is no longer just a product, but a means of self-expression. As a society we are placing the emphasis on quality, not quantity, and as such consumers are buying more “exotic” instant coffees (Bannister 2000, p17). There has also been an emergence of many different subcultures. A subculture is a “group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences or situations (Kotler et al 1998, p123). Today, there is wide range of subcultures, particularly those based on nationalities, which is leading to demand for a wider variety of products. Part2 The marketing mix: How it is used by two companies to target the australian instant coffee market. There are many organisations that operate within the instant coffee market in Australia. Each company positions themselves with a unique marketing mix that is aimed at specific segments of the market. Kotler et al (1998, p57) defines the marketing mix as “the set of controllable marketing variables that the company blends to produce the response it wants in the target market.” The variables of the marketing mix are the ‘four Ps’: Product: “the ‘goods-and-service’ combination the company offers to the target market” (Kotler et al 1998, p57). Price: “the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the product” (Kotler et al 1998, p58). Place (Distribution): “involves company logistics and marketing activities concerned with the making and distributing the final product” (Kotler et al 1998, p58). Promotion: the “activities that communicate the merits of the product and persuade the target customers to buy it” (Kotler et al 1998, p58). This includes advertising, publicity, sales promotions, personal selling, direct marketing and sponsorship. I will focus on the marketing mix of Nescafé and of Robert Timms. Nescafé Nescafe products are produced by Nestle. Necafe holds a vary large share of the instant coffee market in Australia. Marketing mix outline Product There is a range of Nescafé products available (see Table 1 below). Price The prices of the Nescafé products have been listed in Table1: Nescafé products and price. Place (Distribution) The Nescafé product range is available in all large supermarket chains (Safeway, Coles etc). Smaller, independent grocers or stockists generally have a smaller range that would include Nescafé Blend 43. Promotion a variety of promotional techniques. This includes: Large scale advertising They advertise their products in a wide variety of print, broadcast and display media. Their most recent nation wide advertising campaigns were the “Open up with Nescafé” series, and the “Nescafé in the morning” series. Sales promotions Nescafé regularly runs contests that coincide with new product launches or advertising campaigns. Recent promotions were * “win $1000 every morning for a month” * “Win the Nescafé Latte Lounge” – to promote the new latte range Nescafé also use point of sale promotions, have cash-back offers, and have give-aways. Eg. a free Nescafé mug was given away with every purchase of 500g of Blend 43. The mug was the same type as that used in the ‘Nescafé in the morning’ advertisement series. Sponsorship: Nescafé sponsors the * “Nescafé Big Break” competition which will give away $180,000 to young people (aged 16-21) with original and achievable ideas. * “Nescafé Short Film Awards” – which offers a total of A$50,000 in cash awards to short film makers. There is a student category in this competition. Nescafé also has an Australian website (www.cafe43.com.au) where information on all products, competitions and events can be accessed. Marketing mix analysis Nescafé’s marketing mix is aimed at a large and varied segment of the instant coffee market. They could be considered the ‘Myer’ of the instant coffee industry. The most obvious segments of the market they target are: * Young adult café culture segment: They target this segment with their new latte range, along with the advertising, sales promotion and the competition to win the lounge seen in the advertisements. * Upscale, quality driven, higher income consumers: Their Nescafé Gold range, and exotic tastes such as Alta Rice are aimed towards such consumers, where the price and qaulity are higher than that of the general blends. * Middle-class consumer (no age target): Nescafé targets such a large segment with their Blend 43, Mild Roast and Espresso products. The consumer gets an economical benefit, as well as a quality product. Furthermore, Nescafé attempts to tap into the ethnic segment using their Espresso and exotic blends. In their advertisements for espresso, they use local Italian actor, Nick Giannopoulos. In general, since Nescafé has the largest range of instant coffee products in Australia, and has such a powerful brand name, they have a consumer franchise – they gain brand recognition and demand consumer loyalty. In particular, their most popular product, Nescafé Blend 43, is seen as the people’s coffee. In their advertisements, they use actors of varied age, gender, occupations and ethnicity. Robert Timms: Robert Timms is Australia’s oldest coffee company. It is the leader in the coffee bean market (Bannister 2000, p17), and has only entered the instant coffee market over the last couple of years. Marketing mix outline Product Robert Timms offers coffee bags (which work in the same manner as a tea bag) in four styles: Café Style Espresso Italian Style Espresso Mocha Kenya Style Royal Special The coffee bags are a mix of ground and instant coffee. They also have: * Presmoto: Gourmet Freeze Dried Coffee. * Molto: Gourmet Granulated Coffee Price Robert Timms coffee bags are sold in: * packs of 8 for $2.35, or * packs of 18 for $4.83 I was not able to find the price of Presmoto and Molto soluble coffee as I could not find an outlet that stocks it. Place Robert Timms coffee bags are available in all large supermarket chains, but sporadically in independent stores. I am not aware of where the gourmet soluble coffee can be purchased. It was not available in any large supermarket I have visited. Promotion Robert Timms has only begun extensive promotion since early 2000, after remaining relatively low in profile. They do not promote the coffee bags or gourmet instant coffee specifically, but rather they promote the brand name. Promotional tools used by Robert Timms are: Large scale advertising Robert Timms most recent nation wide advertising campaign was the “Think it over with Robert Timms” series, which is seen on broadcast, print and display media. Sponsorship Robert Timms is the official coffee supplier to the 2000 Olympic Games. Robert Timms also has a web site (www.reoberttimms.com). It mainly has information on the history of the company and it products. Marketing mix analysis Robert Timms positions itself in the instant coffee market as a provider of the very highest quality coffee products. The company prides itself on its heritage. As it states on its web-site: We are a dedicated group of Australians producing coffee, coffee related products and services that are comparable to the very best in the world. http://www.roberttimms.com/about/index.html Opens in a new window The company has targeted its instant coffee products to the high income, quality driven segment of the instant coffee market. The quality of their products is reflected in the prices, which are expensive, and the packaging, which uses the stylish combination of black and gold. Furthermore, through their role as official coffee supplier to the Olympics, they are also associating themselves with the pursuit of excellence and the Australian spirit. Their promotional campaign “Think it Over…with Robert Timmsâ„¢” creates a relaxed, yet sophisticated feel about the company and their products. The premise behind the campaign is best summed up on their web-site: Take some time out of your busy day to enjoy our coffee and you too can Think it Over…with Robert Timmsâ„¢’ Reflect on the day, make the right decision at work or just decide to relax. It’s up to you. http://www.roberttimms.com/think_it_over/index.html Opens in a new window Thus, while their marketing mix is targeted at high-income consumers who want high quality, they made sure they did not exclude a large share of the market by appearing overly elitist. Nescafé vs. Robert Timms The marketing mix of Nescafé and the marketing mix of Robert Timms are quite different. These differences reflect the different positioning of the two companies, and the segments of the market they were aiming to capture. Whereas Nescafe has targeted a larger percentage of the market, with quality but affordable products, Robert Timms has targeted a narrower segment with gourmet, expensive products. Generally, Robert Timms and Nescafé are no real direct threat to each other. While they do both compete in the high quality, gourmet end of the instant coffee market, Robert Timms is clearly the highest quality product, and consumers must pay for this. What Nescafé is offering is a more affordable alternative. Conclusion The instant coffee market in Australia is subject to the demographic, economic, political, cultural, natural and technological forces of the wider macroenvironment that it operates within. Each of these forces has the potential to change the marketing environment, and create opportunities and pose threats to the market and those who operate within it. What companies must do is monitor these environments to adapt its marketing mix accordingly. In the Australian instant coffee market, different companies have quite different marketing mixes, as can be seen when comparing Nescafé and Robert Timms. These differences do not mean that one is more effective than the other, but rather they reflect the different marketing strategies adopted by each company to capture the market segments they feel the company can best serve.

How did Napoleon Create and Maintain Power in ‘Animal Farm’

In George Orwell’s famous novel Animal Farm, Napoleon used many tools of propaganda to gain power and control over the farm. The sheep perhaps were his most important tools throughout the novel. They were, without doubt, a deciding factor in Napoleon’s rise to power. From the very start Napoleon had been an obvious leader among the pigs because he was well known for “getting things his own way”. By contributing to the various debates that took place in animal farm, he often received lots of attention from the animals. He also gained support from some animals that were too shy to express themselves; he connected with them and persuaded them to share his views. Hence, he became a representative of these animals. Napoleon also used propaganda in various situations to gain power. The sheep were the most susceptible to these methods and were a great help to his campaign. Snowball, the other pig who shared the position of leadership with him did not agree with him on many occasions. However, naturally he was a good speaker and could easily reach the animals minds and gain support with his speeches alone. So, Napoleon trained the liable sheep to start chanting their favourite slogan ‘four legs good, two legs bad’ at crucial parts of Snowball’s speeches to drown him out, which made it incredibly difficult for him to express his point of view to them. Because of this, Snowball could not gain much support which was exactly what Napoleon wanted. All Napoleon had to do was to put down Snowballs ideas to gain support as the animals could not be convinced by Snowball if they could not listen to him. Napoleon gained total control over animal farm through exiling Snowball. Regardless of Napoleon’s efforts, Snowball managed to get most of the animals support on the matter of the windmill. Napoleon knew Snowball was a great threat to his position. If Napoleon did not act soon, Snowball would soon become the undisputable leader of Animal Farm. So he got rid of this threat. Using the dogs he had secretly trained, he banished Snowball from the farm. Without Snowball around, Napoleon became the undisputed leader himself. He then banned the debates and told the animals they would follow orders instead. He did this so the animals would be powerless in any decisions made on the farm. Napoleon would be running the farm without anyone there to disagree with any decisions he made. He later sent Squealer to justify his actions. Squealer twists the truth with lies to confuse the animals to think Napoleon was right in exiling Snowball. Some phrases he uses are; “Do not imagine leadership is a pleasure” and “it is a deep and heavy responsibility” [1]. These make Napoleon seem sacrificial, which will help gain the animals’ sympathy. He also uses the animals’ fear of Jones coming back to persuade them that Napoleon is right. He creates power using many methods. Making the animals March past Old Major’s skull is reinforcing his leadership and also allies himself with the loved pig. It makes the animals respect the new leader as much as the old leader. In Napoleons’ speeches he uses the word ‘sacrifice’ and ‘own contribution’ to make the animals think that what they are doing is for a greater cause which convinces them to “sacrifice’ for the ‘greater good’. Napoleon uses Squealer to explain anything and everything to avoid making mistakes himself. Squealer uses complicated vocabulary which the simple-minded animals do not understand. When the animals protest, squealer quickly persuades them with help from the threat of violence from the dogs; it makes the animals stop with their complaints. The sheep are then used to ease the mood by bleating their slogan. It is then not possible for the animals to protest again. Throughout the novel, it becomes routine for the dogs to be seen in public with Napoleon to reinforce his power through violence. Napoleon also makes the animals work so hard that they are so tired and they forget how they are being turned into slaves by their leader Napoleon. They also have no time to consider rebelling against him. He does this by making the animals build the snowballs windmill that he considered useless when snowball thought of it. To explain this, he tells the animals that it was originally his idea. Napoleon exploit’s the animals’ weaknesses. When he changes the seven commandments to justify his actions, the animals are doubtful because they remember that the seven commandments were different. However Squealer tells them that they are wrong and it is just a figment of their imagination. The animals think that if napoleon says so then he must be right and so they let him get away with it. Napoleon is an opportunist. When he realises that he can turn a situation, whether good or bad, to his advantage, he does without a second thought about whom or what might have to be removed in order for him to succeed. For example, when the windmill collapses, he tells that Snowball destroyed it and turns the animals against him. From that point onwards he makes Snowball a scapegoat. Whenever something goes wrong, it is because of Snowball. This makes the animals feel that they are lucky to have Napoleon as a leader. It is also an easy way out as it keeps the animals from finding out who is really to blame. This reinforces Napoleon’s leadership position as he will not be blamed for anything that goes wrong and creates the vision that Napoleon’s is a perfect leader. With his decision regarding the timber, he uses Snowball to back him up. Since the animals are against him, the farm he is not selling to will have Snowball hiding there. This makes the animals support his decision. He maintains power through various means. By rarely appearing in public he makes it seem that he has more important matters than the animals and that they should be lucky when he does appear. Through the various killings, he eliminates anyone who is a likely threat to his leadership such as the four porkers. The others who are killed had always angered him in some way or form, such as the hens who decided to rebel; they were killed as a warning not to disobey him. At the same time, he further destroys Snowball’s reputation by making the animals confess that he was planning to kill napoleon. By using statistics, another form of lies, he convinces the naïve animals that the farm has grown and flourished under his rule, again making him appear an admirable leader. There are other methods he uses to maintain power. He is given tittles like ‘Protector of the sheepfold’ to make the animals see his acts of sacrifice and his birthday is celebrated which makes him appear like a god, as the animals must celebrate the day he was born to thank god for his birth. He even has a poem about his greatness inscribed on the wall with a portrait of him next to it just opposite the seven commandments. This makes him appear as powerful as the very principles of animalism. He is guarded by dogs and has a food taster so that he cannot be poisoned. He spreads rumours about the terrible state that the animals on other farms are kept to make the animals feel privileged to be in animal farm. He shows his ‘brilliance’ by letting the animals see the banknotes he traded for the timber. This shows the animals that there are many luxuries to be gained under napoleon’s rule. He makes everything seem like a victory to cover up his mistakes and to keep the animals from blaming him. An example would be the blowing up of the windmill. It makes the animals feel that although there was a ‘slight’ loss they still won. This can be seen when he uses the phrase “readjustments instead of reductions” [1] to make reducing of food seem not too bad. There are more celebrations to cover up the animals hunger and needs. Animal farm is also proclaimed as a republic, with Napoleon as its president to make it appear as if he is just watching over the animals and not controlling them. He allows Moses to remain when he returns as he spreads false hope which makes the animals continue labouring, hoping that if life is bad now, maybe one day, Moses’ stories might come true and life will be better. When Boxer, the highly respected horse and role model among the animals is taken away to be slaughtered, the animals are told that he received the best medical care available but was unable to be kept alive. Boxer’s death is then manipulated to Napoleon’s advantage. Napoleon tells the animals that Boxer’s last words were Napoleon is always right. Since this was one of Boxer’s favourite mottos, it is a likely lie. The animals then make this their own motto to respect their beloved Boxer. This works out incredibly well for Napoleon. Napoleon was a treacherous character and very much an opportunist of the worst kind. He used brilliance, cunning, treachery, propaganda and many other tools to gain, create and maintain power. Animal farm remained under his tyranny throughout the entire novel.