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Rasmussen College NoJax Inc Company Structure Analysis

Rasmussen College NoJax Inc Company Structure Analysis.

In your continued role as the organizational behavior consultant for NoJax Inc., you have now been tasked with analyzing the current structure of the business and how it’s impacting employee behaviors. Use the NoJax Company Background document attach below as a reference, and pay special attention to the policy and structure sections of the document. Write a report for senior management that provides observations on the overall structure of the business and the implications it may have on organizational behavior. Be sure your report addresses the following: Choose a minimum of three of the six organizational behavior structure characteristics (span of control, chain of command, etc.). Describe each in terms of how they’re used within NoJax’s structure, and provide an opinion about whether it has a positive or negative influence on NoJax’s organizational behavior. Be sure to support and explain your opinion with observations from the background document. Identify the type of organizational structure that NoJax is currently using. Provide an opinion about whether it has a positive or negative influence on NoJax’s organizational behavior. Be sure to support and explain your opinion with observations from the background document. Rank decision-making power, creativity, and ease of communication from most important to least important for NoJax’s success. Explain if you think NoJax’s current structure is effectively cultivating the characteristic you have ranked as most important. Be sure to support and explain your opinion with observations from the background document.
Rasmussen College NoJax Inc Company Structure Analysis

Synthesis essay M. Need help with my English question – I’m studying for my class.

Your essay should use MLA style and be 4-6 pages in length. Your works cited page does not count toward the page total.
Tips to get started:

Read the texts again. Do you notice anything new on a second read?
Create a working thesis statement. What is the main claim or idea of your essay?
Remember that you are entering an academic conversation. What might the texts have to sayabout your main idea, and what might the texts have to say to each other?
What quotes or ideas from the texts will you use in your essay, and how will you provide contextfor them? Will you need to use academic summary in your essay?
Remember, your sources should support your ideas as well as connect to each other in someway. The sources might agree or disagree with each other, or they might confirm, reject,elaborate on one another, or emphasize a point. Etc. Show these connections.
Organize your ideas. You could create an outline, a mind map, or use some other strategy toestablish your main claim and supporting points.
Be sure to cite your sources.

Text 1 )
https://www.salon.com/2015/02/10/what_nobody_told_me_about_small_farming_i_cant_make_a_living/ (Links to an external site.)

Synthesis essay M

In the last chapter, the researcher introduced the research background, stated the research aims and described the research problem. This chapter starts with the definition of community development, general concepts of community development and explores the community development framework. It also discusses community development in Belfast, Northern Ireland and links it to the basis of the study, which is the perception of residents on community development in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The Definition of community development, general concepts of community and community development Community as a unit of action can play the lead in development of Belfast communities. The basic process of planning community development is to identify needs of communities in Belfast, establish mutually agreeable goals and objectives, and implement plans by mobilizing accessible resources and community coalitions for community betterment. Accordingly, a variety of community planning strategies and actions can be created and actively implemented with the involvement of Belfast residents. The definition of “community” has been discussed in a variety of ways for many decades. Hillery (1955); Kaufman (1959); Bell and Newby (1972); Wilkinson (1972) agreed that the three general components of a community include a shared territory, a local society, and a process of locality-oriented collective actions. Belfast as a city or community is made up of inner communities or neighbourhoods. A shared territory refers to a geographic location, such as a neighbourhood, town, city, county, region, country, and so forth. A local society is an integrated union in which the daily activities of people and a complement of social structures embody all aspects of a common life. A process of locality-oriented collective actions can be understood as the local residents exerting effort collectively on behalf of their common interests. In this research, I specifically focus on the town/city community levels in Belfast to better understand whether this level of community forms a strong sense of belonging, thereby binding its residents together and joining their inner effort in response to external social and economic changes, as well as the demands of community development in general. Fawcett et al. (1984) emphasized on local residents’ self-motivation to establish their development agendas for the community. The last element mentioned here is the opportunity of community members to participate in public discussion. It is important for community development to involve many individuals, segments, classes, and groups within the community, and that each member has an equal chance to speak up and take part in the public forum. In addition, democracy, rationality, and the orientation toward accomplishment of community development agendas in which Belfast residents participate are key factors. Communication and power structure within the community are also important aspects. Since a community is understood to be a living place manifesting the physical characteristics of a setting and a social and historical context, community development should be considered in terms of the meaning of locality through personal activities, experiences, shared values, and the common historical memory. As a result, the concepts of community and community development adopted in this study consist of a shared territory, a local society, and the process of community autonomy and empowerment for a general purpose of community betterment. 2.3 Community Development Frameworks The main focus of community development has been the normal concept of solving problems and betterment of quality of life in rural communities. The way to improve rural life and life in Belfast is to identify problems and then solve them by enhancing community empowerment and advancement. Sanders (1958) considers the importance of social organizations in Community development, which are in charge of certain missions within communities. Sanders identified the role of hierarchical structure in communities in terms of detecting problems, setting agendas, and implementing plans. His view of development emphasizes social channels through which community programs can be carried out. The social channels refer to a well-developed organization with a clear division of labour, resource accessibility, and members sharing common values and pursuing the same objectives. Social organizations are the primary agents participating in community process and mobilizing resources to implement plans for their common goal. Community development, according to Sanders, is equivalent to development of organizations in Belfast that effectively implement “subject-matter specialties such as health, welfare, agriculture, industry, recreation, etc” across all levels from groups and associations to communities and regions (Sanders 1958:5). *Rothman (1979) identified the social planning approach as one of the ways to understand community development. He argued that the social planning approach is a technical process with regard to a certain community problem and emphasized “rational, deliberately planned, and controlled change” within communities (Rothman 1979:27). The rationality approach helps to manipulate the process of community development into standard phases of identifying problems, mobilizing resources, and setting agendas to implement programs for the goal of social betterment. There must be a constant interaction between identifying a problem, making a decision, and taking action to share and express concerns or community problems for communities in Belfast to experience change. Community development provides a good opportunity to explore issues of poverty in Belfast. The emphasis is on the opportunity for creating jobs, thereby raising the real incomes of residents. Hence, Belfast as a community is seen as a collection of micro units, and these units, their interactions, and their relationships with external units comprise the community economic system. Since communities in Belfast have increasingly engaged in their economic development, there are at least two different strategies adopted: community-oriented self-development and exogenous industrial recruitment (Summers and Branch 1984). Exogenous industrial recruitment refers to a form of development that encourages outside investors and firms to locate their businesses in the rural communities where local residents might expect to have the power to set substantial management strategies to promote the community’s common benefit. Self-development has come with the awakening of community empowerment because the strategy of industrial recruitment for facilitating development has been criticized. The main factors that spur self-development were the exodus of factories and the stagnating economy in communities. Still, the effect of the flourishing grassroots movement cannot be ignored. For many communities in Belfast, self-development strategies offer potential benefits for maintaining or improving their economic activities. According to Flora et al., community-oriented self-development strategies “involve cooperation between the public and private sectors to create locally-controlled jobs and new sources of income” (1991:20). These authors also identified three characteristics of the self-development model: (1) involvement by a local government, (2) investment of substantial local resources, and (3) the control of enterprises or activities locally (Flora et al. 1991). As such, broad community involvement revitalizes local economic activities by financing and organizational effort. At the same time, local residents can choose businesses according to characteristics that fit their demand closely and that will not damage their natural resources permanently, alter their landscape irrevocably, or change their lifestyle dramatically. For example, Flora et al. (1991) categorized community-oriented self-development projects based on major activities and found that the most popular projects involve tourism, arts and crafts fairs, and recreational or cultural activity. Following that, existing business retention and expansion and downtown revitalization are also seen as important projects (Flora et al. 1991). In other words, by developing clean/hospitality industry and revitalizing/individualizing their hometown, communities in Belfast can re-launch local economic activities with the goal of sustainably utilizing their natural resources and community assets. Since economic considerations that are dominant in modern societies have also been prevalent in community development studies, Belfast residents’ demand for a certain level of economic expansion to improve their economic conditions that reflects the core theme of this economic development approach. Since areas that depend on a single source of income are vulnerable to economic restructuring, the key is to provide them with diverse sources of economic sufficiency. Studies of community economic development illustrate how the structural disadvantages of community economic development influence the ways community members respond to local development paths and what strategies they adopt to solve problems. For example, according to Blakely (1994), communities have faced difficult and overwhelming circumstances in local economic development, and must be aware of the problems affecting the local economy and its consequences; local economic development and employment generation should be initiated at the community level to deal more effectively with these local problems facing the community (Blakely 1994:27). 2.4 Community as a field for development The community should be seen as a whole, rather than as the sum of its parts, wherein the interconnections among individuals, groups, associations, and organizations form concrete social forces to cope with external and internal changes facing the community (Fawcett et al. 1995). Kaufman (1959) argued that development must go beyond planned economic programs and place more priority on improving and increasing community residents’ identification with the locality in order to get them involved in the process of local development. This process empowers the local community. To carry out such identification with the locality, collaborative action and mutual identity are emphasized prominently in this theoretical orientation. Elaborating extensively on Kaufman’s interactional perspective on community, Wilkinson (1970) tied social structure in to the context of community development. He claimed that social structure is defined in an interactional context as observable relationships built up through an action process by members. The role and position of members in a given interactional network are identified and classified to evaluate the pattern of the structure, which determines the continuity of social processes and the direction of social change. It is a network structure-building orientation of community development that focuses on integrative and generalizing networks in the local society (Wilkinson 1970, 1972). This interactional orientation of community development argued that the instrumental orientation of development sees project achievement as the ultimate goal of community development, but, in fact, development should be seen as a dynamic, ongoing process. There are inherent problems behind material demands and physical construction, and there are no substantial, permanent solutions for them. Planned programs for community development are only one of many solutions to achieve social betterment and should focus on building the community field in which the collaborative capacity to pursue locality-oriented common interests is more crucial to the process of community development than solving the immediate physical problems. Wilkinson (1986) argued that empowered collective-oriented community action is the fundamental basis for community development and that community attachment plays an important role in fostering such processes of empowerment. Therefore, exploring the determinants of local residents’ attachment to their communities becomes an essential step to building up local capacity to deal with community development issues. It is not urbanization or industrialization that directly changes the relationships among local residents or their sense of community. It is the different opportunities and contexts for social interaction leading to different social dynamics that alter the connections between individuals and the society. Beggs et al. (1996) used a name generator method to gather information on respondents’ social networks and analyzed how closely the respondents interacted in daily life, as well as the strength and duration of their social ties in order to define community attachment. Others, like Brehm, Eisenhauer, and Krannich (2004), adopted multi-dimensional methods to measure community attachment via collective action indicators (including land-based production and conservation involvement, social involvement, and economic/development involvement) and natural environment attachment indicators. By considering two dimensions of community attachment, they found the concept of community attachment cannot be seen as simple social interaction, but as well-developed community cohesion through the linkage between individuals, organizations and their locality. Rothman (1979:26) contended that locality development should focus on “the broad participation of a wide spectrum of people at the local community level in goal determination and action.” According to Rothman’s (1979) argument, such broad citizen participation is not only instrumental in solving specific community problems, but also for more general activities, such as democratic procedures, voluntary cooperation, community empowerment, and development of indigenous leadership. This locality development approach emphasized the whole local system’s capacity for building and maintaining in which a fundamental network structure should be built up by establishing cooperative relationships among groups by creating a self-help community problem solving system and stimulating residents’ interest and participation in community affairs. These goals of locality development emphasized community organizations and the harmonious interrelationships among them. To integrate the arguments of community development as a process of interaction, community fields where the community capacity for collective action can be created for the common good and social betterment. Forms of interaction include formal and informal social contact within organized and unorganized social activities. Through such purposeful and non-purposeful interactions, social forces are raised to respond to local issues. Specifically, a community field is manifested in the interactional structure among local residents, groups, and organizations contributing together to the accomplishment of specific objectives of community projects. The central focus of community field theory is on structurally oriented interactions through which communication occurs and fosters positive and cohesive relationships among community members. In addition, Sharp (2001) analyzed community by for examining the concept of community field perspectives in the relationships between network structure and development. He found that these network structures can help community members to cooperate with local organizations, to access resources, to get information flowing among them, and to identify attributes of the community that enhance general capacity for local action. Pavey et al. (2007) contends that the ultimate goal of community development is to build the community’s capacity to manage its own world based on members’ own meaning systems. They focused on exploring whether sound social relationships were a driving force to stimulate community capacity and strengthen self-governance on community issues. In their findings, interactional field theory was confirmed by the positive relationship between the community field and economic development through horizontal linkages among community members. The changes of social distance and degrees of community attachment among local residents influence the potential community cohesion and collaborative action that can be taken to approach the community common good. Some empirical studies have examined this argument. Sharp (2001) focused on selected features of small-town social structure and its relationship to the community capacity for local action. Drawing on the interactional perspective, community network analysis, and community power research, he proposed an approach to measuring and evaluating the community field to understand more clearly the relationship between community structure and the capacity for local action. His findings complement the thinking on community social capital and social infrastructure and reveal that social relationships and local residents’ interaction structure are importantly associated with the community capacity for local action. Development should be focused on the community itself, rather than relying solely on neo-classical economics’ individualism and political-economics’ macro structuralism. Community development is as a means to an end, a process of guiding for a particular purpose that is eventually helpful to the local community. Furthermore, community development has been realized as a social movement, a process of empowering community that tends to build up its own organizational structure, accepted procedures, and active practitioners within its territory. It stresses and promotes the idea of community development as interpreted by its local residents. In response to such an argument, we might ask that, in the process of building horizontal network ties, hierarchical inequality of power within class, gender, or other social structures could be minimized in order to pursue empowerment of each individual. Traditional community researchers simplify community development as the process of community empowerment in which community capacity is crucial for a better life in the community. 2.5 Research focus from the framework Community development obviously has a variety of meanings to local residents and their personal attitudes toward the vision of their community future are influenced by their attitudes and opinions on issues facing the local community. This research primarily focuses on individuals’ attitudes toward their local community development through the five models. By examining the research hypotheses, this study analyzes rural residents’ experiences in local community life to determine preferences for community development alternatives as guided by the five elements of the model. In order to examine the research hypotheses in terms of the relationship between local residents’ general attitudes toward the current conditions and local community attitudes toward development alternatives, as well as individuals’ socio-demographic characteristics logistic regression modelling is applied. In five logistic regressions, individuals’ major concerns with regard to community development issues are used as the dependent variable. Independent variables are used to examine the dependent models through five research hypotheses. Resident attitudes towards community development preferences form the core theme in this research. Therefore, the significance of research is to examine observable changes that shape towards local community circumstances in response to developments their own expectations and attitudes toward future community development alternatives.
Young adolescent females with anorexia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is one common type of eating disorders which means after having this problem the patient will lose at least 15% of her minimum normal weight(Bryant-Waugh, 2006). It is a serious problem all over the world, although this illness is not as prevalent as other problems regarding the number of patients. This paper studies the causes of anorexia nervosa occurred in adolescent females based on the perspective of commercial effect. Introduction about the anorexia nervosa First of all, there are between 8 and 13 anorexia cases per 100,000 persons and the average popularity is 0.5% when the individual is diagnosed with a strict criteria whether he or she has anorexia nervosa problem(Granek, 2007). Although the numbers are small, the incidence of this problem has been increasing these years(Agras, Barlow, Ghapin, Abel,Young adolescent females with anorexia nervosa

Admission Essay

Essay Requirements (Only one essay is required for consideration by all scholarship programs.) In the box below, briefly explain your reasons for submitting this application.

Discuss each of the following topics:

1. Your personal circumstances as related to your financial need for a scholarship

2. Your academic and career goals

3. Your current employment and its relationship to your future plans

4. Your leadership roles and community involvement

5. Elaborate on all of the items you checked under the “Check any that apply” section Please limit your essay to 500 words. Please be concise in your answers.

You may also include other information that you feel is pertinent to your application.

Finally, the style and content of your personal statement will be considered when the nominating committee reviews your application.

PSYC 6200 Walden University Week 7 Insight on Stereotyping Paper

python assignment help PSYC 6200 Walden University Week 7 Insight on Stereotyping Paper.

Write a 5- to 6-page paper (apart from the title page and references) that references at least four scholarly articles and includes at least two unique articles for each theory you selected. Your final project should include the following:A description of both theories you selected and why you think they are appropriate for the topic you chose from the list or that was pre-approved by your Instructor by the end of Week 5A comparison of the theories related to the topic you choseAn argument as to which theory provides a better understanding of the topic An explanation of how psychological research grounded in these two theories helped you better understand the characteristics of the topicAn examination of cultural aspects that might contribute to that understandingI am attaching the introduction paper of my selection with the two theories i have choose for this assignment, that are the social psychology, and the cognitive-developmental approach, so these are the theories i need to compare, and use both in the argument in this assignment
PSYC 6200 Walden University Week 7 Insight on Stereotyping Paper

Sound Design In The Film Film Studies Essay

In 1911, Riccitto Canudo, Italian poet and film pioneer, published the famous “The seventh art declaration”. In this declaration, the film was officially established as an independent art, apart from the architecture, music, poetry, painting, dance and sculpture. So far, the film development is only about a hundred years of history, but it is undeniable that it has become the most popular, influential and dynamic art. In the development process of the film art, the emergence and the application of every element, such as lens movement, montage, sound, colour etc, have injected new vitality. Among these, the join of the film sound is undoubtedly of great significance. Sound, the material of which composes the hearing art, is the substance of the media that has artistic vitality and artistic influence. The sound of the film is one of the basic elements of the film medium. It makes the film from a purely visual media into a combination of vision and audition. As the sound is an effective method to form a space image in human’s brain¼Œwe can use it to express and reveal the theme of the film. If we consider that the silent film is 2D space, then the sound film is 3D space. Today, the sound has become an important performance element in the film art, and because the improvement of the technology as well as exploration of the art, the film sound, from appearance to a means of artistic which has an independent aesthetic pursuit, has an inextricable, interactive relationship with the cinematographic art ontology. 一、The emergence of the film sound The invention of the film was originally started in the entertainment pursuit of the “moving image”, so for a long time after 1896, the birth of the film, films are limited to a simple record of actual life, and most of the content is trivial fragments of the scenes of life. At first, People were all surprised and impressed from this new “active photography”. However, this plain unaesthetic record soon lost its appeal to the , the film gradually went toward to the trough. “If the film art wants to break away from this condition, it must be applied with a similar alternative art, the theater art, to narrate stories.” At that time, some early filmmakers, Georges Melies, as a representative, apparently took note of this, so they began to introduce the theater performance into the film and explore the multiple narrative ways of the film. However, the increasingly rich subject matter and content was really a challenge to the expression of the film art. At that time, as the film was just moving pictures without any sound, like a mute, the artists had to try to use a variety of possible indirect methods to express more and more complex plots and inner feelings of the characters. During this period, many scenes which required the sound, usually expressed through the actors’ exaggerated facial expressions and body movements, or even the subtitles. These really played a great promotion on the development of the montage language and the improvement of the actors’ acting in the silent film, and, also produced a number of silent film maestros as well as some classic works with very high artistic value. Nevertheless, these expressions were tortuous and indirect, but did not meet the objective laws which human use to understand the world by visual and auditory perception. So gradually, the voiceless characters and plots made the audience feel boring and inauthentic. Therefore, no matter whether the film were “recording the reality” or trying to “tell a story”, the situation that only with pictures but soundless clearly shown defective in artistic expressions, and even some of these, such as frequent emergence subtitles, would interrupt the rhythm, affect the normal expression of the film. Thus, on the perspective of the film development, the filmmakers strongly desired the sound. 二、The development of the film sound Throughout the history of the film, there is an interesting phenomenon. People are once strongly against the sound film, but now, people pay a great attention on the use of the sound in the film. The motion picture was almost 30 years of age before it started to talk. The world welcomed talking pictures with open arms. The prophets of doom predicted that the motion picture would lose its aesthetical values. The opposite happened new genres were created and the motion picture developed aesthetically. “Wait a minute! Wait a minute! You aren’t heard nothing yet.” These were the first three sentences ever said in a motion picture. Nothing earthshaking in itself but definitely words that started a small revolution in a thirty-year old industry. Although not everybody concerned believed in the new development or supported it and even believed that it would lower the standards of the motion picture, the past 70 years of sound have proved that the medium was enriched and stimulated to grow at astonishing pace. As a matter of fact, it is hard to believe that it took so long for the motion picture to start talking. The Edison phonograph (1875) preceded the first motion picture camera, the Kinetograph, and various efforts were made at the beginning to bring sound to the motion picture. The truth is that motion pictures never were without sound: commentators, pianists, accordion players and even orchestras accompanied the moving images from the very start. The introduction of sound technology came about because of certain Hollywood studio owners who wanted to expand their powers. In the late Twenties the Warner Brothers were spending big money on the expansion of facilities and properties. One of this was to invest in sound for motion pictures. They tried to synchronize gramophone records with motion picture images. In 1926 the Warner Brothers succeeded to practically put sound and motion picture together. They used a process that they called Vitaphone and that was in fact sound on discs. The motion picture Don Juan was released with orchestral accompaniment and sound effects on the discs. After this a series of short vaudeville films with singing and dialogue were released. The idea of sound films started to grow strongly. In 1927 the first words were spoken on film. The speaker was the well-known entertainment star, Al Jolson. The motion picture was The Jazz Singer – later produced again with Neil Diamond in the title role. The Jazz Singer was only partly a talk film or “talkie”, as it was called. Parts of the film were accompanied by music only. The applause from the spectators was deafening and for Warner Brothers a valuable return for their investment in sound. The Jazz Singer brought an end to the existence of the silent movie and started a new era for sound. The development from the silent picture to the sound picture was so quick that many a film planned and started as a silent film in 1928 and 1929 was produced and issued as a sound film. The producers were forced to add sound to these pictures as a result of the demand from the side of the public. Theatre owners had to modify their theatres and fit it with sound equipment. Vitaphone did not survive very long. In 1931 it was obsolete and replaced by the Movietone system that was less clumsy and had more flexibility. Movietone was the brainchild of the American inventor Lee De Forrest and contributed to the fact that the sound film became an international phenomenon overnight. At the beginning of the Thirties film producers quickly moved away from the monotonous talking in sound films by producing more imaginative movies. Music and dialogue were manipulated in a more subtle way with the use of post-synchronization. Motion picture producers also learned that music coming from an unseen source can have a special effect. A clock ticking, a knock on a door, running water and animal sounds were utilized effectively. Dialogue was uninspiring but fortunately a new generation of scriptwriters emerged and they knew how to put words in the mouths of film actors. Scriptwriters such as Ben Hecht, Dudley Nichols and Robert Risken made use of crafty dialogue that helped to tell the story and not to smother it. The magnetic recording technology emerged in 1940’s, it brought the film sound up to a broad prospect. The quality and expressiveness of the film sound were greatly improved, Visual and auditory were balanced. In the arts, the film artists had begun to face the role of sound in the film, and use of sound was in-depth thinking. 三、The construct of sound in movie The construct of audio part are referring to the three basic elements: human voice, music and acoustic. The differences and different arrangements between the three, showed us another magnificent world. Human voice, which pronounced by the combination of variety of tune, strength and rhythm, had always been playing the most important role in the movie history. It has a vital importance and replaceable effect in story-telling, emotion-expressing, debating and talking, creating characteristics and conflicting between characters. Sound, as an art form, which can exist on its own, have a lot of performing usefulness in silver-screen art. It has multiple ways to express its unique effect on demonstrating, implyingand supplementing the movie scene Hegel had once mentioned that temperament is the true center of the art. This sentence concluded the most basic form of all art, to express the emotion of the writer. In movie art, music also has the effect of increasing temperament. Although music has lesser effect than visual image and speech in creating character and expressing certain mental activities, but its expressing ability is almost infinite. It can express one’s emotional activities and intention, and also create certain scene. In other words, via the hearing and thoughts of human, music can turn the invisible music into visual image, to aid the video and speech into a multi-layer way to express the emotional outburst. In many occasions, music and video and speech created a multi-layer space of senses, can make the movie create more impact to the audience. Acoustic means the other sound than human voice and music, which created by the nature world and human activities. We lives in an environment filled with all kind and forms of sound, acoustic is the material properties of our living environment, and also the the most important aspect of identifying and recognizing our living space. Acoustic is a type of sound have more describing ability than music. It has multiple effects on creating space and atmosphere and also visualizes actor’s mental activities. It also has a lot of usage on symbolization and metaphors, which also made soundless another environment. 四、 The art value of movie sound Change the habit of appreciation of the audience. Movies had been seen as a pure visual art while it was just appears, the sound had brought the most direct effect on combining and hearing and vision, which complied with the requirements of people’s rule of perceiving and sense the world. The sound had enhanced the abilities of audience to appreciate and apprehend of movie via more than just visual image, which had brought a wider experience of esthetic. But due to the acception to the silent movie, the audience of that time had got used to understand the movie by reading the screen and actions of the actor. So at the first appearances of the sound, it created a disturbance to the audience and most people found it was hard to adapt to the new way. With additional advertising effect in the movie of that time, people could not coordinate of the new relationship between the visual and the sound. But as the time goes by, people start to accept this form of art because it is way more like the true perceiving way in real life. By the exploration and practices of the sound in movie, the sound itself created more function of story-telling and emotion-expressing, it had become more than replication of the real acoustic environment and addition to visual image. Changing method of using the sound can also create symbolization and metaphors to enhance the performing. The artful desire and practices had brought changes to the way of audience perceiving their own appreciation, and also increased the ability of the audience to apprehend the movie. Extend the space in movie As a comprehensive story telling art, the reality feeling of the movie decided the influence of the movie. So, in the development in movie art, to enhance the spatial feeling and gain the experience of standing next to the character would the ultimate purpose of the creators of movies. But in many years, people had been exploring on the image itself, only tried to change the way of filming, the light/shadow ratio, construction of the picture, trying to get the spatial feeling in a 2D construct. In actuality, this type of implementation has limited effect and spatial feeling does not impact on the audience. The sound of movie created a new height for movie history, it helped to break the limitation of the 2D picture, and extend the feeling outside the silver screen. This type of breakthrough mostly appeared in two different ways, one is the addition to scene based on the external source of sound, etc. environmental sound and speech outside the picture, could help the audience to understand the whole set-up, create the expectation and suspense; the second way is the application of surrounding sound could utilize the multi-channel sound to create a sound field, which surround the audience and create really powerful sense of hearing and vision. This type of utilization could let the audience to join in the movie and influence by it. Change the story-telling way of the movie 3、Change the story-telling way of the movie While the movies are still silent, all the content are performed through the image, as it was said, ” Silent movie is a world without sound, so a lot of symbols are appeared to cover this flaw” and the appearance of sound deemed to covered this flaw and break the “set of symbols”。 First, sound took some of the role in story-telling, etc. using dialogue to explain the conflicts between characters, develop the story; using music to express feelings and and create certain euphemistical scene. Secondly, sound had become a powerful way to describe one’s character. French philosopher Moris once said, “Speak more or speak less, speech full or hollow, words specific or with emotion, reflect more people’s true nature.” So in the movies, role’s voice and characteristics of speech are the most direct reflection. For example, the sicken Dr. Hannibal in “silent lamb” uses a deep and calm with a bit harsh voice has a highly attacking tendency, as if each syllable penetrates in the deepest corner of the audience, “creepy” had become the most successful characteristic of the role. Except for the above, because sound has a specific rhythm and style, so it can be used to keep a track on the movie’s rhythm and form a specific expressive style. Take an example from the movies, “Singing In the Rain”, “The Sound of Music” and other musical drama collaborate the dancing rhythm and music rhythm together to create the movie rhythm, the director uses the music rhythm to control the speed of the music to construct the whole movie. There are more examples of movies edited by using different shot in different space connected by music. 4、New development in different types of movie The appearances of movie sound affected the overall development of the movie art history and also enriched the expression of the movies, new form of movies like musical movies and dancing movies had been born and also increased the popularity of mystery and horror movies. Musical and dancing movies are the great influence brought by movie sound, and also a classical media for Hollywood dreams. Although before the appearances of movie sound, silent movies also accompany with the music or recordings in gramophone, but only when the music and dance works for the story of the movie and used as a way to express the content, then can be seen as a standalone movie type. As to the detective and horror movies, they had been seen when the silent movie appears. Detective films have no less history than any of the important movie type. At least when the “Holmes’s Fracture” appears, the existence of this type of film had been on the silver screen. But they did not receive much attention. The reason to that is because the detective works with their magnificent logical analytical skills cannot be fully presented in silent movies. So until 30s, after the sound had conquered the Hollywood, detective films could use the speech to express the character’s special observation and logical analytical abilities, then detective films are shown with their full bright on silver screen. In the early time of silent films, the first generation of movie creator leading by Edison had been trying to take horror stories from fiction or sci-fi novels on to films. But they are limited by the contemporary technologies and only able to create atmosphere by makeup, light, design of character and special effect. Even the story was well-written; the real horror effect was limited. After the sound joined the horror movies, sound had become a very effective way to build atmosphere. Creepy music, the “cluck” sound of high heels in a quiet corridor, indescribable deep breath and so on. In a psychological way, everything that is invisible or unknown situation could cause the instinct fear of human, so the unknown sound element from outside of the screen could cause depressing feeling and generate fear. Of course, there are certain techniques to build horror atmosphere, which had brought the horror film into a new generation, and a lot of good productions had made this type of film has a special trait, which attracted massive amount of audience. 五、The sound design of the film As the technology of the sound recording, reproduction, editor continued to evolve, and the film creation continued to innovate, sound production became increasingly popular. The concept of sound design began to appear, and it aroused more and more art creators and researchers’ attention. “The sound is the appropriate sound art that obtained at the appropriate time and location.” The appropriate time, which means during the sound editing, sound designers choose the fit sound clipping point by a corporate impact of the sound and picture. The appropriate location, which means sound designers should balance the workload of every step -cutting, premixing and final mixing, ensure that each step not only has completed the audio processing which required technical standards (loudness, dynamic, etc.) in that moment, and are well prepared for the next step, but also has a relative independence in audio processing, so that it will be easy for the further modification in the next step. The appropriate sound, means that the sound designers make the right aesthetic choice to a certain scene. This shows that the sound design is an important task that covers both aesthetic and technical details factors. It is a process which needs to make full use of modeling capabilities of sound to shape the image and style of sound and create audio-visual art works. It involves two aspects- technology and art, not only to design the process and the methods but also the blueprint for sound, including the artistic effect of the whole and the specific paragraphs or scenes. Sound design include: the recording process design, language design, music design, sound effect design, style design, the hardware system design, project planning and management. 六、The function of the sound design 1、Highlight the status of the film theme In the past, the picture was given more attention than the sound, because the picture greeted the audience first. With innovation and updating of the technology, the standards of the film production are increasing as well, then the picture, no matter how perfect it is, needs the sound to set off against its wonderful. So, audio is more closely linked to sound, the sound makes a unique assist to the film with vivid descriptions. Although it is complementary, the sound design can not be sloppy. It can highlight the content, present the themes, with its cooperation, the film can show extraordinary talents. 2、Enhance the interest of enjoying the film There is a special sensitive area to music, art, language in human’s brain. The harmony of sound and picture can relax the brain and bring a better experience. No matter how perfect the picture is, it can not take the lead. Only when the audio and the visual achieve unity, the film can let the audience enjoy themselves so much as to forget to leave.

Discussion 2: Social Change

Discussion 2: Social Change. I’m trying to learn for my Psychology class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

In the chaotic aftermath of disasters, crises, or traumas, crisis workers have the opportunity to effect positive social change. This opportunity may occur whether they are disaster relief workers responding to a hurricane, school psychologists responding to a school shooting, or mental health clinicians working with returning combat veterans or survivors of child sexual abuse. Crisis intervention is, by its very nature, a means to a positive social change.
To prepare for this Discussion:

Identify a specific type of disaster, crisis, or trauma that you learned about in this course.
Think about how this specific disaster, crisis, or trauma might impact individuals, families, and communities.
Reflect on the role of crisis workers in responding to the identified disaster, crisis, or trauma.
Consider crisis intervention strategies and/or skills that crisis workers might use to address the needs of individuals, families, and communities impacted by the disaster, crisis, or trauma.
Think about how crisis workers might help to reduce the short- and long-term effects of the disaster, crisis, or trauma on affected individuals, families, and communities.

With these thoughts in mind:
By Day 4
Post a brief description of a specific type of disaster, crisis, or trauma. Then, explain how crisis workers responding to the disaster, crisis, or trauma might effect positive social change at the individual, familial, and/or community level. Provide specific examples to support your explanation.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
Discussion 2: Social Change

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