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Rasmussen College Math Binomial Distribution Analysis Worksheet

Rasmussen College Math Binomial Distribution Analysis Worksheet.

InstructionsYou have just been hired by G&B consulting and given your first assignment. A local independently wealthy citizen who happens to enjoy both gambling and baseball, but not math, has asked you to help him determine the likelihood of some different outcomes for the upcoming season.What to SubmitTo complete this assignment, you must first download the word document .Your step-by-step breakdown of the problems, including explanations, should be present within the word document provided. If you use Excel for any of your calculations that file must also be included in the drop box.Grading RubricFFCBA01234No PassNo PassCompetenceProficiencyMasteryNot SubmittedDid not correctly solve a majority of the problems or at least one problem not completed. Correctly solved a majority of the problems.Correctly solved almost all the problems.All problems are solved correctly.Not SubmittedVery few steps are provided to explain how to solve the problem OR the steps provided have several errors. Fairly complete and detailed steps are provided to explain how to solve the problem OR the steps provided have some errors.Mostly complete and detailed steps are provided to explain how to solve the problem.Complete and detailed steps are provided to explain how to solve the problem.Not SubmittedExplanations generally lack a basic understanding of the concepts or lack of proper terminology.Explanations demonstrate a basic understanding of most of the concepts and terminology, but some explanations may be incomplete or incorrect.Explanations demonstrate a proficient understanding of most of the concepts and terminology, but with small errors.Explanations demonstrate a mastery of understanding of the concepts and terminology.Not SubmittedThe majority of mathematical expressions and any graphs or tables are not properly formatted OR some are not present. The majority of mathematical expressions and any graphs or tables are properly formatted. Almost all mathematical expressions and any graphs or tables are properly formatted. All mathematical expressions and any graphs or tables are properly formatted.
Rasmussen College Math Binomial Distribution Analysis Worksheet

SUNY College Old Westbury Software Applications MilleniAds Consulting Company Case Study.

Overview: Basic knowledge of computers is practically essential for productively engaging in twenty-first-century life. Working knowledge of computer platform technologies impacts everyone from help desk personnel and field technicians to project managers and business executives. In order to make sound business decisions, one must have the ability to analyze business needs and compare available computer technology options for effectively meeting those needs.Scenario: You have been hired as an IT consultant by an entrepreneur starting a small advertising company called MilleniAds. As a start-up, your client’s company is relatively small and has a limited budget. There are only 10 employees, including a few creative directors, graphic designers, sales staff, a financial accountant, and an office administrator, with the entrepreneur acting as CEO. The current IT budget cannot exceed $25,000 and ideally should come in as far under that number as possible. MilleniAds will produce customized sales flyers, brochures, and other branded items, such as letterhead and business cards, that apply a youthful, fresh perspective targeting millennial demographics. Therefore, the company needs the ability to store and manipulate digital images and to produce physical copies of their products for their clients. The CEO wants to keep track of inventory, sales, and expenses digitally, but she does not anticipate having very complex records for the first year. She projects having only a dozen or so accounts but hopes to scale up in the coming years. It would be ideal to have a simple and user-friendly system for sharing information and files between employees. Many of the employees are millennials themselves who have indicated that their current desktop PCs are limiting their capabilities and that they prefer using their phones and other mobile devices for their professional and personal responsibilities. Two of the 10 employees will operate primarily outside of the office, soliciting business from regional firms, and they will need to access company information while on the road, in their home offices, and at customer sites.Prompt: Given the scenario above, what are the best hardware, software, networking, and information security options for addressing your client’s business needs? Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:III. Software Applications ( 1-2 PAGES ) A. Examine the business’s issues to determine specific software requirements. What are the types of software applications that should be considered? Identify multiple possible options within each category, being sure to cite specific examples wherever appropriate.B. Then, compare and contrast the options you have listed. Be sure to cite specific evidence that supports your evaluation. What are their functional strengths and weaknesses? How do they compare in terms of cost, vendor credibility, multiuser access, technical support, and integration?C. Compose a final list detailing all of your specific software recommendations for your client. Be sure to logically justify your proposal as the best possible choice for meeting the business requirements.** ALSO Consider how the software will integrate with the hardware I’ve chosen in my essay. ( Look at my personal essay that I attached to this assignment post to see what hardware i chosed. ) **I’VE ATTACHED MY PERSONAL ESSAY SO YOU CAN BE ABLE TO RECALL THE MATERIAL THAT IS ALREADY COMPLETED !!! ( “ESSAY SAMPLE” document below. )I’VE ATTACHED AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THE “SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS” ASSIGNMENT IS EXPECTED TO TURN OUT ( “SOFTWARE ASSIGNMENT” document below. )
SUNY College Old Westbury Software Applications MilleniAds Consulting Company Case Study

PSYCH 41 Los Angeles Valley College Ask Alice Website for Adolescence Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Adolescents have lots of questions about their bodies, feelings, and experiences. Look at the Go Ask Alice (Links to an external site.) website and click on the different categories under Health Answers. There isn’t an actual “Alice”, but the site is created and maintained by Columbia University’s Health Department.Here are common questions teens have about sex, drugs, relationships, and more. Did you learn something new? What was the most surprising question you found? Post your two-paragraph reply to the prompt and then thoughtfully reply to two others’ posts for the 5-point maximum. See the rubric below, or click the three dots above and “Show Rubric”.
PSYCH 41 Los Angeles Valley College Ask Alice Website for Adolescence Discussion

OL 317 SNHU W4 Real Estate Rental Property Business Financial Plan.

I’m working on a business writing question and need support to help me study.

I am including my other milestones for this business plan.My business plan I am doing this on is rental properties.Milestone Four of the business plan consists of you demonstrating that your business can be viable and profitable. Existing businesses can use historical data, whereas start-ups will use projections based on your “best estimates.”Your financial plan should include the following information:You can submit your financial plan either in paragraph format or in chart format.Milestone Four is due at the end of Module Four.To complete this assignment, review the prompt and grading rubric in the Final Project Guidelines And Rubric document. When you have finished your work, submit the assignment here for grading and instructor feedback.Milestone Four: Financial PlanIn 4-3 Final Project: Business Plan Milestone Four: Financial Plan, you will submit Milestone Four. The format should be:A financial plan in which you demonstrate that your business can be viable and profitable. Existing businesses can use historical data, whereas start-ups will use projections based on your “best estimates.”*Your financial plan should include the following information:a) Sources and uses of capital (where your money is coming from and how you are going to spend it).b) Cash flow projection.c) Balance sheet (assets owned and liabilities owed).d) Profit-and-loss statement (sales revenues and expenses, either actual or estimated).e) Break-even analysis (how much product you need to sell to cover your expenses).*Submit your financial plan either in paragraph format or in chart format in one to two pages.*This milestone is graded separately. Use the Final Project Rubric to structure feedback.This is what my professor said to do on this milestone 4 in my announcements this weekHi All,For this week’s portion of the Business Plan project, your Milestone 4 requirements are as follows:Milestone Four: Financial PlanThe format should be:A financial plan in which you demonstrate that your business can be viable and profitable. Existing businesses can use historical data, whereas start-ups will use projections based on your “best estimates.”Your financial plan should include the following information:a) Sources and uses of capital (where your money is coming from and how you are going to spend it).b) Cash flow projection. See article for an example of this:https://www.wellsfargo.com/biz/wells-fargo-works/financial-management/managing-cash-flow/creating-a-cash-flow-projection/c) Balance sheet (assets owned and liabilities owed). See article for an example of this: https://www.freshbooks.com/hub/accounting/balance-sheetd) Profit-and-loss statement (sales revenues and expenses, either actual or estimated). See article for an example of this: https://gusto.com/blog/business-finance/profit-loss-statement-templatee) Break-even analysis (how much product you need to sell to cover your expenses). See article for an example of this:https://www.thebalancesmb.com/breakeven-analysis-2947266Submit your financial plan either in paragraph format or in chart format in one to two pages as presented in Appendix A from your text.This milestone is graded separately. Use the Final Project Rubric to structure feedback.Please reach out for any questions!Professor Vanessa
OL 317 SNHU W4 Real Estate Rental Property Business Financial Plan

UC Berkeley Substance v Mode Spinozas View of God Notions v True Ideas Paper

UC Berkeley Substance v Mode Spinozas View of God Notions v True Ideas Paper.

Instructions: Answer all the questions below. The numbered questions should be separated from one
another, but the sub-sections can be integrated into one explanation. Write max 1700
words for the whole exam. No introductions or conclusions needed. Write concisely and clearly. Use examples. The
chief task in each answer is to explain in your own words what the concepts and arguments
are. Some questions might be more quickly answered than others. Some of the questions might
ask you to do a bit of critical thinking or evaluation. Because of the latter, I look not only
whether your answers are factually correct but also the quality of explanations you offer. 1. Substance vs. Mode Suppose that I claim that a house plant is a substance because it is capable of independent
action: it can grow leaves, transform solar energy into sugar, and even change its position. Spinoza would deny that the house plant is a substance. a) Explain as clearly as you can how a house plant relates to the Extended substance. b) How do we determine that something is a substance? c) Why is Extension a substance, but the house plant is not? d) Why does Spinoza’s metaphysical system need the notion of a substance? Why could he
not merely claim that there are just things (like house plants, dust particles, stones,
galaxies) and that Nature is merely a collective that contains those things?2. Perceptual and Imaginary Notions vs. True Ideas a) Explain in your own words (with examples) the concept of a true idea given by Spinoza
in the following: “a true idea is simple, or composed of simple ideas; that it shows how and why
something is, or has been done; and that its objective effects proceed in the soul
according to the formal nature of its object. This is the same as what the
ancients said, i.e., that true knowledge proceeds from cause to effect.” ([85] in
the Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect) b) Suppose that you have an image of a red triangle in your consciousness. Why is that not
a true idea of what a triangle is?
c) Is there any way in which we could correct that idea of a triangle into a true idea of a
triangle? d) Spinoza thinks that ideas of good and evil, perfection and imperfection are not true
ideas of anything outside the mind. (Appendix to Part I of the Ethics) What does he mean
by that? e) How do you think one can (if at all) arrive at a true idea of good and evil per Spinoza’s
criterion in Section (a) above?3. Spinoza’s View of God What I call the Traditional Model of God has three main factors: 1) There is an intelligent agent outside and prior to Nature’s existence 2) This intelligent agent had prior ideas of what the natures of possible beings are 3) This intelligent agent is benevolent in the sense that he created this actual order
of things and causes in Nature because it was good a) Explain in your own words how the above factors 1 to 3 amount to an explanation of the
actual order and existence of Nature. b) Explain 2 ways in which Spinoza’s view of God offers, in your reasoned view, a more
intelligible (better) explanation of Nature than the traditional model.
UC Berkeley Substance v Mode Spinozas View of God Notions v True Ideas Paper

POLI SCI 1 Santa Monica College Personal Sustainability Challenge Essay

order essay cheap POLI SCI 1 Santa Monica College Personal Sustainability Challenge Essay.

This assignment is designed to give you a chance to find out more about the consequences of personal and household decisions for greenhouse gas emissions. You will be asked to develop and carry out a personal program of greenhouse gas reduction, and report on the results. On the basis of this experiment with your own lifestyle, you will analyze whether we as Americans can change our behavior in time to prevent dramatic climate change and its consequences. By most accounts, this goal requires at least a 75-80 percent reduction in annual emissions from the United States by the year 2050. Projections of emissions under lockdowns due to the Coronavirus crisis suggest a 17 percent drop over the last few months, although the evidence is still out as to how far this has actually occurred. In this assignment, you will assess your own lifestyle before and after the lockdown, and consider far you can go toward reducing your emissions through personal choices. Your paper is designed as a report on this exercise. Your Personal Sustainability Report counts for 20 percent of your overall course grade. A paper of 4 double-spaced pages of text. The paper should describe and reflect on your lifestyle analysis and the initial experiment you are required to undertake to reduce your emissions. Here are recommended steps for going about this experiment, and analyzing the results:1) As an initial step in the exercise, identify areas of your personal consumption that are promising for you to pursue reductions in your own greenhouse gas production. A helpful, up-to-date guide to this is the required reading from the Union of Concerned Scientists, Cooler Smarter: Practical steps for low-carbon living (Washington: Island Press, 2012). Pages 3-22 give a quick overview of how reducing global warming comes down largely to the choices of households and individuals like yourself. Pages 51-178 contain an extensive guide to places you should look for greenhouse gas emissions in most aspects of your lifestyle, and myriad suggestions for making cuts. A crucial component of this exercise is the use of greenhouse gas calculators, which estimate your emissions automatically when you enter selected data. Over the last several years these have proliferated, but they vary widely in precision, accuracy and general usefulness. Since there is variation even among reputable calculators, more than one is usually necessary to establish what the emissions are. Some of the best calculators target only a specific product or activity, such as travel, rather than all sources of emissions. We will review procedures for making these calculations the week of July 1 as part of the class section. To calculate your emissions and reductions for purposes of this exercise, we have selected two of the most comprehensive and precise calculators, plus at least one other. To calculate your emissions and reductions for purposes of this exercise, you are required to use two of the most comprehensive and precise calculators, plus at least one other. You can use any combination of calculations, as long as two of them are from choices a, b, or c below. (For example, you can choose the Nature Conservancy Calculator and the Cool Climate Calculator, and then the gas mileage calculator).a) The Conservation International calculator, maintained by an environmentalist interest group,b) The Cool Climate Calculator maintained by the UC Berkeley Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory, c) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency calculator, maintained by the chief environmental agency of the federal government, and d) At least one other calculator of your choice (e.g, the gas mileage calculator at EPA). Web links to the first three calculators along with an assortment of others may be found at the back of this assignment sheet. Use the calculators first to estimate your rate of greenhouse gas emissions, both 1) up to the time of the shutdowns (roughly March of 2020), and 2) during the height of the shutdowns (May 2020). To see what difference you can make, experiment by entering in realistic alternative behaviors or products. Results will generally be given on an annual basis (i.e. pounds of carbon per year if you use your stereo a certain number of hours a week). This gives you a chance to assess the cumulative results of any change in behavior over time. To be comprehensive, your assessment should at a minimum include data on transportation choices (Chapter 4 of Cooler Smarter), heating and cooling (Chapter 5), electricity and appliance use (Chapter 6), eating (Chapter 7), and product purchases and recycling (Chapter 8).[1] Widgets and your own experimentation with the online calculators provide ways to estimate contributions to your overall emissions as well as the effects from specific reductions (e.g., driving a specified number of miles less on a weekly basis, or eating 50 percent less red meat in your diet).2) For the future, develop a plan of action to carry out greenhouse gas reductions. This plan can be based partly on any reductions you carried out during the shutdown, but also on additional measures you did not do before. You should carry out your plan as a further experiment, during a period that should last no less than two days (48 hours). (A week-long program is recommended). Using the calculators and any other sources available, try to maximize your reductions.3) As you carry out your plan, make sure you keep track of the kinds of reductions, the obstacles you encounter, and any other ideas that come to mind. It will be a good idea to keep a running diary of your reflections as you go along, to generate material for your report.4) Finally, write up the report on your exercise. There is no required format for the report, but it should include answers to several questions:a) What were the main components of your greenhouse gas emissions, both before and during the shutdown as well as in your personal experiment? Be as specific as possible, taking into account the variations in the calculators. A table of your emissions according to the different calculators is highly recommended for this part of the exercise.b) What sources of emissions did you succeed in reducing, and how much difference did it make? How much were your emissions reduced? (Compare cumulative annual rates before and after to assess this.) Again, specific figures (even if estimated) should be used to assess your reduction.c) A critical analysis of the two experiments and their implications is crucial. What does your experience in the exercise say about how difficult it will be for Americans to attain the reductions that will be necessary to address the greenhouse gas problem? Did you encounter obstacles in accomplishing your reductions (e.g., in finding a product that would make it possible, or using a more sustainable form of transportation)? How could those obstacles be overcome? Were there aspects of the exercise that were surprisingly easy or fun, or that had other benefits (e.g., saving money)? If so, what does this suggest about what might make reductions easier for everybody? On the basis of your experience, can we expect that Americans will be able to make many of the changes that are necessary through personal choices alone? d) For a sustained program of reducing your greenhouse gas emissions, what other measures does your experience suggest you should undertake?5) Assessment. Grading will be based on a) the thoroughness and accuracy of your assessment of possible reductions, b) the seriousness of your program for reductions, c) the thoroughness and reasonableness of your reporting of the results, d) the critical thinking you demonstrate in your answers to questions 4(c ) and 4(d), and e) the style and organization of your report. You are required to use a standard bibliographic form and scholarly citation form for the references to your paper, including listing in a bibliography at the end. You will be expected to use a standard citation form (the American Psychological Association is the standard form in many of the social sciences, but University of Chicago or Modern Language Association forms are permissible) and to apply it consistently. Attach printouts from calculators used in your research to the back of your paper. NOTE: Late papers will be penalized 1/3 of a letter grade (for example, from A- to B+) for every day late.CARBON CALCULATORS:Required Calculators:CoolClimate (duplicated in a separate calculator maintained by the Nature Conservancy):http://coolclimate.berkeley.edu/carboncalculatorThe goals of this project are to help individuals and households understand the relative, cumulative impact of everyday activities on climate change, and provide resources to help users reduce their climate footprints. The calculator examines the following areas: Transportation, Housing, Food, and Goods/services. The site also contains a widget with helpful suggestions for reductions that you can also use to calculate the effects from specific measures. Once you have viewed your results, you can compare your emission equivalencies with the EPA Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator at https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculatorU.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the main U.S. administrative agency in charge of environmental policy, maintains one of the most detailed, up-to-date and useful calculators:https://www3.epa.gov/carbon-footprint-calculator/ Conservation International:https://www.conservation.org/carbon-footprint-calculator#/Useful alternative to the Cool Climate calculator. Calculates annual GHG emissions in metric tons based on household, transportation, and travel activities.Other Lifestyle Calculators:United Nations Carbon Offset Platform:https://offset.climateneutralnow.org/footprintcalcThis calculator is similar to the Conservation International Calculator. The advantage of this calculator is that it allows users to choose their countries and compare their carbon footprint with their national average. Students living outside the U.S. are encouraged to use this calculator as one of their choices.Carbon Footprint calculator:http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspxOne of the more detailed calculators, maintained by a UK company that sells carbon “offsets” to companies and households to compensate for emissions. The calculator includes a variety of transportation choices as well as relatively specific entries for various choices about eating and shopping. Terrapasshttps://www.terrapass.com/carbon-footprint-calculatorAnother calculator maintained by a company that sells offsets. This calculator focuses more on transportation and energy consumption. Gas Mileage Impact calculator: https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/findacar.shtmlThis site offers specific calculations of emissions by vehicle make and model. By choosing the year, make, and model of the car, can get the information on the carbon footprint, annual fuel cost, and the MPG of your car. This site is especially useful if you have future plans to purchase a new vehicle.Conversion/Comparison Calculator:EPA Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator:https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculatorThis helpful all-purpose site enables you to convert kilowatt-hours of electricity or therms of natural gas into tons of greenhouse gas emissions. Also converts vehicle miles traveled to greenhouse gas emissions, based on national averages. But if you already know the make and year of your vehicle, it is best to use another site that allows this more specific data to be entered as the basis for calculating vehicle emissions. The site also enables comparison of different greenhouse emissions sources: you can estimate how many cars your overall energy reductions effectively take off the road, or how many railcars of coal you save![1] NOTE: If you live in a dorm room or apartment you will probably find that some calculators for household consumption, such as those for air conditioning cannot be applied. In this event you have several options:A) You can focus your analysis of your lifestyle and your experiment on those aspects of your lifestyle for which you can calculate the emissions and emissions reductions. In this case, you will still be expected to discuss what contributions you make to emissions that you cannot calculate, and take this into account in your program and the analysis of your experiment.B) You can enlist one household of a relative as part of your exercise. If you choose this option, you will still be expected to carry out the exercise for your own behavior at the same time, and to persuade members of the other household to participate in the program of greenhouse gas reductions.
POLI SCI 1 Santa Monica College Personal Sustainability Challenge Essay

Debating American Imperialism Then and Now the US Expansion Discussion

Debating American Imperialism Then and Now the US Expansion Discussion.

Mod 3 Assignment: Debating American Imperialism, Then and Now33 unread replies.33 replies.This assignment explores the US expansion project under President McKinley. It is during this period in the 1890s and early 1900s that Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Guam, and the Philippines came into US possession. The Philippines eventually gain their independence from the US in the 1940s, but the others are still official American states and territories. Puerto Rico’s relationship with the US is often debated (Links to an external site.) in Congress and in Puerto Rico today. Here (Links to an external site.) is something a little more recent from the Miami Herald regarding Puerto Rican statehood. Lastly, take a peak at this Truthout interview (Links to an external site.) with Puerto Rican pro-independence activist José López, brother of Puerto Rican nationalist Oscar López Rivera, who came to speak at DVC a few years ago.Assignment InstructionsStep 1: Skim and assess the primary sources below.Read President Grover Cleveland discussion of American business interests in Cuba in this excerpt (Links to an external site.) from the US State Dept. in 1896. At the time of writing, Cubans were in rebellion against the Spanish colonial government, and US businessmen and politicians were closely watching the war for Cuban independence unfolding. In this piece, Cleveland contributes to the debate over whether–and to what extent– the US should become involved. What interest does the US have in an independent Cuba? Read this excerptActions from Alfred Mahan’s 1890 The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, a book that influenced the development of the United States’ foreign policy. What does Mahan urge nations to undertake in this book excerpt? What does he say that government (and the navy) can do for a nation’s economy?Read the platform of the Anti-Imperialist LeagueActions. What story does this publication tell of the US war in the Philippines? For which reasons does this group protest US foreign policy in the Philippines and beyond? Read this protestActions by Hawaii’s Queen Lilioukalani against American political/economic and armed expansion in Hawaii, written to President William McKinley in 1893. What story does she tell about what has happened in her native country of Hawaii since the 1880s? Why does she protest this treaty signed in Washington DC about the future of the Kingdom of Hawaii? Read this 1899 poem (Links to an external site.), “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands”, by British writer Rudyard Kipling. He wrote this to help urge the US to help Europe ‘shoulder the burden’ of empire. This source requires a little bit of poetry analysis. Who does Kipling describe as “half-devil, half-child”? How does Kipling frame or characterize colonization and imperialism from the colonizers’ point of view?Analyze this political cartoon, “School Begins”, from a January 1899 Puck magazine issue. Step 2: Reply to PromptUsing this week’s sources, respond to the prompt below in a 200- to 300-word discussion post. No formal citations, but do reference details from our readings. Try to utilize as many of the sources as you can across your discussion posts. You don’t have to answer all the questions, just the ones that get you writing. Prompt: For what reasons did the US begin expanding beyond its mainland continental borders? How was this expansion justified by its supporters? Was support for imperialism/expansionism unanimous? What larger trends and changes do you see reflected in the debate over 1890s imperialism? Can we reasonably call the US a democratic republic during this period, or are you comfortable with the label of ’empire’? [A republic is a government in which power is held by the people and their elected representatives, denoting CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED (one of the most central of the American founding values). A republic also suggests a level of citizen equality (equality is another of the US founding values).] Optionally, what is your position on the US’s relationship to Puerto Rico, still a territory of the nation? Step 3: Reply to Three (3) PeersIn a short paragraph between 50 and 100 words, add further supporting details or respectfully disagree with the post’s author using evidence from this week’s readings.Respond to as many peers as you like, but you must respond to at least three coursemates.
Debating American Imperialism Then and Now the US Expansion Discussion

The Purity Of Prepared Of Aspirin Biology Essay

The Purity Of Prepared Of Aspirin Biology Essay. To synthesize the drug aspirin, the purity of prepared of aspirin is determined by a chemical test. In addition, the percentages of aspirin made are determined (CHM 1024 Organic Chemistry, practical manual). Introduction Aspirin also know as acetylsalicylic acid, in the history of medicine, aspirin is the first drugs that ever come into common usage which as medical treatments worldwide. It is known as a pain killer, fever reducer and anti-inflammatory agent. As a matter of fact, an anti-inflammatory agent has become a widely known and utilized treatment for arthritis.(1) Aspirin is also an anti-clotting agent. It is because it can inhibiting the production of thromboxane which will bind with platelet to create a patch of damaged walls of capillaries and platelet will become large enough to block the blood flow, locally and also downstream, aspirin also can use in long-term at low doses for helping prevent heart attacks, strokes and also blood clot formation.(2) The synthesis of aspirin is actually an esterification reaction. By acid derivative, salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, which will giving a chemical reaction that change hydroxyl group in salicylic acid into ester group (R-OH → R-OCOCH3). This esterification reaction will yields aspirin as well as acetic group which is a byproduct in this reaction. This process is speed up by using catalyst which is concentrated sulphuric acid.(3) http://www2.volstate.edu/chem/1110/Synthesis_of_Aspirin_3.png Figure 1: salicylic acid reacts with acetic anhydride to form acetyl salicylic acid which is aspirin and a by-product, acetic acid. Overdose of aspirin will lead to acute or chronic poisoning. If a single large dose of aspirin is taken then it is acute poisoning; if taking higher than normal dose of aspirin over some period of time then it is chronic poisoning. The mortality rate for acute overdose is low, but for chronic overdose is more generally fatal. Other than that, overdose of aspirin also will have some bad side effects which is stomach ache and headache. These side effects can be reduced through the addition of buffer solution. The presence of any unreacted or excess salicylic acid is detect by 1% iron III chloride(FeCl3). As salicylic acid got phenol group, the FeCl3 test will giving a positive result that show colour change to violet colour if there have molecule possessing phenol group. Hence, the commercial aspirin will given negative result because it does not have phenol group with it. Hypothesis When salicylic acid reacts with acetic anhydride will yield aspirin and acetic acid. Procedure Preparation of aspirin A bath was prepared by using 400mL beaker was filled with half with water and it was heated until it boiling. 2.00g of salicylic acid was weighed and placed in 125mL dry conical flask. This quantity was used to calculate the theoretical yield of aspirin. 3mL of acetic anhydride was measured and added into the conical flask with gently swirled. The 3 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid was added into the flask during swirling. After that, the conical flask was placed in a beaker of warm water for 15 minutes. The reagents were mixed and then placed in a beaker of boiling-water bath for 30mins until the solid was completely dissolved. The solution was swirled occasionally. The conical flask was removed from the bath and it was cooled down to approximately room temperature which is 27°C. The solution was slowly poured into a 150mL beaker which containing 20mL of ice water and mixed completely then placed in an ice bath. During the ice bath, glass rod was used to mix the solution and scratching along the bottom of the beaker vigorously.(be aware no to poke a hole through the beaker.) The crystal were formed and collected by using Buchner funnel through filtration and suction. The crystals were washed by 5mL of cold water and the followed by 5mL of cold ethyl acetate. Suction was continued for at least 5mins for drying the crystals. The crystals were transferred to a 250mL beaker by using spatula and 5 drops of ethanol were added into the beaker. The beaker was stirred and warmed inside a water bath to dissolve the crystal. Re-crystallization process was performed. After the crystals dissolved 25mL warm water was added to the alcohol solution. The solution was let to cool down and then crystals were formed. Once the crystallization started, the beaker in the ice bath was set to complete the re-crystallization. The contents in the beaker were poured into Buchner funnel and suction and filtration was applied. Filter papers were used to remove all the excess water by moving the crystals on the filter paper anf placed it between several sheets of filter papers and gently pressed to dry the solid. Petri dish was weighed. Then crystal added on it and reweigh of petri dish. The weight of the purified aspirin was obtained by simple calculation and then this is used to obtain the percentages yield of aspirin. Analysis of Aspirin. Compare the quality of the synthesized aspirin with commercial aspirin and salicylic acid. 1% of iron III chloride was added to separate the test tubes containing aspirin crystals of each substance. The colour was observed. There will be no colour showed if aspirin is pure. Purple colour was showed if salicylic acid or traces is present in impure aspirin. Then the intensity of colour qualitatively tells how much salicylic acid was present. The aspirin crystals were observed under the microscope and were drawn on the result sheet. The purity of sample was tested by determining its melting point range. Reduce the sample to a fine powder by using mortar and Pestle. A melting point capillary tube with 1-2cm depth of fine crystals was loaded. The melting point f purified aspirin varies between 130-135 °C, temperature was noticed at the aspirin begins to melt and the sample has completely melted. Safety Precaution When dealing with acetic anhydride and sulphuric acid need to use gloves and do it in fume hood, because acetic anhydride will irritate the eyes; sulphuric acid will causes burn to skin because it is concentrated and corrosive. The aspirin prepares is not pure enough and cannot use as a drug as well as cannot consume. Result Table 1: Iron(III) Chloride, FeCl3 test on aspirin Test Observation Commercial aspirin no colour Purified aspirin Violet Table 2 : Experimental results Contents Reading 1. Weight of the salicylic acid 2.01 2. Weight of petri dish filter paper 17.2075 3. weight of aspirin petri dish filter paper 18.1028 4. Weight of aspirin [3-2] 0.8953 5. Melting point of purified aspirin 144°C-172°C 6. Melting point of commercial aspirin 132.8°C-138.9°C Calculation The molar molecular mass of acetylsalicylic acid = 180g/mol The molar molecular mass of salicylic acid = 138g/mol The molar molecular mass of acetic anhydride = 102g/mol Number of moles of salicylic acid, C7H6O3 = (weight of salicylic acid) / (molar molecular mass of salicylic acid) = 2.0100g / (138g/mole) = 0.0146 mole Number of moles of acetic anhydride, C4H6O3 = (weight of acetic anhydride) / (molar molecular mass of acetic anhydride) = 3.246g / (102g/mole) = 0.0318 mole By comparing the number of mole of the salicylic acid and acetic anhydride, the mole of salicylic acid is lesser. Therefore, the acetic anhydride is in excess. Hence the limiting agent in this experiment is salicylic acid. By comparison of the chemical equations: C7H6O3 C4H6O3 ƒ C9H8O4 C2H4O2 one mole of C7H6O3 reacts with one mole of C4H6O3 to produce one mole of C9H8O4 and one mole of C2H4O2 Theoretical yield of aspirin = 0.0146 mole – (180g/mole) = 2.628g Actual yield of aspirin = 0.8953g Percent yield of the aspirin = (actual yield of aspirin) / (theoretical yield of aspirin) -100% =0.8953g/2.628g – 100% =34.07% Diagram of Commercial Aspirin C:UsersAliceDocumentsBluetooth FolderIMG-20121011-WA0000.jpg Discussion In this experiment, aspirin crystals obtained were white crystals and is in pure form which is white crystalline solid. Then the percentages yield of aspirin obtained was 34.07%, and there are so many reasons that could not get a 100% yield of the aspirin. The product can be lost while transferred from one container to another. Other than that, when during suction through filtration, some of the aspirin might remain in the dissolved filtrate and this causes the yield of the product to be less than theoretical yield. Besides that, when weighing salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid there might have zero error on the weighing machine and this will also affects the result and inaccuracy in the yield of the product. The melting point of purified aspirin obtained will have error be found as well, because the instrument that using for measuring the melting point of aspirin was not totally cool down during measuring the crystals. Furthermore, aspirin might contain impurities that causes melting point to be higher or lower than the actual melting point. During the Iron (III) Chloride test, the commercial aspirin showed no colour change, it is because there have no impurities and suitable for ingestion, but for the purified aspirin it gave a positive results which mean the solution turns violet colour due to the impurities in the product and it proved that the purified aspirin is not suitable for ingestion. This experiment was required 3 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, because concentrated sulphuric acid was act as a catalyst for speeding up the reaction without affecting the result. The reaction will still take place if the concentrated sulphuric acid were omitted. This experiment used ice water during the work up is due to the characteristic of aspirin. Aspirin is insoluble in water and cold water will reduce the solubility of aspirin in water and it can be isolated when undergo suction through filtration with chilled reaction solution. Then the water is used to hydrolyse the acetic anhydride to acetic acid and can be easily removed by filtration. Therefore, all the impurities can be removed. The principle of recrystallization is the amount of solute that can he dissolved by a solvent increases with temperature. Recrystallization only works when a proper solvent used. In this experiment the solvent that used to dissolved the impurities is ethyl acetate and then using hot filtration to remove inpurities. The purity of the synthesized acetylsalicylic acid was tested by FeCl3, if there is colour change (violet colour) that means there have impurities in acetylsalicylic acid. The purity of acetylsalicylic acid was determined by melting point. In this experiment the melting range for acetylsalicylic acid is 144°C-172°C which is higher than commercial aspirin which is132.8°C-138.9°C, meaning that acetylsalicylic acid obtained in this experiment contained impurities. There have some improvement for this experiments as in used all the salicylic acid powder and ensured that there is no drop on the table. During transferring the reactants from one to another container make sure that there is no any remaining in the container. Furthermore, during filtering the aspirin by using the suction ensure that all holes on the Buchner funnel are covered for preventing the reduction of yield product. Conclusion This experiment was supported the hypothesis suggested. When salicylic acid reacts with acetic anhydride will yield acetylsalicylic acid which known as aspirin. In this experiment, the limiting agent is salicylic acid. The melting point range for the acetylsalicylic acid obtained is 144°C-172°C, it is because it contains impurities. The theoretical yield of aspirin is 2.628g, but the actual yield of aspirin obtained is 0.8953g. therefore, the percentage yield of aspirin is 34.07%. The Purity Of Prepared Of Aspirin Biology Essay