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Racial profiling, defined as the targeting of individuals and groups by law enforcement officials, even partially, on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, or religion, except when there is trustworthy information, relevant to the locality and timeframe, that links persons belonging to one of the groups to an identified criminal incident or scheme. Law enforcement agencies are designed to protect the people. They are mandated to operate in a fair and ethical manner. Their primary function is to up hold the Constitution, law, and defend the rights of the people.

These actions should be conducted in a manner that treats everyone equally, without regard to their race, gender, or ethnicity. The clear alternative is for law enforcement to focus on actual criminal behavior rather than characteristics such as race, religion, ethnicity, or nationality. In today’s society, profiling works on general trends not 100% factual laws. Although I’m not for it, I understand you can’t watch everyone, there isn’t enough time and money for that, so you need to make the best with what little you can do, and this is done by profiling.

Profiling isn’t always accurate, efficiency and insight in my opinion is somewhat helpful to it’s cause. While driving thru a project neighborhood, and you spot a white male, young adult, around 1 to 2 am at night, statistics show he is most likely looking for/or just purchased drugs. Law enforcement agencies could apprehend the male which could also lead to the drug bust with a little information from the user. The September 11th terrorist attacks had a dramatic impact on the American psyche which has evolved because of this catastrophic event, especially in regards to racial profiling.

Every person involved in the bombing of the World Trade Center a few years ago and the tragic events of September 11 has been a Middle Eastern male. Only Middle Eastern males. When a person of foreign nature enters the airport it is expected of him to be a terrorist causing law enforcement to check extensively. In doing so it has decreased the chances of having another attack on U. S. soil. How do the races feel about this method of profiling? More than half of Americans surveyed believed police actively engage in racial profiling.

Eighty-one percent disapproved of the practice. Not too surprisingly, far more Blacks than whites saw it as pervasive. 9/11 changed people’s attitudes. In one Atlanta study, 74% of whites and 32% of blacks favored racial profiling in the war against terror. Racial profiling is almost synonymous with stereotyping. A police officer may look at a person’s skin color and make assumptions about him or her simply because of stereotypes associated with that person’s race.

When a certain crime is almost always committed by the same race/group of people, then it is wasting time, and potentially putting the public at risk, to spend equal time on other races/groups of people when patrolling for that particular crime. It’s inaccurate but society makes it seem right to act accordingly. Many law enforcement officials believe that racial, ethnic, religious or national origin profiling actually poses a national security risk. If you are an airport screener and you believe that every terrorist is going to be Middle Eastern, you are not going to look as hard at people of other ethnicities.

In addition, bias based profiling because of its lack of specificity wastes resources and ineffectively allocates personnel. Arguments against traditional profiling apply to terrorism profiling. First, terrorism profiling, like traditional profiling, is based on broad and inaccurate stereotypes about the propensity of certain racial, religious or ethnic groups to engage in particular criminal activity. Second, profiling in the terrorism context is no more useful as a law enforcement tactic than profiling in the street-crime context. Like traditional profiling, its a crude and inadequate substitute for behavior based enforcement.

Anti-terror profiling alienates communities that otherwise are natural allies to law enforcement. The similarities between traditional profiling and terrorism profiling make clear that all manifestations of racial profiling are wrong and should be banned. Racial profiling undermines law enforcement efforts. Racial profiling has reportedly undermined important terrorist investigations in the U. S. , including the Oklahoma City bombing in which the white male assailant, Timothy McVeigh, was able to flee while officers reportedly operated on the theory that “Arab terrorists” had committed the act.

Similarly, during the Washington, DC-area sniper investigation, the African-American man and boy who were ultimately convicted for the crimes were able to pass through multiple road blocks with the alleged murder weapon in their possession, in part because police profilers theorized the crime had been committed by a white male assailant. When profiling, if the accused is not a threat it’s racist and based on appearance rather than value of character, bigger problems could occur being that its a human rights violation.

Racial profiling violates international standards against non-discrimination and multiple treaties to which the U. S. is party, including the UN Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. A survey by the Department of Justice in 1999 revealed that while officers disproportionately focused on African American and Latino drivers, they found drugs more often when they searched whites (17%) than when they searched African Americans (8%).

A similar survey in New Jersey found that although people of color were searched more frequently, state troopers found drugs in vehicles driven by whites 25% of the time, by African Americans 13%, and by Latinos 5%. According to a study of the US Customs Service’s practice by Lamberth Consulting, when Customs agents stopped using racial profiling to target potential smugglers and began focusing on race-neutral factors such as behavior, they increased the rate of productive searches by more than 300%.

During the war on drugs,’ ethnic profiling alienates the communities whose cooperation is essential to the gathering of good information. The Washington Post poll asks minorities if they have been stopped by the police because of their race. This is a question of perception, those who see racial profiling as a myth might argue they could have stopped for some other reason. In a Department of Justice study, 74% of blacks and 82% of Hispanics felt that police had stopped them for legitimate reasons (meaning, of course, that 26% and 18%, respectively, did not).

The most common challenge to the idea of racial profiling is that race is just one characteristic used in identifying a potential criminal, not the only one. A report released found that black drivers were more likely to speed on the New Jersey turn-pike than their white counterparts. Could this somehow explain why black drivers found themselves stopped so frequently by the police? Racial profiling in law enforcement agencies is still one of the most controversial topics in society today and will be for decades. Its something that even I have trouble explaining. When discussing this I often contradict myself.

If there is no probable cause for stopping someone whether it be screening at the airport, driving, standing on the corner, that person should not be bothered. Many would say “if you not doing anything then it shouldn’t matter if they stop and question you”. That’s understandable but the question still remains. Why was I stopped or bothered? Racial profiling is the laziest way to do a job. It’s scary because the authorities have all the power and not honestly doing their job. There is absolutely no way to make racial profiling a great skill to use. 100 percent wrong in my eyes.



 Include differentiated sections for introduction (explain why are you interested in the topic), development, conclusions and bibliography. For the development of the subject, you have to consult and quote at least 2 documentary sources: textbook and a dictionary or an encyclopedia. They could be printed or digital sources. The citation must be in APA style. Not be less than 5 or greater than 8 pages in type font number 12 and double spaced. Textbooks: Gerald M. Noisch. Learning to Think Things Through. Pearson. USA. 2012. Lewis Vaughn. Philosophy Here and Now. Oxford University Press. USA. 2016.

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