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# R project 1

R project 1.

I need 2 files， HTML and RDM files. The description of your project is provided in the following.1. Write R code to plot each f(x) and F(x). Note you may want to derive F(x) first for each case.(a) f(x)=3(1-x)2, 0<x<1, zero elsewhere(b) f(x)=1/x2 , 1<x<, zero elsewhere2. Let X have the uniform pdf f(x)=1/π for . Find the pdf of Y=tan(X). This is the pdf of Cauchy distribution.Write R code to plot Cauchy density in R.3. Suppose we wish to generate a sample from the exponential (β) distribution, and only have access to a computer which generates numbers from the skew logistic distribution. It turns out that if X~SkewLogistic (β), then log(1+exp(-X)) is exponential (β). Show that this is true and check by simulation that this transformation is correct.4. n your WS related to Ch 6 you were asked to find the probability density function of U=Y2, if Y is Rayleigh density. Write R code to plot different density of Y for different parameters. Write and R code to plot different densities for Y2 using the same parameters.
R project 1

Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis. Analysis 1. The solubility and the intermolecular bonds formed between the solute and the solvent are involved in the separation of pigments as it moves through a filter paper. 2. The Rf values would be different if a different solvent was used because the solvent would have different characteristics which affects the capillary action (because the Rf value is distance pigment migrated (mm) / distance solvent front migrated (mm), the capillary action would have a large impact on the Rf value), attraction of solvent molecules to one another, and each pigment will not be equally soluble to the original solvent. 3. The reaction center of photosynthesis contains chlorophyll a. Other chlorophyll a molecules, chlorophyll b, carotenes and xanthophylls capture light energy and transfer it to the chlorophyll a located in the reaction center. Carotenoids also protect the photosynthesis system from damaging ultraviolet rays. Part B Purpose Condition of Chloroplast vs. Rate of Photosynthesis: The purpose of this lab is to observe and measure the effect of boiled and unboiled chloroplast on the rate of photosynthesis of a chloroplast suspension made from spinach leaves. Presence of Light vs. Rate of Photosynthesis: The purpose of this lab is to observe and measure the effect of the presence of light on the rate of photosynthesis of a chloroplast suspension made from spinach leaves. Variables Condition of Chloroplast vs. Rate of Photosynthesis · Independent Variable: Condition of chloroplast · Dependent Variable: Rate of Photosynthesis; this will be measured by determining the percent transmittance of each chloroplast suspension. · Controlled Variables: Amount of DPIP (mL), Temperature (°C), and Amount of Phosphate Buffer (mL) Presence of Light vs. Rate of Photosynthesis · Independent Variable: Presence of Light · Dependent Variable: Rate of Photosynthesis; his will be measured by determining the percent transmittance of each chloroplast suspension. · Controlled Variables: Amount of DPIP (mL), Temperature (°C), and Amount of Phosphate Buffer (mL) Hypothesis If the condition of the chloroplast in the suspension was unboiled, and there was light present, then there will be photosynthesis occurring in the cuvette. Photosynthesis the process by which the chloroplast within the leaf cells of green plants use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. In order for photosynthesis to occur, the chloroplast needs to be functioning, and light needs to be present to excite electrons for NADP to bind with. Because unboiled chloroplast and light are both present in cuvette 3, photosynthesis occurred rapidly. But if boiled chloroplast and light were present, photosynthesis would not occur. Boiling the chloroplast would rupture and destroy the chloroplast, therefore ceasing the process of photosynthesis. If unboiled chloroplast was in the cuvette, but light was absent, photosynthesis would not occur. Light is important in the process of photosynthesis. Light striking photosystem II is the cause of the excited electrons that bind to the NADP, but in this experiment, the compound, DPIP, will be used as a substitute to determine percent transmittance. Therefore, without properly functioning chloroplast and light present, photosynthesis in the cuvette will not occur. Procedure First set up an incubation area that includes a light and a heat sink. Use a 100 mL beaker or flask filled with water to be placed between the light source and the cuvettes. Then, because you need to keep the chloroplast suspension cool, fill a bucket three quarters full with ice. Prepare the cuvettes by wiping all sides clean. Remember to handle them by touching the sides with the ridges. All solutions should be free of bubbles. Place cuvette position with the clear side facing the light source in the colorimeter. Label the caps of the cuvettes with numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Then make a foil container and a cap for cuvette 2 and make sure it can be easily removed so you it can be placed into the colorimeter for percent transmittance readings. This will keep the light out of cuvette 2 because it is a control. Remember to replace the foil between readings. Label the provided pipettes “B” for boiled chloroplast and “U” for unboiled chloroplast. Obtain the boiled and unboiled chloroplasts. Fill the bulb of each pipette to about one-third its total size. Invert the pipettes and place them in your ice bath. Be sure to keep both chloroplasts on ice at all times. When you are dispensing the chloroplasts into the cuvette, gently shake the pipette to resuspend the chloroplasts. To cuvette 1 add 1 mL of phosphate buffer, 2.5 mL of distilled water, and 3 drops of unboiled chloroplasts; cuvette 2 add 1 mL of phosphate buffer, 1.5 mL of distilled water, 1 mL of DPIP, and 3 drops of unboiled chloroplasts; cuvette 3 add 1 mL of phosphate buffer, 1.5 mL of distilled water, 1 mL of DPIP, and 3 drops of unboiled chloroplasts; cuvette 4 add 1 mL of phosphate buffer, 1.5 mL of distilled water, 1 mL of DPIP, and 3 drops of boiled chloroplasts; cuvette 5 add 1 mL of phosphate buffer, 1.5 mL 3 drops of distilled water, and 1 mL of DPIP. Link the computer to the colorimeter, and prepare Logger Pro. Add three drops of unboiled chloroplasts to the water and phosphate buffer as indicated in the table. Cap the cuvette, place it into the colorimeter and use it to calibrate the colorimeter. Finally, add three drops of unboiled chloroplasts to cuvette 2, immediately start your stopwatch, and record the time and transmittance in the data table. Return the cuvette to its foil container and place it behind the heat sink. Add three drops of unboiled chloroplasts to cuvette 3, immediately record the transmittance and time. Add three drops of boiled chloroplast to cuvette 4, and record the time and transmittance. Check and record the transmittance of cuvette 5, which is the control. Record time and transmittance. Remember to check the transmittance of each cuvette at five-minute intervals from when the chloroplasts were added up to 15 minutes. Conclusion Functioning chloroplasts and the availability of light are two important factors for the rate of photosynthesis. Light is needed to excite the electrons from the water molecule. Then the excited electron binds with NADP, or in this case, DPIP. When the DPIP accepts the electron, the compound begins to degrade. A greater concentration of DPIP is easily seen inside a cuvette because of the dark blue dye associated with the DPIP. As DPIP degrades, the color of the chloroplast solution begins to get lighter. A solution without DPIP would be clear. Percent transmittance would be greater if more light passes through the solution in the colorimeter. If a cuvette had functioning chloroplasts and was exposed to light, the DPIP would be breaking down at a faster rate in the controlled time, which would mean there are less DPIP compounds in the cuvette, resulting in a lighter colored suspension; the amount of DPIP is directly related to the shade of the solution. The percent transmittance is determined from the shade of the suspension; the lighter the solution, the smaller the amount of DPIP remaining. Therefore, the decrease of DPIP in the given time would indicate that photosynthesis is indeed occurring in the cuvette. Our hypothesis is supported by the data because we hypothesized that fully functioning chloroplast with the presence of light would result in the occurrence of photosynthesis. In this experiment, we tested and observed the effect of the condition of chloroplast and the presence of light on the rate of photosynthesis. In cuvette 2, we added unboiled chloroplast and did not allow light to penetrate the cuvette. So we used aluminum foil to block out the light from the light source behind the heat sink. At 0 minutes, the light transmittance was at 17.5%. But 10 minutes later the percent transmittance was at 19.9%. The data indicates that where was a small amount of DPIP reduced. When we removed the cuvette’s foil shell to measure transmittance, light was introduced to the suspension. This indicates that the very little photosynthesis that occurred was the result of the light that excited electrons for DPIP to accept during the seconds between the removing and the replacing of the aluminum cuvette castings. In cuvette 3, there was unboiled chloroplast and light introduced to the mixture of distilled water, phosphate buffer, and DPIP. As you can see from the provided data table and graph, at 0 minutes, the transmittance was 18.09%. But 10 minutes later, the percent transmittance rose to 96.26%. Light struck the functioning chloroplast, excited electrons, and caused DPIP to break down as it accepted the electrons. This is evidence of photosynthesis occurring at a very fast rate inside cuvette 3. But 15 minutes later, the transmittance of cuvette 3 was to 96.83%. This shows that the rate of photosynthesis slows down, but this was the cause of the scarce amount of DPIP. The rate of photosynthesis was so fast that it used up almost all of the available DPIP in 10-15 minutes. In cuvette 4, there was boiled chloroplast in the suspension, and light was present. At the initial time, 0 minutes, percent transmittance was at 24.32%. 10 minutes later, the solution had a 28.47% transmittance. There is a slight increase in transmittance, but exposure to light can cause DPIP to break down. If photosynthesis had occurred, it would have occurred at a much faster rate. The data would be similar to cuvette 3’s data, but because of the slight increase of transmittance, photosynthesis did not occur. This proves out hypothesis that for photosynthesis to occur, light and functional chloroplast must be present. When the chloroplast was boiled, this destroyed the chloroplast. Therefore, without functioning chloroplast, photosynthesis will not occur. Cuvette 5 was the control; chloroplast was not added to the solution. At 0 minutes cuvette 5 had a transmittance of 25.22%. 10 minutes later cuvette 5’s transmittance was 22.60%. This decrease is due to experimental error. Without light, functional chloroplast would be no use. In order for photosynthesis to occur, light must be present to excite the electrons. Because of the absence of light, DPIP will not degrade due to accepting excited electrons, for instance, cuvette 2’s data. Without fully functional chloroplast, there will not be any electrons in photosystem II to excite, and the DPIP will not degrade because there aren’t any excited electrons to bond to, for example, cuvette 4. This data proves that for photosynthesis to occur, fully functional chloroplast and light must be present. Analysis The DPIP will be used to substitute the NADP electron acceptor. When light strikes the chloroplasts, the electrons are boosted to a higher energy level, which will reduce the DPIP, turning it from blue to colorless. The DPIP replaces the NADP molecule. Electrons used to reduce DPIP are obtained when a water molecule is split. The colorimeter in this experiment measures the amount of light received at the sensor across from the light source in the colorimeter. If the chloroplast suspension, which is placed in between the light sensor and the light source, is darker in color, then we can imply that the DPIP in the solution has not yet broken down, which confirms that photosynthesis is not occurring. Darkness inhibits the reduction of DPIP; because the light waves are not exciting the electrons in the chloroplast, the DPIP is not breaking down. Therefore, the DPIP remains in great numbers in the chloroplast suspension. The more DPIP, the darker the solution. Boiling chloroplasts does not affect the reduction of DPIP. When the chloroplast is boiled, it is nonfunctional. Because the chloroplast is nonfunctional, the photosystem II is unable to receive the light and excite the electron. Because the electrons are not excited, the DPIP is not reduced. Chloroplasts that were incubated in the light are able to harness the energy from the light to excite electrons that is then accepted by DPIP. This causes a reduction of DPIP, which makes the originally blue chloroplast suspension to lighten in color. The lighter the solution, the greater the percent transmittance, because more light can pass through the solution in the colorimeter. Chloroplasts that were kept in the dark do not receive light and cannot excite electrons. The DPIP compounds are not broken down, which results in a darker blue suspension. When this is placed into the colorimeter to measure percent transmittance, less light will be able to travel through the suspension due to the dark-blue color of the suspension. Cuvette 1: was used to calibrate the colorimeter. This cuvette did not contain DPIP, which would resemble 100% transmittance because of the lack of dye in the solution. Cuvette 2: contained unboiled chloroplast and was kept in the dark. This was used to confirm that both functional chloroplast and light are needed for photosynthesis to occur because the combination of unboiled chloroplast and the absence of light did not produce a significance increase in percent transmittance. Cuvette 3: contained functional chloroplast and was placed in the light. The significant increase of percent transmittance proves that both functional chloroplast and significant light are necessary for photosynthesis to occur. Cuvette 4: contained boiled chloroplast and was placed in the light. The function of this cuvette was to prove that functional chloroplast and light are needed for photosynthesis to occur, but the small increase in percent transmittance may have been the result due to the light breaking down DPIP. Cuvette 5: did not contain any chloroplast or light. This cuvette was used as a control. It would be used as the “baseline” when analyzing data because it can reveal any effects that is experienced by the cuvette that did not result from the presence of chloroplast or light. Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
Nearly every mental health professional has faced the difficult task of having a client at one time or another that may pose a danger to themselves or someone else. This situation can present a conflict at times for therapists and others who are torn between preserving client confidentiality and protecting others from potential harm. Fortunately, there are legal procedures in place for dealing with this kind of dilemma. The downside to this, however, is that the legal guidelines are not always the same in each jurisdiction. Being aware of the specific methods for and legal obligations for dealing with these kinds of situations within each specific state is the responsibility of the practitioner, and can be difficult for therapists who may practice in more than one state or who relocate their offices from one state to another after a period of time. However, knowing a little bit of background about the duty to warn and the duty to protect and the cases that led to the imposition of these legal duties can help guide therapists and other mental health professionals in implementing ethical strategies for dealing with these kinds of circumstances. The legal concepts of duty to warn and duty to protect were first introduced in 1976, with the case of Tarasoff V. Regents of the University of California. This case established that therapists are obligated to inform an identified third party of potential danger if a client indicates that he or she may harm another individual. However, a large number of states also have a strict set of guidelines for executing the duty to warn in that there must be evidence of the possibility of serious danger or harm, the harm is very likely to occur, and that the targeted individual has been clearly identified. While the duty to warn refers specifically to notifying a potential third party of the imminent danger or harm, the duty to protect has broader implications. With the duty of protect, which is an option only in some states or jurisdictions, the therapist still has the legal obligation to protect a third party from danger but can do so through a variety of options such as hospitalization, more rigorous outpatient therapy, or other methods of intervention that still enable the therapist to maintain client confidentiality. While the duty to protect is a preferred method of dealing with these kinds of situations among mental health care professionals, this form of legislation is only in place in 24 states, with an additional nine states operating under this duty due to imposed court decisions in district or regional court systems. Exceptions to the duty to warn can be seen in a number of instances when the general public is concerned. In most situations, therapists are under no obligation to warn the general public about the risk of danger from one individual, even if a threat is noted. The implications of this exception are particularly of importance when it comes to the threat of transmission of HIV and other contractible diseases. In most states it is already illegal to knowingly infect another person or group of people with HIV. However, therapists are not legally obligated, and even discouraged from, warning the general public about the risk of transmission of HIV from a knowingly infected client. In this instance, client rights and confidentiality would prevail. Another instance where the duty to warn and the duty to protect are of importance is when it comes to the threat of child abuse. In many states, therapists and other professionals are obligated to report when a child may be in danger or is being harmed, often without regard to client confidentiality or an obligation to further provide additional intervention or treatment to the client. However, the problem that is seen in many states or situations is that there are no clearly defined guidelines as to how severe the harm has to be in order for a therapist to breach confidentiality. While most legislation specifies that there must be a “clear and immediate danger,” the definition of this can be construed differently by many people and at different times. For example, spanking could be perceived as some to be a “clear and immediate danger” to children, while to others, the threat would have to be much more severe in order to violate client confidentiality in favor of protecting a child. While it is clear that there are many legal obligations that therapists have to warn others about potential dangers and to protect clients and others from harm when the need arises, the difficulty in executing many of these duties often lies in ambiguous guidelines in many jurisdictions. Often, it is an ethical decision that each individual practitioner must make based on their own principles, the laws within their specific jurisdiction, and their perception of the way the law is defined and the specific situation.
Cash Flow and Burn Rate.

Google search Snap, Inc. and Blue Apron and know what business these recent hot IPO companies are in. Download/print the Balance Sheet and Cash Flow Statement for each company. Now you are going to calculate each of these companies’ average monthly cash “Burn Rate” and determine how much longer (in months) they can survive at this rate before they run out of money (“runway”). To calculate each company’s cash burn rate, on its Cash Flow Statement combine the total of its “Cash Flow from Operating Activities” with the total of its “Cash Flow from Investing Activities” for the most recent 6 month period. HOWEVER, in the Investing Activities section, IGNORE or reverse out all items relating to “Marketable Securities.” (These items just reflect how they are moving money around between various investment accounts.) When you have calculated the total Burn for the past 6 months, divide it by 6 to get the average monthly Burn Rate. Now on its Balance Sheet, look at how much money (labeled Cash and Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities) each company had on hand at the end of the quarter. If they continue their recent monthly Burn Rate, how many months until they run out of money?Then, do the same monthly cash Burn Rate calculation for the same period last year (2017) and compare it to this year’s (2018). Are they burning more or less cash per month than the prior year? Is this what you would expect?Finally, write a Pitch describing your analysis of the cash Burn Rate of both Blue Apron and Snap. In this case, you are not talking to an investor about your OWN company, you are just having a general discussion of Burn Rates (perhaps during a coffee break at an investor conference) and have brought up two public company examples to show that you are financially savvy. Assume the investor has not been following these two companies so you need to explain your analysis very clearly so it is easy to understand without slides or handouts, which of course you wouldn’t have during a casual chat. Make sure you “tell a story” about these companies and how they are burning cash, don’t just recite a bunch of numbers. Presentation must be easy for audience to understand, logical and accurate, well rehearsed and use 2.5-3 minutes,
Cash Flow and Burn Rate

## JOURNAL ARTICLE PROJECT AND CASE STUDY Healthcare

JOURNAL ARTICLE PROJECT AND CASE STUDY Healthcare.

Please complete a two-page article summary from the following article, “A Data-Driven Approach to Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care Outcomes.” The summary should only be two pages in length, single-spaced, following APA formatting. The article will address the following questions: How could the information enclosed in the article allow you, as the Health Operations Manager, improve the delivery system for your hospital while overcoming racial barriers? (Use the PDSA approach in explaining your answer)Use the Six Dimensions of Health Care Quality to explain how you would make changes in your health care system to overcome racial disparities in improving outcomes?
JOURNAL ARTICLE PROJECT AND CASE STUDY Healthcare

## Disscussion 5

best essay writers Remember to: Prepare: Read the directions for this discussion board prior to participating. Fully participate and use Netiquette: Make sure you directly and completely address the discussion forum question(s)/topic. You must respond to at least one of your fellow classmates evaluating their ideas and offering further suggestions for improvement and experimentation.  You must post your initial post and post your reply by the due date. You must post as instructed so your classmates will have the opportunity to read your work, reflect, and reply. Make sure to use proper grammar and punctuation. Comply with Netiquette Guidelines in the “Getting Started” area and include a salutation to your classmate, such as Dear John Student. Successful Graduation Fact: The MAP (My Academic Plan) is an individualized education plan that forecasts the plan towards graduation. It lays out a semester-by-semester plan of all courses needed in order to graduate with an identified degree.  Recommendation: Consider your MAP as your Educational GPS! It is the guide that will take you from where you are today to the Graduation stage. Follow it to the letter. Consult with an advisor any time you need to make any unforeseen changes to your MAP.  Question(s)/Topic: 1. Discuss 3 Taking Tests success strategies that you will incorporate after you have read this week’s chapter and watched this week’s videos. How do you plan on implementing this information in school and in life situations?    2. What are some of the many ways that your values, actions, behaviors, and beliefs have been tested and evaluated in life?   3. Define what integrity means for you.    4. What do you see as the reason for the unique role of integrity within the academic community?

## Provide the name of the career as your subheading for this section. Cite your sources properly using APA rules. Do not add opinion or use first-person wording for this part. (Computer and Information Systems Manager)

Provide the name of the career as your subheading for this section. Cite your sources properly using APA rules. Do not add opinion or use first-person wording for this part. (Computer and Information Systems Manager). Need help with my Computer Science question – I’m studying for my class.

Present your findings in an APA-formatted Word document.
Career Explanation (200-250 words)

Identify the career and give details, including required and recommended knowledge and skills, education, experience, etc.
Use two sources for this part:

A job description advertising an actual job opening
A general source about the career (web page, journal article, or other source that is not advertising a job opening)

Related Certification (200-250 words)

Identify one certification that would complement the same job, and provide details such as basic content, testing, progression to higher level certifications, and other benefits as explained at your source.

Since the course reading pulls heavily from TIA A+ and Foundations A+ resources (and therefore you will be learning more about these), you must choose something other than these.

Use just one source: the primary source for this certification (the certification’s website itself, not a third-party vendor, test center, or training site).
Other parameters:

Provide the name of the certification as your subheading.
Cite your source properly using APA rules.
Do not add opinion or use first-person wording for this part.

Provide the name of the career as your subheading for this section. Cite your sources properly using APA rules. Do not add opinion or use first-person wording for this part. (Computer and Information Systems Manager)

## The outcome of people based on socioeconomic status

The outcome of people based on socioeconomic status. I’m working on a Sociology exercise and need support.

everything is in the pdf. Requirements, rubric, article and data tables but just in case…
First, read the article entitled “Extensive Data Shows Punishing Reach of Racism for Black Boys”1 (link on Blackboard and in the footnote below). Pay particular attention to the visualizations of the data. (I will refer to this as the “main article”.) Second, look at the data tables included in this handout, which represent the socioeconomic trajectories of all participants in the study. (I will refer to these as the “data tables”).
Working with data presented in the main article and the data tables, locate the socioeconomic trajectories for the following categories of people.
• White boys and girls who grew up rich• White boys and girls who grew up poor• Black boys and girls who grew up rich• Black boys and girls who grew up poor
• Boys and girls of ONE OTHER RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUP (of your choice) who grew up rich
• Boys and girls of THE SAME OTHER RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUP (of your choice) who grew up poor
Based on the main article and the data included in this handout, answer the following questions. Each question should be answered in approximately one paragraph.

Looking at the intersection of race and gender, which people are most likely to be wealthy adults, and which people are most likely to be poor? Support your answer with evidence from the article / data. (2 points)
Which people (again, by race and gender) are most likely to experience upward mobility? Which people are most likely to experience downward mobility? Support your answer with evidence from the article / data. (2 points)
How do the outcomes for the men and women of the third racial/ethnic group you selected compare to the outcomes for their Black and White peers? Things you might consider: are any gender patterns that you noticed among Whites and Blacks mirrored in this group? On the whole, how is this group doing compared to Whites and Blacks? Support your answer with evidence from the article / data. (2 points)
Based on the results of this study (both those presented in the Times article and your own data analysis), what do you conclude about social stratification (along the lines of wealth, race, and gender) in the United States? How do the three types of inequalities interact? Support your answer with evidence from the article / data. (4 points)

Remember, you need to support all of your answers with specific data from the article and the data tables.
Administrative Details
You will submit your work on Blackboard using the dropbox in the “Social Stratification Homework” folder.Submissions must be in Word or PDF format! Pages and GDocs files will not upload or display properly on Blackboard. If you do not know how to convert your files, please consult with the Help Desk.
Your responses will be graded based on the rubric below; be sure to consult it as you work! I expect proper writing mechanics and errors in writing will be penalized. If you have trouble catching your own writing errors, I encourage you to have someone proofread for you or to consult with the writing center.
1 Badger, E., Miller, C. C., Pearce, A., and Quealy, K. March 19, 2018. “Extensive Data Shows Punishing Reach of Racism for Black Boys.” The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/03/19/upshot/race-class-white-and-black- men.html. Accessed November 14, 2019.
The outcome of people based on socioeconomic status