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Quick Response Manufacturing

Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) is a companywide strategy that pursues the reduction of lead-time in all aspects of a company’s operations while simultaneously reducing costs and improving quality. Externally, as perceived by customers, QRM means responding to those customers’ needs by rapidly designing and manufacturing products customized to those needs. Internally, in terms of a company’s own operations, QRM focuses on reducing the lead times for all tasks in a company, resulting in improved quality, lower cost, and of course, quick response. QRM redefines the traditional definition of lead-time, the time between receiving an order from a customer and delivering the order to the customer, and renames the metric Manufacturing Critical-path Time (MCT). QRM can be implemented either with large breakthrough improvements or continuously, as it strives to stay proactive in an effort to minimize costly future operating expenses. QRM finds its roots in a strategy used by Japanese enterprises in the 1980’s known as time-based competition or TBC. The basis of TBC is the use of speed to gain competitive advantage. Rajan Suri, the father of QRM, superseded TBC and improved on other continuous improvement programs by not only competing on speed, but by providing instruction to successfully integrate QRM methodology throughout every aspect of a company all in stride of a common goal. QRM was first introduced to the world in 1993 when the Center for Quick Response Manufacturing was founded at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.[2] QRM gained notable recognition when Dr. Rajan Suri published the article “Slaying the Beast” in 1995, commenting on bad policies in manufacturing companies and offering insightful explanations.1 Due to the positive response he got from the book, Suri continued to write on the subject and consulted businesses in implementing QRM. Since then, the Center for QRM has helped almost 180 companies apply QRM methodologies thus reducing their lead times.2 These companies utilizing QRM became successful in their markets as the implementation of speed is crucial to competition. QRM Principles: It’s not necessary to work harder, faster and longer hours to complete job earlier. One can focus on finding new ways to complete a job that takes lower time. Most of the time a job spends in a queue instead of in process and traditional approach only look to reduce processing time (touch time) and in QRM focus is on lead-time (total elapsed time) and not just processing time. Out of total lead-time 34 days only 19.5 hours is a touch time so it makes sense that we should focus on whole 34 days. But generally organizations are not designed to focus on lead-time. Mainly because organizations don’t recognize the cost of waiting they mainly focus on processing time like one need to reduce batch sizes to reduce waiting time but it will increase number of setups that will increase their processing time which is mostly opposing to company goals. So, Companies need to change their accounting systems and reward systems so that benefits of reduction in lead-time can be measured and rewarded appropriately. There is one major problem with cost based systems that hinders QRM implementation that is functional structure of an organization. Looking the figure one can see how organizations fell into vicious circle by delaying regular jobs because of “hot jobs” and then again increase in “hot jobs” due to insertion of safety time due to delay in regular jobs. This is also called response time spiral. And so the spiral grows. QRM focus on reducing system in time like we do in service industry but this will require substantial reorganization of most of the processes. Basically, we will end up with cellular organizations in shop floor and also in offices and each cell will focus on its customers. The POLCA material control system helps coordinate production across multiple cells. Also, new operating methods such as time slicing are described, to help cells share non-cell resources. This principle is hard to digest as we believe that we should utilize capacity to its maximum possible value. Any reduction in the same would mean losing out on productive opportunities, resulting in increasing costs. However, by keeping all the machines busy at tall times does not necessarily transform into higher output or higher productivity. We frequently encounter the problems of growing queues due to the presence of a few bottleneck machines and jobs spending a lot of time waiting for resources due to mismanagement. All this ultimately results in increasing the lead time of the jobs which culminates in the increase of the organizational costs, which have been enlisted in the previous table. In the long run, these costs actually prove to be greater than the opportunity costs of not utilizing the spare capacity. Hence, the spare capacity should be considered as a strategic investment that will pay for itself many times over in increased sales, higher quality, and lower total costs. This is again a measure which is very hard to digest. We always measure the usefulness of any process through its efficiency and utilization. However, the problem with the traditional belief is not the concept of efficiency, but that most measures of efficiency work counter to lead time reduction. Large batches are used in a lot of companies in a bid to reduce the setup costs. However this very measure results in increasing the lead time which can culminate in the same problems as enlisted in the previous principle. There are numerous examples to show the scope of reduction of lead time in organizations, a prominent one being the case study in Becker (2001) which showed how lead time for a line of spare parts for the oil drilling industry dropped from 40 days to 5 days using reduction of lead time as the main performance measure in a manufacturing cell. QRM says that the quantities as calculated by EOQ are not appropriate and consistent with the goal of reducing lead time as EOQ doesn’t consider many costs of large lots like expediting of late orders, overtime cost for trying to speed up late jobs, WIP holding costs including space. Also quality problems are detected much later than with small lots and the amount of rework and scrap generated is also much larger. At the same time, another important point which is missed in EOQ is the lack of responsiveness which occurs when the process is carried out with large lots. Large lots and planning for the same makes it difficult for the organization to respond quickly to change in customer needs. Nor can good lot sizes for QRM be predicted by the MRP system, since it assumes fixed queue times regardless of workload. Hence, in order to reduce the lead times throughout the organization, it is important for everyone in a manufacturing firm, and especially for senior managers, to understand the dynamics of factory operations. The senior managers need to have a broad outlook and decide on the policies of manufacturing and performance measures only after fully understanding the effects of capacity utilization, efficiency measures, and lot sizing policies on lead time. The differences between the traditional and QRM views can be observed from the figure given above. Traditional performance measures of utilization and efficiency encourage managers to exploit their resources to the maximum possible value. Production is considered infeasible only when the capacity utilization exceeds their maximize resource utilization, and only think about their capacity limit as a boundary between feasible and infeasible production targets. Also the perception is that larger lot sizes lead to increase in efficiency. However, QRM’s focus is solely on reducing lead time, and hence the impact of utilization and lot size on the same is studied. Higher utilization leads to increase in lead time, whereas lead time first decreases and then increases with increase in lot size. It is essential to consider all such manufacturing dynamics in order to come up with a process that minimizes the lead time and thereby costs. According to QRM on-time performance is an outcome not a performance measure. Because if on time is considered as performance measure departments will quote longer lead-time to match up with on-time delivery. Again this will result in Response time spiral and results in poor performance of organization. But with QRM, organization will focus on shortening lead-time as a performance measure. In QRM it’s called QRM Number (measure of lead time reduction). This will eliminates Response Time Spiral and performance of organization will improve. For example see Table 2. MRP systems are of great help in managing material supply and ordering but lead-time cannot be reduced using MRP. MRP should be used on high level planning and coordination not on cell level in a cellular structure implemented by QRM. Whereas POLCO can be used to manage material between cells and inside cells. POLCO basically a hybrid of push and pull systems using benefits of both. This phenomena can be again seen as entering in Response Time Spiral in which if company buys in large batches this makes supplier to have longer lead time and company to order even larger batches. Internal and external incentives like discounts motivate ordering in large batches. The results this can be verified in John Deere where implementation of QRM with suppliers reduced cost and also improved quality with shorter lead-time and batches. Not only at the supply side, the small lot concept needs to be applied at the distribution end too. Normally it is the tendency of the sales force to get higher orders by offering quantity discounts. This will again lead to the spiral of increasing lot sizes, both during the process as well as on the procurement side, ultimately leading to lowering of delivery performance. By implementing QRM, a company can reduce its costs manifold which can then be passed on to the customers. There is a need to demonstrate to the customer that the company can deliver high quality at low prices even for small lots, which would be more beneficial both to the company as well as the customer. Thus, the idea of small lots percolates throughout the organization, from top to bottom, as well as throughout the supply chain, from supplier to customer. The traditional approach might result in local quality improvements in the respective departments. However, QRM is more concerned with the overall organization than just one department. The requirement is to cut the overall lead time for manufacturing as well as office operations for which Q-ROCs are more appropriate. Such Q-ROCs result in significant reduction of lead times for jobs such as cost estimating, quoting, and order processing. Closed-loop implies that the team would be self-sufficient in dealing with all the problems related to reducing lead time. This implies cutting across functional boundaries and changing the reporting structures to ensure the success of the process. Needless to say, this team needs to be given power in order to make the decisions as reducing lead time is the primary goal of the organization. The best example would be that of Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company, in Rockford, which reduced its engineering and order processing time for customized cutters from 10 days to half a day after implementing QRM principles. However, QRM should not be considered as an application of Reengineering as by using principles of system dynamics in the design of Q-ROCs, providing specific engineering and management principles for manufacturing organizations, plus by changing management principles and performance measures and adopting a company-wide approach, QRM goes much deeper than Reengineering. Charging more for speedy response is sustainable only in the short-term. In the long run, it is quality which differentiates a product from its competitors, and the same purpose is served by QRM. Searching for ways of squeezing time out uncovers quality problems and wasted efforts. Changing policies and adopting measures to rectify the same results in higher quality, lower WIP, less overhead, lower operating costs, and greater sales. The QRM Approach yields even better results than Lean Manufacturing as it ignores the wastes caused by long lead times. QRM takes the goal of waste reduction to the next level, creating an even leaner enterprise that will remain a formidable competitor for years to come. As we have seen in many quality improving methodologies like Six Sigma, House of Quality the most important factor in the success of these initiatives is their acceptance by all the members of the organization; and QRM is no different. Realigning of all employees, from the shop floor to the boardroom, from desk workers to senior managers, to the QRM principles is a pre-requisite for the success of QRM, and hence training gains significance. Normally, performance measurement is tied to the cost accounting system which is an impediment to the successful implementation of QRM. Performance measurement must be aligned with the principles of QRM if the company has to benefit from the same. In a nutshell, the following points can be summarized about Quick Response Manufacturing: It requires measurement and efforts to minimize the metric, Manufacturing Critical-path Time (MCT), which is defined as the typical amount of calendar time from when a customer creates an order, through the critical-path, until the first piece of that order is delivered to the customer. QRM requires four fundamental structural changes to transform a company organized around cost-based management strategies to a time-based focus] Functional to Cellular:Cellular manufacturing is a pre-requisite of QRM as the cells yield greater flexibility in manufacturing Top-down Control to Team Ownership:QRM requires the formation of closed-loop, cross-functional teams which need to be given complete power for monitoring the processes. Specialized Workers to a Cross-trained Workforce:Since the success of the process requires reduction in lead times across all the departments, workers need to be trained to perform multiple tasks and have a broader outlook. 3. Efficiency/Utilization Goals to Lead Time Reduction:The evaluation parameters, performance measures have to shift from the traditional accounting measures to the goal of lead time reduction. QRM theory recommends following four common steps when implementing QRM: Creating a QRM mindset: The most important part is to make people realise the advantages of QRM over the previous measures i.e. the wastes created due to long lead time which are even ignored in Lean Manufacturing. Thereafter, a high-level QRM Steering Committee needs to be formed and entrusted with the task of overseeing all QRM efforts, while a QRM Champion – an experienced employee with sound QRM training – is charged with driving and overseeing projects on a day-to-day basis. Changing of organizational structure: Cross-functional planning team are formed to study feasible projects to which QRM can be applied. This would require a detailed analysis of the MCT, product volumes, strategic needs and other factors. Thereafter, QRM cells are formed and training and cross-training is provided to the operators in these cells by an implementation team, consisting of members in the new cell and members of the planning team. Measurement of MCT is done to monitor lead time. Inclusion of system dynamics: During both design of the cell and its operation, the implementation team should reexamine policies on utilization to properly plan the loading of the cells, maintain spare capacity and reduce batch sizes. Enterprisewide expansion of QRM: The process would typically begin with a single project. If the project is a success, its results need to be conveyed to all the members of the organization and more projects need to be undertaken based on QRM principles. QRM should then be applied not only throughout the organization but also throughout the supply chain. E.g. the suppliers should also be motivated to inculcate and apply the principles of QRM which would have mutual benefits for both parties. POLCA: The Material Control System for QRM. POLCO is Paired-cell Overlapping Loops of Cards. To implement this system the company need to create cells of the production process focusing on subsets for similar parts and then it processes a given customer order through differing cells depending on the needs of that order. High Level MRP is used to provide high level planning and coordination of materials from external suppliers and across these internal cells. But cells are managed individually. Assume P1 focuses on color printing and P2 on black
Satan’s persuasive speech begins with ethos, using lengthy attempts to seduce Eve by demonstrating his probity as one who has experienced the magnificence of the forbidden fruit. He commences by using an apostrophe, addressing the tree directly to magnify and animate its powers as the “mother of science” (680). This address is combined with a tricolon of “O sacred, wise and wisdom-giving plant” (687) to foreground the tree’s immense power. Further, the sibilance of “discern/things in their causes, but to trace the ways of highest agents” denotes a tone of solemn reverence which hints that the tree is worthy of admiration and respect. Appealing to Eve through flattery, in addressing her as “Queen of this universe” (684), is highly manipulative, and forms an exclamatio, an element of pathos, as his elocutio conveys a false sense of heightened emotion. Satan follows this with a series of rhetorical questions, or erotesis: “how should ye? By the fruit?… By the Threat’ner?” (686-7). As readers, we can glimpse Milton’s irony in this statement: it is the serpent, not God, who is clearly the “threat’ner” (687). But for the gullible Eve, this erotesis strengthens Satan’s confutatio, discrediting his opponent’s arguments, and eliminating the reasons why she should not follow God’s rule. In an example of anthypophora, these questions are answered by Satan to demonstrate his own probity of having eaten the fruit and benefitted, rather than suffering. Satan’s righteousness is emphasised by his anadiplosis, in “look on me, me who have touched and tasted” (687-89), as repeating ‘me’ enforces Satan’s potency. Further, the alliteration in “touched and tasted” (688) provides an alluring sensory image to Eve, tempting her to experience the same sensory enlightenment. Using hysteron proteron in “life more perfect have attained than Fate meant me” (689-90), Satan claims a sense of ethos by emphasising the “perfect” satisfaction that tasting the fruit has brought him. The vigilant reader can see that Milton is being highly ironic, as we have previously seen Satan, destined to be one of God’s angels, cast out of heaven for his misdemeanours. The orator proceeds to a phase of pathos, appealing to Eve’s emotions and urging her to see that she must eat the fruit so that she can gain her desired knowledge. He starts this argument oxymoronically with the phrase “petty trespass” (694) in attempt to make the sin seem less significant, yet paradoxically praises Eve’s “dauntless virtue” (694), inflating her ego with a false sense of noble courage. This further hints at Milton’s irony, as Satan’s flattery actually makes little logical sense. Further, the repetition and alliteration of “death denounced, whatever thing death be, deterred not…” seems to lessen the importance of death, obscuring its meaning and persuading Eve with false arguments. This continues in Satan’s use of aporia and anthypophora, as he initially feigns doubt as to the justice of God in “Of good, how just?”, then proceeds to tell Eve that evil is “easier shunned” when it can be known, and thus urges her to see that she must eat the fruit. This is more irony from Milton, as it is clear that Eve should be able to see, without eating the fruit, that Satan’s speech is the true evil. Satan then proceeds to repeat ‘not’ in “not just, not God; not feared then” which works to remove Eve’s emotions of fear that God would harshly punish her. This is followed by epanalepsis in “your fear itself of death removes the fear”, creating circularity in Satan’s speech to reinforce the notion of Eve’s unnecessary fear and spurring her to cast aside such doubts. Satan emphasises this using anaphora, repeating “why” in a tricolon of clauses, “why then was this forbid? Why but to awe, why but to keep to low and ignorant?”. This entices Eve to question God’s command, amplifying her sense of injustice to encourage her to reject God. This is cemented with the antithesis between “dim” and “opened and cleared”, which inspires Eve to eat the fruit to gain such visionary clarity and progress from her current state of ignorance. Using epanalepsis, the serpent’s pathos is finalised by emphasising the prospect of future knowledge, as he falsely claims Eve may soon be “knowing both good and evil as [the Gods] know”. This is enforced by persuading Eve that she may be “as Gods”, positioning her to have a false sense of the fruit’s power. The reader may see this as blasphemous and impossible, as Satan suggests Eve could become akin to the all-powerful Gods, yet the orator has successfully seduced Eve’s emotional state. Finally, Satan’s argument shifts to one of logos, as he explains to Eve why she should reach beyond her current status and tries to reason that her fears are unjustified. Using polyptoton in “ye shall die… death to be wished” (713-714), Satan changes transforms death into something inviting by changing its verbal form. Indeed, hysteron proteron in “which no worse than this can bring” (715) foregrounds Satan’s faulty logic that nothing bad may come from Eve tasting the fruit. He employs erotesis, “what are gods that man may not become as they, participating god-like food?”, to hint at the unfairness that humans are not able to reach the same elevated status as the angels. This disrespect for the angels and God should reveal to Eve that Satan’s argument is duplicitous, especially as Satan mockingly answers his own question with “the gods are first”. He even further tries to dismantle Eve’s respect for God by derisively adding “I question it” (720). The final part of Satan’s rhetoric relies significantly on four successive rhetorical questions, as he tries to derail God’s dominance of Eve’s logic. These questions use heavy enjambment, coupled with alliteration, especially in lines 724 to 726: “whose eats thereof, forthwith attains wisdom without their leave? And wherein lies th’ offence, that man should thus attain to know?”. This has an overwhelming effect and creates a fast, forward-moving rhythm in Satan’s speech, working to spur Eve into eating the fruit. Successively repeating the device of erotesis also denies Eve the opportunity of considering Satan’s argument with logical vigilance, thus encouraging her to act impulsively. The questions prompt Eve to see that there are vast gaps in her knowledge which will only be answered upon eating the fruit; this is revealed in Satan’s conclusio, as he openly instructs her that “these and many more causes import your need of this fair fruit” (730-731). The orator finishes with short asyndeton and flattery: “Goddess human, reach then, and freely taste” (732). This tempts Eve by simplifying a monumental disobedience into an easy action of merely reaching and tasting. As a final attempt of manipulation, it is an illogical paradox that Eve may “freely taste”, as she is stuck between being governed by God’s commands, or being ruled by Satan’s deception (732). In Pope’s The Rape of the Lock, Ariel’s speech uses rhetoric far less successively to persuade Belinda to avoid the charms of men. Unlike Satan, he does not follow a clear structure of rhetorical strategy and does not create a strong logical argument to sway Belinda’s natural position. However, the orator similarly begins his speech with flattery, claiming Belinda to be the “fairest of Mortals” (27), appealing to her vanity to inspire engagement, just as Satan did in Paradise Lost. This line also employs enjambment, breaking the usual rhythm of the end-stopped lines, which creates a sense that Ariel is overcome with emotion and praise of Belinda. Similarly, by referring to Belinda as “thou” and “thy”, Ariel addresses her almost as a deity, suggesting she is to be revered. Yet in his exordium, he uses parason in “all the nurse and all the Priest have taught” to equate their positions, which perhaps makes his argument less successful, as it seems he relies on fairy stories of “airy Elves” and “Angel-Pow’rs” as his confirmatio, rather than presenting a logical argument as Satan does. Like Satan, however, his exclamation of “hear and believe! Thy own importance know” implores Belinda to realise her own prowess, and foregrounds the significance of knowledge. Similarly, the use of sibilance as Ariel hints that there are “some secret Truths from Learned Pride conceal’d” works to entice Belinda by suggesting that this wisdom is only revealed to those as special as she. While Satan appeals to Eve through techniques of pathos, logos and ethos, the body of Ariel’s argument, including its narratio, divisio and conclusio, is comparatively poorly grounded. Ariel focuses on describing the supernatural elements of The Rape of the Lock, yet in doing so his rhetoric seems to discredit his own argument: while he describes the sylphs with elevated terms as “light Militia of the lower Sky” (42), his words suggest that they are just as shallow as the women on earth. Repetition of “vanities” in the lines “when Woman’s transient Breath is fled, that all her Vanities at once are dead: succeeding Vanities she still regards” (51-53) hints that the sylphs are equally trivial. This is further evoked in the parallelism of “when alive… after Death survive” (54-55). Indeed, Ariel’s frivolous tone in the anaphora of “what Sexes and what Shapes they please”, along with the alliteration of “melting maids… Midnight Masquerades”, typifies the jovial freedom the sylphs enjoy. This is a contrast to Satan’s conformatio, which uses erotesis and forms of repetition to distort Eve’s logic and emotions. Ariel’s rhetorical questions, especially in his conclusio when saying “when Florio speaks, what Virgin could withstand, if gentle Damon did not squeeze her Hand?”, seem to convey his approval for Belinda’s misguided actions. It is as if, as a sylph, he understands feminine whims, and makes excuses for her foolish behaviour rather than trying to persuade Belinda to avoid male seduction. His flippant tone in the alliteration of “varying Vanities” and metaphor of “moving Toyshop of their Heart” suggest imprudent actions are merely expected of a young woman. This air of mockery is extremely different to Satan’s seductive argument and makes it difficult to take Ariel’s words seriously. Thus, while Satan uses ethos to claim his probity, Ariel’s use of hysteron proteron to elevate his status in the lines “Of these am I, who thy Protection claim, A watchful Sprite, and Ariel is my name,” actually has the opposite effect. Further, the tricolon in Ariel’s language of “Heav’n reveals not what, or how, or where” compounds an awareness of his ignorance. Despite using the mirrored chiasmus of “Beware of all, but most beware of Man!” as a final attempt of persuasion, the ambiguity of “beware of all” simply emphasises his uncertainty. In comparison to Milton’s Satan, Ariel does not successfully use rhetorical devices and structure, making it impossible to persuade his listener. Works Cited Modern
Davenport University Create a Sample Image Image Processing Task.

First thing we’re going to do is learn how to create a sample image that will be useful for this lab. We will do this by using the Matlab command ‘checkerboard’.To give you an idea on how this command works, from the matlab command prompt, type the following:imshow(checkerboard(20));It should create the image shown below: (see fig1.png)The 20 in the command is the number of pixels that each box on the checkerboard will represent.Let’s create an image from this matrix that we can use later. In order to do that, we need to use the ‘imwrite’ command.imwrite(checkerboard(20), ‘checkerboard.jpg’, ‘JPEG’);To verify the above worked correctly, let’s read in the newly made image and display it:myImage = imread(‘checkerboard.jpg’);imshow(myImage); Now that we have a nice image to use for our edge detection algorithm, let’s begin to implement it. First thing we want to do is create our x and y gradient filters:Sx = [1 0 -1; 2 0 -2; 1 0 -1];Sy = [1 2 1; 0 0 0; -1 -2 -1];Convolve each of the above filters with the checkerboard image. Before we are able to use the convolve function we must convert our image into a double. We do that by using the ‘double’ command and passing it image variable name, in this case ‘myImage’.sobelXImage = conv2(double(myImage), Sx, ‘same’);sobelYImage = conv2(double(myImage), Sy, ‘same’);Let’s go ahead and take a peek at what our images currently look like:figure(‘Name’, ‘X gradient’);imshow(uint8(sobelXImage));figure(‘Name’, ‘Y gradient’);imshow(uint8(sobelYImage));Do the gradient images look like you expect them too? Why or why not?What is missing from the above question and how would you fix it?Now that we understand what the gradients are doing and are able to display them properly, let’s continue on with our edge detection. We now need to square each of the X and Y portions, and then take the square root of them to determine the magnitude of our gradients.E(u,v) = sqrt( (Dx(u,v))2 + (Dy(u,v))2 )Enter the appropriate matlab command for the above formula and display the image. You should see something like fig.pngEach of the edges are shown in white.Part BDownload a sample image from the net. Repeat the above steps and display the original image, the X gradient, and the Y gradient on one form/figure (Note: Don’t forget to convert it to black and white first) .After we sum the squares and take the square root we have the magnitude of our edge strength. We may not want to look at every single edge detected. We can limit which edges we want to see by applying a threshold. We can do this by using the following matlab commands:threshold = 50;edgeDetectedImage = (uint8(edgeDetectedImage) > threshold) * 255;Create 4 additional figures each with their own respective image on it (using threshold {50, 100, 150, 200} ). Make sure the titles of the figures reflect their contents.Turn in the final matlab script that you used to accomplish part B. It should display 5 figures
Davenport University Create a Sample Image Image Processing Task

1120 corporate Tax Return!

1120 corporate Tax Return!.

I’m working on a accounting question and need guidance to help me study.

I need help with this tax return project. My group and I are stuck. There are a few missing information in the net income and the balance sheet that needs to be completed first. Then can you help me on completing this 1120 return, at least the following forms: schedule D, form 1125 A, Form 1125-E, Form 4562 and 2797. If you can help with more of these requirements, that is greatly appreciated! Anything helps! Thank you! i got the Income statement and balance sheet done.
1120 corporate Tax Return!

2. Based on the Pneumatic Tire book, starting on page 776, discuss factors governing rolling resistance of tires. Propose a simple means to measure rolling resistance at a given speed. (1/2 page max)

assignment writer 2. Based on the Pneumatic Tire book, starting on page 776, discuss factors governing rolling resistance of tires. Propose a simple means to measure rolling resistance at a given speed. (1/2 page max). I’m studying for my Engineering class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

1.Based on the Pneumatic Tire book, starting on page 776, discuss factors governing rolling resistance of tires. Propose a simple means to measure rolling resistance at a given speed. (1/2 page max)
Resources
In looking for safety data, I looked on the US-DOT website http://www.nhtsa.gov
There were a number of interesting items that are available, and some that I downloaded (the downloads are separate): Pneumatic Tires (700+pages) and paper on rollovers, brochures on 5 star safety ratings and crash avoidance.. There was a whole conference on CAFÉ and GHG standards impact on vehicle mass reduction –
https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/phase-2-hd-fuel-efficiency-ghg-final-ria.pdf Some related info on terms https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_Average_Fuel_Economy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas_inventory https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol
Since this is a good segue into emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency sets
standards on transportation sources of pollution – a test is performed on production vehicles Federal Test Procedure or FTP by vehicle class http://epa.gov/otaq/standards/light-duty/ftp.htm
2. Based on the Pneumatic Tire book, starting on page 776, discuss factors governing rolling resistance of tires. Propose a simple means to measure rolling resistance at a given speed. (1/2 page max)

Easy english questions 2 for $1 please help

Easy english questions 2 for $1 please help.

Which passage is an example of the use of cataloguing? .A.Tenderly will I use you curling grass/ It may be you transpire from the breasts of young menB. I celebrate myself, and sing myself/ And what I assume you shall assume.C. The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam/ The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work.D. Or I guess it is the handkerchief of the Lord/ A scented gift and remembrancer designedly droptWhich line includes an example of parallelism?A. But I shall be good health to you nevertheless/ And filter and fibre your bloodB. I celebrate myself and sing myself,/ And what I assume you shall assume,C. They are alive and well somewhere,/ The smallest sprout shows there is really no death.D. I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,/ Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong.
Easy english questions 2 for $1 please help

The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge Critical Essay

François Lyotard is one of the most influential postmodern theorists who explored the concept of knowledge in the twentieth century. Lyotard (1979) analysed different types of information and knowledge and the role knowledge played in the society. His discoveries revealed the major trends which existed at that time. Thus, the theorist exploits the concepts of metanarratives to stress that the era of information has little to do with ethics. He also emphasises that the major resource of the twenty-first century is information which will be the object of conflict. The author’s famous work The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge has inspired numerous theorists and, to certain extent, has shaped some major theories of society. Lyotard’s ideas had impact on conflict, functionalist, critical and feminist theories. In the first place, it is essential to consider major ideas articulated in Lyotard’s book. Thus, the subject matter of the book is “the condition of knowledge in the most highly developed societies” (Lyotard 1979, p. xxiii). The theorist stresses that the very nature of knowledge (as well as information) has been changed due to the changes which are taking place in the society. Technology and science have transformed information. According to Lyotard (1979), information is no longer a final product, but only a sub-product. Managing (i.e. searching, distributing, storing) information is becoming pivotal within the contemporary society. It is not enough to generate some information, it is crucial to be able to manage it properly. It is essential to understand which channels should be used to distribute data available. Lyotard (1979, p. 5) also notes that information has become a “productive power”, which is the central “stake in the worldwide competition for power”. The theorist states that information will be the most important resource and countries will long to possess knowledge rather than other resources. Remarkably, knowledge helps provide or manage other vital resources more efficiently. Therefore, highly developed countries will try to control knowledge to retain their leading positions with the help of proper information management. Apart from defining knowledge, Lyotard (1979) puts a very important question. He tries to understand who has the right to decide what knowledge is. At this point, it is necessary to note that the author claims that there are different kinds of knowledge. The author introduces the concept of narratives. In other words, different people obtain and accumulate knowledge. Lyotard (1979) tries to consider legitimacy of knowledge. The author concludes that this can be the government’s priority to legitimate knowledge. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importantly, Lyotard (1979) does not simply identify those responsible to legitimate knowledge, but he also provides a specific method to do it effectively. Thus, language games can be the necessary tools to legitimate knowledge. Importantly, language is perceived as a part of the system. However, the system is not characterised by rigid rules as it is not a modern by postmodern society. The language game is not regulated by a variety of rules in the postmodern society as each move leads to new forms and various innovations. In this respect, Lyotard (1979) provides two types of knowledge, i.e. narrative and scientific knowledge. As far as narrative knowledge is concerned, it encompasses numerous concepts including truth or beauty. Narrative is characterised by flexibility. Thus, narrative knowledge can be legitimated by the narrator. More so, the narrator does not need to have some authority. Any narrator is legitimate as he/she has and furthers some knowledge. Nonetheless, scientific knowledge is characterised by certain precision and availability of evidence supporting or refuting certain statements (Lyotard 1979). Both types of knowledge are equal and have their right to exist. Remarkably, Lyotard (1979) dwells upon social bonds and notes that narrative knowledge is formed within social bonds. People’s interaction creates numerous narratives. At the same time, social bonds are irrelevant for scientific knowledge as this type of knowledge is not “a shared component” (Lyotard 1979, p. 25). The existence of the two types of knowledge leads to a valuable conclusion. Lyotard (1979) states that knowledge can be legitimate as soon as it is a part of a debate. Moreover, people decide what is legitimate during their discussion. When it comes to scientific knowledge, it becomes legitimate when certain evidence is provided. Noteworthy, Lyotard (1979) points out that the two type of knowledge lead to two different types of legitimacy. On the one hand, the human is seen as a hero who legitimates knowledge. On the other hand, scientific type of knowledge is associated with moral and ethical component. The theorist notes that these two types of knowledge created the so-called grand narrative in the modern society. One of the examples of the grand narrative is Marxism. Lyotard (1979) claims that the Marxist theory is based on global principles of morality and ethics. We will write a custom Book Review on The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the grand narrative does not exist in the postmodernist world due to the changes in the nature of knowledge. At present, people fail to create some grand narratives due to “the blossoming of techniques and technologies… which has shifted emphasis from the ends of action to its means” (Lyotard 1979, p. 37). The absence of a metalanguage is also seen as a cause of decline of grand narratives. People form quite specific narratives applicable in particular terrains. Therefore, people are more concerned with performing certain tasks rather than focusing on ethics and morality. The theorist argues that this focus on performativity has a specific impact on the development of the society (Lyotard 1979). At present, conducting research is associated with the use of advanced technology which is costly. Thus, wealthy groups of people can afford obtaining more information. According to Lyotard (1979), this financial component along with the focus on performativity enables the developed society focus on the maintenance of the system. It is also necessary to add that the theorist mentions the shift within educational system. Thus, education of the twentieth century is transformed as knowledge is not central to it. Lyotard (1979) points out that the role of professors becomes less important as students will be able to obtain knowledge with the help of technology in the computerised world. It is becomes more important to make students able to search for information using technology. Again, methods of obtaining knowledge are seen as more vital than knowledge itself. Finally, there is another important finding revealed in the book. Even though those who have the necessary resources strive for information control, they will never be able to get it as the system is unstable. Lyotard (1979) admits that there have been numerous examples when certain groups or individuals tried to control knowledge. Those attempts resulted in creation of totalitarian countries. Importantly, Lyotard (1979) stresses that totalitarian regimes are doomed to fail due to the unstable nature of the system. The theorist agrees that the major role of scientists is not to give answers but to have ideas (Lyotard 1979). Admittedly, abundance of ideas is unlikely to lead to stability. Therefore, the theorist comes to some valuable conclusions. Lyotard (1979) claims that the computerised world has already shaped the world and the very concept of knowledge, and hence, there is no point in trying to diminish the influence of technology on the development of the society. The theorist also points out that there are two possible ways for the society to develop. First, if some groups or individuals obtain the control over information and its distribution, totalitarian societies will be created (and will soon fail). However, there is another way to follow. Lyotard (1979, p. 67) believes that it is essential to “give the public free access to the memory and data banks” and this will result in creation of language games of “perfect information”. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People will be able to gain and accumulate more information which will also lead to the development of the human society where people’s desire to have a just society can be satisfied. Interestingly, the contemporary society seems to choose the second path as people in many countries have almost unlimited access to information with the help of the Internet. Besides, the development of online technologies is shaping educational systems of many developed societies. Hence, students obtain higher education via the Internet and the role of professors is changing. Therefore, the societies are choosing the world of plurality and development. Thus, the points mentioned above are central to the book in question. Lyotard (1979) explores one of the most burning issues of the twentieth century, the structure and role of knowledge and information. It is important to note that the author appeals to several major theories of society in his work. In other words, he starts a kind of debate as he questions consistency of certain theories. It is also possible to trace certain the author’s adherence to the conflict theory. The major concepts of this theory are used to consider the types of knowledge and the role of knowledge in the society. Lyotard (1979) states that the two types of knowledge, i.e. narrative and scientific knowledge, are in certain conflict with each other. Admittedly, the author notes that each of the narratives cannot be regarded as right or wrong, but the two types of knowledge are often opposed as they need different types of evidence (Lyotard 1979). Apart from the types of narratives, the author employs the conflict theory when considering the role of knowledge in the society of the twentieth century. Lyotard (1979) stresses that knowledge and information will become the major productive sources. The countries will try to gain more power through obtaining more knowledge, which will be central to the major conflict within the human society. There is certain reference to feminist theory as the author notes that the society should be and will be characterised by plurality where minority groups will have to struggle for information and knowledge (Lyotard 1979). More so, the book includes certain methods which can be used by minority groups to become more empowered. Thus, gaining and properly managing knowledge will help minority groups to become more empowered (Lyotard 1979). Language games are also regarded as tools to gain empowerment. Another theory exploited by the author is critical theory. Clearly, Lyotard (1979) does not simply depict the society as it is. The author tries to unveil major trends and concepts which are shaping the development of the society. The author is trying to help people understand the wrongs of the society and choose the right path. Nonetheless, Lyotard (1979) does not only employ certain theories, he provides certain critique to some theories. Thus, Lyotard (1979) reveals inconsistency of the functionalist theory. The author agrees that societies are structures, but Lyotard (1979) also stresses that the system does not long for perfection. On the contrary, the systems are unstable and can hardly be controlled. Therefore, there can be no striving for specific ways of development. Admittedly, the author resorts to major theories of society to explain his standpoint and provide a new postmodernist vision. As has been mentioned above, Lyotard is one of the most influential theorists of the postmodernist ear. More so, he defined the new era and revealed major concepts. Clearly, his ideas have had a profound effect on the development of the major theories of societies. One of such theories is feminist. Lyotard (1979) unveils major principles governing the contemporary society. He also revealed plurality of the developed society. Feminist theory has obtained a significant grounding. Feminist theorists refer to Lyotard’s works to reveal the plurality and inequality within the developed societies. It is possible to state that this theory supports Lyotard’s ideas and concepts. At present, feminist theory is based on the assumption that there is inequality which is maintained by the existing system. This is what Lyotard mentions in his famous book The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. At that, supporters of feminist theory now exploit the notion of the knowledge in the contemporary society. Knowledge is now seen as one of the ways to redistribute power and make women more empowered. The conflict theory has also been shaped to some extent. One of the major effects Lyotard (1979) has had on this theory can be traced in the terrain of the matter of the conflict. Thus, conflict theorists of the nineteenth century or early twentieth century claimed that societies struggled for resources. However, the contemporary (or postmodern) conflict theorists claim that information is one of the major resources in the twenty-first century. They stress that knowledge is one of the most valuable resources in the era of information. It is also important to note that Lyotard’s ideas prove that the conflict theory is still influential. Thus, theorists still focus on the concept of the conflict which is one of the forces shaping the development of the society. On the contrary, Lyotard (1979) proves that functionalist theory is declining. According to this theory the society is a system which strives for perfection, i.e. proper development of all its constituent parts. Nonetheless, major concepts of postmodernism refute this assumption. Lyotard (1979) proves that there can be no stability in the system. Therefore, there can be no way to make each part of the system develop proportionally. Abundance of data and chaotic nature of knowledge makes it impossible for the system to develop in a stable way. Plurality is associated with conflict of ideas and interests, which, in its turn, leads to disproportionate distribution of resources, i.e. disproportionate development of the society. In conclusion, it is possible to note that Lyotard’s book The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge is one of the most influential works of postmodern era. The theorist outlined major trends which were apparent in the society of the twentieth century. He identified the structure and the role of knowledge in the society of the information era. According to Lyotard (1979), information is one of the major resources and the societies of the information era strive for control over this resource. The theorist also unveils plurality of the contemporary society. Importantly Lyotard (1979) also stresses that abundance of information can have to implications. It can lead societies to totalitarian rule (which is always short-lived though) or it can lead to inexhaustible development. However, the author stresses that this development is possible if the information is available to everyone. Importantly, the concepts provided by the author have had profound impact on the development of other theories of society. Lyotard (1979) justifies consistency of the conflict theory as he stresses that the conflict is an indispensible part of the development of the society. Feminist theory is also empowered as Lyotard (1979) reveals plurality of the world and the inequality within the contemporary societies. Finally, the theorist undermines the functionalist theory. Lyotard (1979) proves that the theory is inconsistent as there is no stability in the society. It is also important to note that Lyotard’s ideas have already been justified by time. Thus, the society follows the pattern outlined by the theorist. Masses have almost unlimited access to information through the Internet. This helps the societies to cooperate and develop, i.e. find new ways to address existing issues. Reference List Lyotard, JF 1979, The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK.