Doctoral Thinking on your student website.
Then, in this thread, click Reply, and click Quote Original. Read the following passages and complete the tables for each passage. Type your Reflection Question response and post your message to the thread. Review the answer key in the Course Materials forum after the activity due date. Low-Rigor Passage Note. The following references have been fabricated for this sample passage. For centuries people have been debating whether leaders are born or made.
Perhaps leaders are both. There are hundreds of different leadership styles, and they can all be effective depending on the leader and the situation. Leaders can choose which style is best for their particular needs. According to Koffer (2007), situational leadership is the preferred leadership style among executives in multinational companies. As society becomes increasingly global, leaders must have situational leadership skills to remain competitive and achieve the mission. Global organizations can greatly benefit when leaders use the situational style.The situational style is just one of many styles, but it has advantages that other styles do not have.
In a global market, situational leadership is necessary for success. Low-Rigor Indicators| Examples From the Text(copy and paste phrases or sentences from the passage)| Vague statements| Since the beginning of time, information literacy has been the biggest concern for educators. | Unsupported opinions| Many educators feel their students do not have the necessary information literacy skills. | Inadequate explanations| Many educators feel their students do not have the necessary information literacy skills. High-Rigor Passage Note. The following references have been fabricated for this sample passage. Twenty-first century leaders may choose from many leadership styles, including transformational, situational, and servant leadership.
While all these styles can be effective, Koffer (2007) found situational leadership to be the most favored style in multinational organizations. According to Koffer, situational leaders are those who can adapt their behaviors to changing circumstances. For example, a situational leader might provide intensive coaching and supervision to unify two groups of employees after a merger.However, as the team becomes unified, the leader offers less supervision and requires the employees to be more self-sufficient. This adaptive leadership style can be especially beneficial in global companies as leaders modify their behaviors to accommodate culturally and geographically diverse workforces (Ming-Lee, 2008). High-Rigor Indicators| Examples From the Text(copy and paste phrases or sentences from the passage)| Ideas supported by research| According to the Gooding Educational Research Foundation (2007), nearly 85% of American high school students rely solely on the Internet for their academic research. Explanations of key concepts| Yet Internet sources are often inaccurate, misleading, or out of date.
| Examples to illustrate ideas| Less than 5% of all Internet sources consist of reliable, verifiable, factual information (Brandis, 2006). | Reflection Question Note that both passages addressed the same topic—leadership—with the same word count of 125 words, using correct grammar and APA citations. What insights can you gain from comparing the two passages? How will you apply these insights to your own writing?Although both passages are about leadership, the high rigor passage was more believable because it had examples and research to support the main idea of the text. What I have gained from reading both passages is that scholarly writing requires research and examples to support it. Verifiable research is important as scholarly writing within the community will be used and referred to by other scholarly writers. “Many educators feel their students do not have the necessary information literacy skills” is an opinion and should be avoided in scholarly writing.This sentence “Less than 5% of all internet sources consist of reliable, verifiable, factual information,” is a good example that includes fact and support the previous sentence about the number of American students who rely on the internet for information.
In my own writing I intent to use reliable, verifiable, factual research, and examples to support my ideas or findings. I will avoid using opinions and generalized statements in my writing. When restating known facts support with research and examples when possible. Week 2 Activity 2: Scholarly Sources – due 6/3 Posted: Mon 05/30/2011 04:49 AM , by: Dr.Caroline Molina-Ray ( cmray@email. phoenix. edu ) Previous | Next Week Two: Learning Activity 2 – Scholarly Sources Read the University of Phoenix Material: Scholarly Sources on your student website.
Then, briefly read the two articles on the SEM/700R Electronic Reserve Readings page—Smith text and Ballinger & Schoorman text. You do not need to read the articles in depth. Instead, focus only on the aspects of each article that indicate its credibility as a doctoral research source. Note. In addition to skimming the articles, you may wish to use a search engine such as Google™ to find out more about the source publication.In this thread, click Reply, then, click Quote Original. Complete the Source Comparison Worksheet by noting your perceptions of how each source meets the evaluation criteria.
Type your Reflection Question response, and post your message to the thread. Review the answer key in the Course Materials forum after the activity due date. Example: | Smith text| Ballinger & Schoorman text| Use of APA format for in-text citations and references| No in-text citations or references| APA format for in-text citations, but not for references | Source Comparison WorksheetScholarly writing should also serve the intended audience and research purposes. When conducting doctoral research I will choose resources that are peer-reviewed, scholarly written and contains verifiable references and citations. Caroline Molina-Ray, Ph. D. (“Dr.
Ray”) Associate Faculty School of Advanced Studies University of Phoenix cmray@email. phoenix. edu Hi Tanya, I wish I could say that I have been writing scholarly articles before my admission to this program, however, just like you I am new to scholarly writing.I often think of how I want my writing to be perceived as believable. Writing in the third person is difficult. Although I might add active writing as oppose to passive is probably more difficult. Some important information to reflect upon when considering scholarly writing are the intent of the article, the audience, how ideas or findings will be supported, moral and ethical aspects, publication, and how you will present the information.
Always use cited examples to support general arguments whenever possible.Another idea to improve scholarly writing is to read scholarly peer-reviewed articles and examined its components. I am amazed at how much I learned about scholarly writing when taking COM/705 and I will transfer what I learned to my other classes growing from every phase of this experience. I am excited to learn more about how scholarly writing conveys new ideas supported by other peer-reviewed sources. Hi I agree with you that it is important to differentiate scholarly writing from entertainment writing even if the topics are similar.The target audience dictates the style of writing required. Smith’s article was written to entertain the reader and solicit sales, while Ballinger and Schoorman’s article was written to share research on leadership at the doctoral level.
Ballinger and Schoorman’s article includes peer-reviewed research contributions, a scholarly tone and viable citations. Smith’s article contained facts about leadership; however, unsuitable for doctoral scholarly writing. Doctoral writing has specific requirements for publication.
What similarities and differences did you find between Ortega y Gasset’s conception of mass society and Lenin’s view of a communist society? How would each address the concept of freedom within mass society?
What similarities and differences did you find between Ortega y Gasset’s conception of mass society and Lenin’s view of a communist society? How would each address the concept of freedom within mass society?.
What similarities and differences did you find between Ortega y Gasset’s conception of mass society and Lenin’s view of a communist society? How would each address the concept of freedom within mass society? Your response should be a minimum of three paragraphs. Academic Level : Bachelor Paper details What similarities and differences did you find between Ortega y Gasset’s conception of mass society and Lenin’s view of a communist society? How would each address the concept of freedom within mass society? Your response should be a minimum of three paragraphs. José Ortega y Gasset, Revolt of the Masses (1930) There is one fact which, whether for good or ill, is of utmost importance in the public life of Europe at its present moment. The fact is the accession of the masses to complete social power. As the masses, by definition, neither should nor can direct their own personal existence, and still less rule society in general, this fact means that actually Europe is suffering from the greatest general crisis that can afflict peoples, nations and civilization. Strictly speaking, the mass, as a psychological fact, can be defined without waiting for individuals to appear in mass formation. In the presence of one individual we can decide whether he is “mass” or not. The mass is all that which sets no value on itself — good or ill — based on specific grounds, but which feels itself “just like everybody,” and nevertheless is not concerned about it; is, in fact, quite happy to feel itself as one with everybody else. The mass believes that it has the right to impose and to give force of law to motions born in the café. I doubt whether there have been other periods of history in which the multitude has come to govern more directly than in our own. The characteristic of the hour is that the commonplace mind, knowing itself to be commonplace, has the assurance to proclaim the rights of the commonplace and to impose them wherever it will. As they say in the United States: “to be different is to be indecent.” The mass crushes beneath it everything that is different, everything that is excellent, individual, qualified and select. Anybody who is not like everybody, who does not think like everybody, runs the risk of being eliminated. It is illusory to imagine that the mass-man of to-day will be able to control, by himself, the process of civilization. I say process, and not progress. The simple process of preserving our present civilization is supremely complex, and demands incalculably subtle powers. Ill-fitted to direct it is this average man who has learned to use much of the machinery of civilization, but who is characterized by root-ignorance of the very principles of that civilization. The command over the public life exercised today by the intellectually vulgar is perhaps the factor of the present situation which is most novel, least assimilable to anything in the past. At least in European history up to the present, the vulgar had never believed itself to have “ideas” on things. It had beliefs, traditions, experiences, proverbs, mental habits, but it never imagine itself in possession of theoretical opinions on what things are or ought to be. To-day, on the other hand, the average man has the most mathematical “ideas” on all that happens or ought to happen in the universe. Hence he has lost the use of his hearing. Why should he listen if he has within him all that is necessary? There is no reason now for listening, but rather for judging, pronouncing, deciding. There is no question concerning public life, in which he does not intervene, blind and deaf as he is, imposing his “opinions.” But, is this not an advantage? Is it not a sign of immense progress that the masses should have “ideas,” that is to say, should be cultured? By no means. The “ideas” of the average man are not genuine ideas, nor is their possession culture. Whoever wishes to have ideas must first prepare himself to desire truth and to accept the rules of the game imposed by it. It is no use speaking of ideas when there is no acceptance of a higher authority to regulate them, a series of HIST 202: Week 5 Primary Source Analysis
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