Consider the following issue after reading the WHO document “Health Systems, Health and Wealth: Assessing the Case for Investing in Health Systems” from the Copenhagen Conference in 2008. Concerns about financial sustainability and cost containment have put great pressure on health policymakers in recent years. The resources available to any society are finite, but emerging evidence is recasting health systems not as a drain on those resources but as an opportunity to invest in the health of the population and in economic growth. In a complex of mutually reinforcing and dynamic connections, health systems, health, and wealth are intricately intertwined. This new paradigm allows for a fundamental rethinking of the function of health-care systems in society. Please elaborate on the following three questions: How can investing in health systems benefit our health, prosperity, and societal well-being? How can we assure the long-term viability of health-care systems? How can we track, manage, and improve performance in health care systems to make them more effective and efficient?