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Purpose: Organize references into a meaningful and concise list which supports review of literature paper development. Instructions: Create a

Purpose: Organize references into a meaningful and concise list which supports review of literature paper development.


Create a list of references you will be using for your review of literature paper (10 minimum).

Complete template and submit in landscape orientation.

Review the rubric PRIOR to starting the assignment.

Animal shelter and cruelty in Arizona

Animal shelter and cruelty in Arizona.

 Informative essay, not bias, three citation will provide articles pdf form since only student can access from the website you are required to use but can use the following links for fact/citation also

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Explain the process of gender socialisation in our society from either a conflict or functionalist perspective. Highlight at least two agents of socialisation and how they reinforce gender roles in a child’s life

Purpose: Organize references into a meaningful and concise list which supports review of literature paper development. Instructions: Create a Explain the process of gender socialisation in our society from either a conflict or functionalist perspective. Highlight at least two agents of socialisation and how they reinforce gender roles in a child’s life.

Explain the process of gender socialisation in our society from either a conflict or functionalist

perspective. Highlight at least two agents of socialisation and how they reinforce gender roles in a

child’s life.

You have already done this essay for me in 500words but i have to do another which needs to go

more into details this is my first order number if it helps you go through it to continue with the

second one 81822053


word length 1500 words

acadamic resources only

1. Breaking down the Question (The introduction)

At this stage you may or may not have checked or read the readings for the essay on the reading list

on vUWS. Some students like to break down all three questions to help them decide which question

to pick. It is up to you if you want to do this. Breaking down the question is really about working out

what sociological ideas and concepts the question is about and what it is asking you to do with

them. Having a clear understanding of the essay question is an important step to answering it.

The following information should be in this section of your essay plan:

i. What is the key sociological concept or idea the question is using? This is one of the most

important parts of the question. You need to know what specific idea or concept from the unit the

question wants you to use.


ii. The question asks you to apply that sociological concept or use that concept on one, or maybe

more subjects or examples. You need to identify what those examples are. Let’s call these the subjects

of the question. The subject(s) of the question might be movies, a social event or aspects of

Australian society. iii. Next you need to understand how the question asks you to apply the

sociological concept or use them on the subjects. It might ask you to compare, contrast, explore,

explain or give ways. iv. When you apply a sociological concept to a subject you can also use a

sociological theory to help explain or explore or compare. Try to identify a sociological theory that

fits the question and explain why it works (this can be hard, but if you do it well you will be

rewarded with marks).

When you write the full essay, the information in this section will form part of the Introduction to

your essay. At this stage your introduction is more a brief paragraph, maybe only 100 words.

Once you start to understand the question you will also start to interpret the question. There are

choices for you to make about how you will answer the question, for example if the subject is a

movie you need to decide which parts of the movie you will write about. If the subject is Australian

Society, what parts of Australian society will you write about? Likewise what aspects of the

sociological concept will you use? How will theory fit with this? It is good to think about this before

you move on to the rest of your plan

How should you present this information in the essay plan?

There are two good ways

? You could present it like a short answer question. For example: ‘the sociological concept the

question uses is Social Inequality. Social Inequality is defined as ….’ ? Or you could use the information to create a paragraph that covers all the points (when it comes time to write your essay

you will have to do this. It is up to you if you do it now).

Do not use dot points. We need to see that you can write sentences and paragraphs


2. Defining the sociological concepts

You should provide a definition or explanation of the sociological concepts the question uses to

show you know what it is and can explain it. Make sure you provide a citation for the resource where

you got this definition from (probably your text book). You could use a direct quote for a definition,

but a better idea is to explain it in your own words (with a citation of course). This is called

paraphrasing. It shows strong understanding of the concept. If you can explain it in your own words,

then the marker is sure that you understand it.

You have some flexibility about where to put these definitions in your plan and essay, some students

like to put it in the introduction while others might start their key points with these definitions. The

point here is to make it clear to the marker that you are providing a definition. Maybe start that

sentence with words like, ‘X is a sociological concept that is defined as…’ or something like that.

Remember, there might be more than one concept, so you might end up providing a few different


The better your definitions of sociological concepts and ideas, the better you will do in this criteria.

3. Key Points and examples

An essay is a large answer to an essay question. Part of the reason it is large is that you not only have

to present an argument or a position as the answer, but also you have to defend that position with

evidence. As I mentioned in the lecture some students will read the essay question and know straight

away what they want their answer to be. Others will need to read all the readings before they know

what position they want to take. Both approaches are fine, but once you get to this stage you will

have to read the readings to get your key points. The key points are justifications for your position or

argument, but they must be defended with evidence from academic research.

Some points about key points:

Students often ask how many key points they should have in their essay. At university you are more

likely to be rewarded if you can get into depth on your key points. This reduces the number that you

can use. If you use too many key points, then instead of getting into depth you will start to

summarise the topic. Instead of showing your knowledge and understanding, you will just be

skimming the surface of the concept and the subjects. For this essay three or four key points would

be a good number.


Your key points need to flow from the break down of the question, they need to use the sociological

concept, the subject and topic of the essay and what you have been asked to do with them. This

year’s assessment is really about explaining the sociological concepts/ideas and applying them to a

topic. This means you will be able to provide examples that help show the marker that you

understand the sociological concepts.As they are part of a position or argument, the key points all need to relate to each other in a logical

way. Remember, the key points are meant to support the position or argument.

Within the key points it would be a good idea to have a sentence or two that explains how you are

going to use the sociological theory you have picked in the essay.

And lastly you need to include a least one citation for each key point. Make sure you acknowledge

what resource the idea or the evidence has come from.

4. Conclusion

Both your essay plan and your essay need a conclusion, but the one for your essay plan will be much

shorter. The conclusion for your essay will review your essay as a whole; you will mention your key

points to remind the marker of how great they were. You will also explain how these points come

together to defend your answer to the essay question.

In the plan you need to provide an outline of that summary. How will these points work together and

importantly, what is the ultimate concluding answer to the essay question?

How should you present this information in the essay plan?

Again, avoid dot points here. Instead use a few sentences to explain each key point. You only have

500 words for the plan in total so try to keep it tight. You can expand on the details in the essay.

Don’t forget to add the citations for each key point.

How should you present this information in the essay plan?

Again, avoid dot points. Try to summarise your key points in a sentence or two. Explain how they

support your argument/position. End the conclusion with a sentence or two that answers the essay

question or finishes the answer you have developed.


5. Organising the ideas and structuring the essay plan

We have included this in the criteria so we can reward student for giving their essays a clear structure

and writing clear paragraphs. Obviously you have the introduction, body and conclusion as structures

for the essay, but you also want to make sure that you have clear paragraphs within those sections.

For example, a different paragraph for each key point.

A paragraph should really be united around one central idea or point. That should be made clear in

the topic sentence, which is like an introduction for the paragraph. It tells the reader what the

paragraph will be about. Following the topic sentence is the body of the paragraph, the supporting

statements that provide detail and discuss the central idea of the paragraph. It is worth spending

some time on getting the order of these supporting sentences correct so they build meaning and

show understanding. You then end the paragraph with a concluding sentence that often takes the

central idea of the paragraph and relates it back to the essay question. Check out the example of an  essay plan to see a break down of the structure of a paragraph. We will talk about this in lectures as


Good writing takes time and practice. As you write more essays you will naturally get better,

especially if you pay attention to the feedback from the markers. One way to improve is to spend

more time editing and proof reading your work. We will talk about this in the lecture.

6. Research and Referencing

The last section of the criteria concerns what research you have done and how well you have

presented your references. You should refer to the Harvard guide on referencing and the Guide to

Academic Writing to make sure you citations in the plan and your reference list are correct; however

here are some specific points to check:

? Your text book should be one of your academic resources for the essay plan

? You can use 3 of the essay readings on vUWS in your plan

? In the end you should have 4­6 academic resources for the essay plan. You can use the ones we

have provided, or you can always go and find your own resources.

? For the essay you will need 6­10 academic resources. You don’t have to include them in your plan,

but if you do and they are good resources you will be rewarded with marks. It will also give the tutor

an opportunity to give you some feedback on the quality of the resources you found through your

own research.

School of Social Sciences and Psychology

Essay Writing Guide

This resource provides general guidance on essay writing. Firstly, it covers how to analyse and

understand an essay question. Secondly it outlines the basic structure of an essay and then explains

how to present your responses to the essay question in sequenced paragraphs, which include clear

topic sentences. Finally, the resource briefly explains in­text referencing techniques.

1. Analysing the essay question

It is important to read the essay question carefully and break it down into the following parts:

Type of word Purpose

Topic or content words Topic or content words tell you what you are going to write about. They

signal the issues and/or concepts you should concentrate on. These are generally easy to identify, as

they are the topics that you have studied in your Unit.

Task or process words Task or process words tell you what you need to do in relation to the topic,

for example discuss, argue, analyse, evaluate, or explain. Task or process words are usually verbs

(doing words), but may also be direct questions, such as ‘what’, ‘how’ or ‘in what ways’.

Focus or limiting words Limiting or focus words are the aspects of the topic you are asked to pay

particular attention to.

The following essay question example is broken down into the parts mentioned above:

Increasing the literacy levels of Indigenous Australian children is a national priority. Discuss the

challenges of this aim and identify researched solutions.

Topic words: literacy levels of Indigenous Australian children Task words: discuss; identify Focus

words: challenges; researched solutions

Analysing these parts can also provide you with a structure for the essay — that is how to order your

response into sequenced sections and paragraphs. For the essay question above this could be:

1) Explaining why increasing the literacy level of Indigenous Australian children is an aim of the


This could involve defining the term ‘literacy’; explaining why good literacy levels are of benefit to

individuals and communities; providing some historical or statistical information about the literacy

levels of Indigenous Australian children and quoting government documents that explain and give

reasons for its’ initiatives to improve them.


2) Giving reasons why this aim has been difficult to achieve

This part is about the challenges and is the discuss part of the question. It might involve reference to

information and theories in the Unit readings and your wider reading. It might involve pointing to

how researchers, politicians and /or the media have critiqued the governments’ actions to address the

aims or discussed wider social attitudes to the issues. This part of the essay would present a range of

perspectives to give an overview of how the issue is being debated.

3) Giving examples of solutions that researchers have offered to solve these difficulties

This is the identify part of the essay. This is where you focus in on what researchers have to say

about the issues (from your Unit readings and wider research). Here you pick out the

recommendations that researchers make in direct relation to the issues you raised in the section

above. Linking the answers you quote in this section to the issues/problems you raised in the

previous section would help your argument to flow and provide coherence between the sections.

NOTE: the above are suggestions only – the essay could be organised in other ways. Once your

sections are drafted you would then add or refine your introduction and write a conclusion that

restates the points and the main conclusions you have made. These aspects of an essay are explained


2. Essay structure

The structure of a piece of writing refers to the kinds of sections it is made up of. For example, a

journal article always begins with an abstract, which is a concise summary of the whole piece of

writing, whereas an essay does not. There are different ways to structure an essay, for example

sometimes sub­headings are used — this will depend on what your Unit lecturer expects. However the

basic structure of an essay is always: Introduction; Body; Conclusion. The following explains the key

features of these sections.

The introduction An introduction to an essay will give an overview of the essay topic (sometimes

called an orientation, or contextual statement) and sometimes restates in the writers own words, the

tasks that have been requested in relation to the topic.

Often the introduction will also provide brief definitions of the key terms, main concepts, ideas or

issues contained in the essay questions. These definitions show your reader your understanding of

the topics and terms you have been studying in the Unit.

The purpose of an essay is usually to persuade the reader to agree on the writer’s point of view. This

point of view is often called a thesis statement or argument. By the end of the introduction, your

reader should know the position you have taken in relation to the essay question. Your position

should be based on your evaluation of the evidence and ideas you find in your academic readings.

Finally, the introduction provides an outline of what is to come — that is, a sketch of the main points

you will make in the body of the essay to argue for the position you have taken. The outline in an

introduction will list the points in the order that they are made in the body. For example, the


introduction to this Essay Guide under the main heading tells you what this resource is about, and

then steps through the order of the contents: firstly…secondly…then…finally.

The example introduction below shows the main aspects of an essay introduction:

Critically assess whether Marx’s theory of alienation is still relevant to modern society.


**Thesis statement/argument


Marx’s theory of alienation originated in his analysis of the causes of the unequal distribution of

power, property and wealth in capitalist society over a century ago (1844)*. Because these

inequalities still exist, Marx’s theory of alienation remains highly relevant to modern society**. This

essay explains Marx’s theory of alienation then explores this idea as it relates to modern society. It will

then be argued that workers’ alienation from the processes of production has resulted in alienation

from their own creative human nature and, in competition for employment, in the alienation of

person to person***.

The body The body of an essay will be the bulk of the word count set by your lecturer. In the body

of an essay the ideas or main points contained in the introduction will be expanded on: explained,

discussed, analysed and critiqued. Each paragraph in the body explains one major idea that is

connected to the thesis statement or argument — think of paragraphs as building blocks that are

connected to make the whole argument.

When planning the body of your essay, it is important to decide what purpose each paragraph has.

For example, different purposes could be:

• To provide background information on the main topic of the assignment • To compare and contrast

information • To classify information • To show cause and effect

ACTIVITY: Look at the example essay question about the literacy levels of Indigenous Australian

children in section 1 of this guide – Analysing the task. Under the three suggested parts for this essay

question, some options are given for the kind of ideas that could go under each. Think about how

these points could be ‘chunked’ into paragraphs — which ideas could be chunked together, and

which might need their own paragraph?

The conclusion The conclusion reviews and sums up your essay by restating the main points that

have served to build your argument. The conclusion should leave your reader convinced of the

strengths of your thesis or argument, and so it is essential to briefly restate the thesis that you

announced in the introduction. A conclusion is where you further persuade your reader and

qualifying words or phrases can be used, for example “The evidence presented in this essay is

convincing because….”; “There is strong agreement among theorists that….”; “The critical analysis of

issues in this essay provides support for the idea that…”


It is important that a conclusion does not introduce any new material or ideas, or make claims that

are not supported by or covered in the previous sections of the essay.

3. Paragraph structure

A paragraph addresses and expands on one key point and could be described as a ‘mini essay’ in that

it has a clear introduction (contextual and topic sentences), body (sentences that expand, explain

and provide evidence for the point made in the topic sentence) and a conclusion (a summary

sentence that states the importance of the information presented in the paragraph). In summary, a

paragraph has at least two, but sometimes three parts, to its structure.

? A topic sentence that presents the main idea of the paragraph

? Supporting sentences in the form of explanations, elaboration, examples or evidence

? A concluding sentence that signals the importance of the paragraph and links it back to the

assignment question and/or to the next paragraph

TIP: When reviewing your writing, count how many ideas are in a paragraph. Are they all clearly

connected in that they support the main point? If not, could an idea/point be pulled out and formed

into a paragraph of its own?

4. Topic sentences

A topic sentence sets up ‘the business’ of the paragraph, making clear what point will be expanded

on. A topic sentence usually appears at the beginning of a paragraph. It may be preceded by a

general, contextual sentence.

The topic sentence in the example paragraph below has been underlined. From this sentence, we

know that the paragraph will be about the difference between adults and children who are learning to

speak English. In particular, it will be about accents (pronunciation). The rest of the paragraph gives

(researched) reasons why there is a difference in pronunciation between adults and children.

Pronunciation is one area of second language acquisition where children seem to have an advantage

over adults. Whereas adults normally retain an accent long after they have reached fluency, children

usually manage to speak a second language with little or no accent (McLaughlin, 1984, p. 53). This

difference has been attributed to biological causes. For example, Lenneberg (cited in McLaughlin,

1984, p. 46) claims that after puberty “the brain has lost its plasticity”. The result is that children

possess a capacity for excellent phonological representation, which adults have lost.

5. Referencing techniques

This section gives a brief overview of ways to use in­text references, either by paraphrasing (writing

about another authors ideas, but in your own words), or by direct quotations (using the exact words

of another author). In both cases you need to make clear that the idea belongs to someone else. The

table below shows the main difference between direct quotes and paraphrases. The examples below


the table show how a direct quote is presented and then how that same quote has been paraphrased

and referenced.

Direct quotations Paraphrases

Match the original source word for word Do not match the source word for word

Are usually a brief segment of the text, often woven into the essay writer’s own sentence

Are passages from a source put into your own words

Appear between quotation marks “…” Change the words or phrasing of a text, but retains and fully

communicates the original meaning

Must be attributed to the original source and include the page number (if available, if not, use n.d.


Must be attributed to the original source, but does not need to provide a page number.

Example of direct quoting

Drake (2001) describes family historians as “generative individuals” who are concerned to record and

preserve personal histories for posterity and who “encourage the sharing of records, the open

distribution of materials, and the interconnections of persons” (p. 5).

Example of a paraphrase of the passage above

It is important to family historians that their records are kept and shared so that future generations

can benefit from them. They believe their work helps to bring people together (Drake 2001, p.5).

Every source you use in your writing, whether it is a direct quote or a paraphrase must be listed in a

separate Reference List at the end of your essay. A Style Guide is the set of instructions for formatting

both in­text references and for formatting the final Reference List. You will need to consult the

Harvard Style Guide to complete your essay.

And finally…….

This resource is a general guide only. There are many excellent academic writing resources on the

internet and it is worthwhile searching through them to find ones that are of particular use to you.

The Library Study Smart website on the WSU website provides links to a range of resources that

include guides for other genres of writing such as reports, annotated bibliographies and literature

reviews, as well as resources for English grammar and punctuation.

You will also find information about free skills workshops and programs on the HALL website

These are available at:

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CBS reflections in a bloodshot eye

CBS reflections in a bloodshot eye.

CBS reflections in a bloodshot eye Description It is a review of the last four chapter of the book with comments as well.

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