The puritan attack to Islam is revered by the more conservative members of the Muslim community as necessary and. at the same clip. is ardently denounced by modernists. As highlighted by the differences in Islamic idea by modernists. such as Khaled Abu El Fadl. and that of more traditional minds. including Sayyid Qutb. Abu-L-‘Ala’ Mawdudi. and Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni. there are clear divisions between the two groups. These divergencies between the two groups are highlighted through their sentiments toward the nature of rational thought. Islamic jurisprudence. authorities. and modernism. Puritanical Islam is a motion by which Muslims seek to return to the “pure” and Orthodox pattern of the basicss of Islam. as exemplified in the Quran and the life of the Prophet Mohammed ( El Fadl 2005. 82-87 ) . It is an apprehension of the Quran and spiritual texts. in their actual signifier. as ultimate spiritual authorization that must be adhered excessively in every facet of a Muslim’s day-to-day life. However. non all Muslims adhere to the puritan attack to Islam. and therefore. there are clear differentiations that separate modernist Muslims. such as El Fadl. and puritan advocators.
Even though both groups do revere and consecrate the basicss of Islam. they understand and adhere to them otherwise. Modernists apply reason to spiritual texts. utilizing the basicss of Islam as a means to understand modern times. and implement their apprehensions consequently. On the other manus. Puritans deny the usage of reason in adhering to the Quran and Sunnah. and understand them in their actual sense. denying anything that diverges from the written word ( El Fadl 2005. 128-29 ) . Therefore. modernist minds describe Puritans as being unaccepting of any Islamic legal expert or spiritual figure who is non a rigorous “literalist. ” which wholly denounces the beauty of the human head and its ability to utilize reason as a beginning for understanding ( El Fadl 2005. 96-97 ) . Furthermore. the function that reason dramas in the Muslim reading of spiritual texts. leads to an apprehension of Islamic jurisprudence that is clearly different between modernists and puritan minds.
Islamic jurisprudence. harmonizing to el Fadl. can be interpreted utilizing historical histories. and reason. leting it to set harmonizing to modern times. and in bend. modern-day state of affairss. However. because puritan minds denounce the usage of reason in Islamic idea. and believe that Islamic jurisprudence is meant to be understood in its actual signifier. without respect for its historical context. there is a strong divide between modernist and puritan minds on this subject. Modernists understand Islamic jurisprudence as a human reading of Sharia. known as fiqh. which unlike Sharia. is non godly or ageless. Fiqh is the human reading of Sharia Law and is capable to “error. change. development. and nullification. ” ( El Fadl 2005. 150 ) . Harmonizing to El Fadl. it is so chesty for puritan trusters to believe that they “successfully comprehend” ( El Fadl 2005. 150 ) what ageless jurisprudence is. and because of that. merely use fiqh to affairs that are non straight addressed by God in the Quran or Sunnah.
In conformity with El Fadl’s analysis of puritan thought. Sayyid Qutb presents that Godhead jurisprudence and metaphysical concerns do non let for interpretative idea. and implies that rational thought can merely be applied to the scientific disciplines and proficient professions ( Qutb 2002. 193-208 ) . Thinkers such as Mawdudi do use historical context to represent the instructions of the Quran. but do non let for an reading of the Quran based on historical events. Mawdudi makes usage of historical context to learn values and Torahs. connoting that illustrations brought Forth by the prophesier in his instructions have a clear aim that must be adhered excessively irrespective of alterations in society ( Mawdudi 2002. 208-15 ) . Furthermore. the rigorous application of Islamic jurisprudence to human behavior and political relations observed by Puritans straight affects their belief in a demand for an Islamic province. The puritan rigorous reading of Islamic jurisprudence influences its stance on Muslim authorities and morality to a big grade. Harmonizing to El Fadl. Puritans seek to use Quranic rules irrespective of the deductions: extenuation of justness. deficiency of clemency. and debased equity ( El Fadl 2005. 163-70 ) .
It is besides mentioned that Puritan minds tend to trust on their actual apprehension of Islamic historical legal power. peculiarly determinations enforced by the Islamic Caliphate or the “rightly guided” . to warrant a coercive signifier of Islam that is upheld by authorities ( El Fadl 2005. 197 ) . First. even though El Fadl claims a separation between puritan thought and justness. puritan minds such as Khumayni. place Islamic jurisprudence. and in bend its enforcement through authorities action. as the lone agencies by which to accomplish true justness ( Khumayni 2007. 333-5 ) . Harmonizing to Khumayni justness and societal freedom can merely be achieved through the unchanged application of Sharia. which can merely be implemented through the supervising of a “perfect authorities. ” as prescribed by God ( Khumayni 2007. 339 ) . He besides mentions that if an Muslim authorities is non put in topographic point by the Ummah. so they participate in a signifier of devotion. as they obey and follow the Torahs and impressions of a false God ( mentioning to any important figure non set into power by God: despotic swayers. authorities figures. and presidents of republican authoritiess ) .
The impression of holding an Muslim authorities. set Forth by justly guided swayers. is strongly disputed by El Fadl. as he presets that worlds are incapable of understanding Sharia. and can merely trust on fiqh. which gives manner to human mistake. Thus. El Fadl disagrees with the thought that a perfect signifier of authorities can be achieved through the human application of Sharia. and alternatively. brings forth the thought that a democratic authorities that allows for “check and balances. ” is of a more perfect and merely nature ( El Fadl 2005. 197-98 ) . Additionally. El Fadl and Qutb portion the thought that puritanical trusters must insulate themselves from western civilization. and overemphasize piousness in times when they deem necessary. As stated by Qutb. “if in any age we find desire to overemphasise the pietistic facet of the religion and divorce it from societal facet. or to disassociate societal facet from it. it will be at mistake of that age. instead than on Islam. ” ( Qutb 2007. 103 ) .
Therefore. it can be derived that a push for an Muslim authorities by puritanical leaders is an attempt to eliminate modernisation brought upon the Islamic community by altering times and western civilization. In understanding the positions of puritanical minds. and that of groups that are opposed to such positions. one can break understand the generalisations that each group makes about one another. and recognize that both hold an utmost position of each other’s attack to Islam. Puritanical minds deem it necessary to implement Sharia into society. and preach the demand for an Islamic signifier of authorities that allows for justness and release from immorality. On the other manus. modernists hold the positions of puritan minds as ungrounded. and as defying of the human ability to ground. Modernists such as El Fadl believe in democratic authorities. and an execution of fiqh. the human appreciation of Sharia. that is in line with modernisation and modern-day times.
Fadl. Abou El. 2005. The Great Larceny: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. New York: Harper Collins. Khumayni. Ruhullah Ayatulla. 2007. Muslim Government. Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives. erectile dysfunction. John J. Donohue and John L. Esposito. 332-40. New York: Oxford University Press. Maududi. Sayyid Abul A’la. 2002. Fallacy of Rationalism. In Modernist and Fundamentalist Debates in Islam: A Reader. erectile dysfunction. Mansoor Moaddel and Kamran Talattof. 207–21. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Qutb. Sayyid. 2002. Islam as the Foundation of Knowledge. In Modernist and Fundamentalist Debates in Islam: A Reader. erectile dysfunction. Mansoor Moaddel and Kamran Talattof. 197–206. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Qutb. Sayyid. 2007. Social Justice in Islam. Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives. erectile dysfunction. John J. Donohue and John L. Esposito. 103-108. New York: Oxford University Press.
Statement of Stockholder’s equity
Statement of Stockholder’s equity.
To answer the questions below please refer to the following website: www.sec.gov ( SEC 10-K Facebook) or try the link below https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1326801/000132680119000009/fb-12312018x10k.htm#s3714AF39C3CC5682ADA657DA7DE15627 Category: Reporting Stockholders’ Equity 1. Explain the relevancy of your company’s statement of stockholders’ equity. Your comments should include column titles as well as line items. Any surprises related to items not included or items displayed? What changes do you observe? An example would be treasury stock. 2. Retained earnings or accumulated deficits: comment on the activity reporting, including references to previous fiscal year activity. Category: Common Stock, Dividends, and other activity 1. Describe activity for this fiscal year and others disclosed relating to common stock, dividends, and related activity. 2. Comment on concepts such as stock compensation and stock options. What do you learn from the notes to the financial statements regarding these items? Category: Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income / (Loss) 1. Compare and contract items in the area of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income / (Loss) for this fiscal year with other years disclosed in the statement of shareholders’ equity. 2. Provide additional details about accumulated other comprehensive income based on your review of the notes to the financial statements.
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