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Punishment Risk and Criminal Behavior Relationship Essay (Article)

Article Reflection “Does the Perceived Risk of Punishment Deter Criminally Prone Individuals? Rational Choice, Self-Control, and Crime” Nowadays, society utilizes a preemption model to foresee and prevent illicit events. The engagement of individuals in delinquent actions is commonly connected to the official and casual threats of reprimand. According to Wright, Caspi, Moffitt, and Paternoster (2004), further research should be conducted in this area. This decision is supported by the claim that the contingency on the pre-emption model increases spendings on the punishment of criminals. Moreover, the alleged criminals are not always the ones to be punished, and this imposes serious limitations on the current detention system (Wright et al., 2004). The authors of the article discuss the information concerning criminal behavior and review medical, psychological, and sociological premises of the delinquencies. Wright et al. (2004) concentrated their efforts on evaluating the impact of low self-control and self-perceived criminality on the outlooks of the wrongdoers. Their research also utilizes societal consent and the event of getting caught as the two core measures of preemption discernments. After the analysis of the article, I can confirm that the research reached the expected results. Several factors helped me to make this decision. First, the findings of the study showed that the preemption discernments among individuals susceptible to wrongdoing could be characterized as a rather powerful influence (Kleck

FNU Advanced Health Services Lead to Scarcity of Physician Patient Ratio Replies

FNU Advanced Health Services Lead to Scarcity of Physician Patient Ratio Replies.

Increased demand for healthcare services has resulted in a significant shortage in the physician to patient ratio. In this regard, there has been a constant search for innovations to strengthen the healthcare workforce. Nurses in advanced practice have been nominated to participate inpatient care to a great extent. One of the roles that the nursing practitioners have been enrolled in is providing primary, acute, and specialty healthcare through critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of various conditions. The other role of nursing practitioners is to provide gynecological services and reproductive healthcare. Comprehending the concepts of productivity and value is an essential undertaking for nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Accordingly, some of the effective approaches for APN strategic positioning regarding pay equality is calculating productivity in the workplace, which will then be used for equal pay negotiations. APNs should use the various tools available for measuring relative value units (RVU) since the approach converts work to numerical units. On the same note, it is integral for APNs to provide value concerning care since aspects such as patient satisfaction are determinants of pay equality. APNs need to provide valuable care and ensure patient satisfaction since these aspects determine their strategic positioning for pay equality. APNs should position themselves as low-cost providers who provide better care. As part of nursing ethics, APNs are required to provide care to patients without seeking favors or incentives from patients. Prioritizing aspects such as pay in healthcare provision negate the fundamental ethics of nursing in the provision of healthcare since individuals who cannot afford healthcare will not attain such services. ReferencesPickard, T. (2014). Calculating your worth: understanding productivity and value. Journal of the advanced practitioner in oncology, 5(2), 128.
FNU Advanced Health Services Lead to Scarcity of Physician Patient Ratio Replies

Contemporary Theories of Crime

write my term paper According to the history and development of the criminological theory, the knowledge of crime theory has a tendency to include the past criminological theory that has been developed before. For example the labeling theory has a great influence from Chicago school, Durkheim theory and concepts, and symbolic interactionism (Plummer) Theory has the particularity of being the subject of constant renewal, like most of the knowledge in our society. One way of expressing this characteristic is by Thomas Kuhn in his book: structure of scientific revolutions. What he express in his theory is how the knowledge considered as “normal science”, is in a continuum spiral, according to how theory explains reality inside the framework of paradigms. Once these paradigms reach a point in which they cannot explain reality, normal science reach the point of a crisis. To explain this crisis the paradigms of the normal science must change, summarizing what is usable by the anterior normal science and adding the new knowledge in form of paradigms that explains reality (Kuhn). This is exactly what happens with criminological theory, but still, besides all the progress theory has done, crime is still something hard to attach to a whole theory, and the combination of theory perspectives seems to be the most viable way to express the phenomenon of crime. On the contemporary criminological theory, one the perspectives that has a good approach to the actual context of crime is labeling theory. The labeling theory refers to the attachment of labels to a specific person in society according to the role he has on it. For example someone who commits a crime is recognized by the group of people around him as a criminal. But is not only the person who commits a crime, someone who is accused of committing a crime, doesn’t necessarily have committed that crime, but still he gets the label. Labeling theory refers to the identity that other people confer to one person. This identity is expressed as a label. The labels are stigmas inside society[1] that people must carry. This leads to the other part of the theory. Labeling theory, besides confer a stigma to the members of a society, also tries to explain another aspect of criminological behavior by opening the possibility of change in criminal behavior[2]. The stigma is hard to remove, but this theory proposes a way of reintegrating the members considered abnormal[3]: shaming is the process in which the person submit himself to a treatment or circumstance in which he resigns socially to crime, allowing him to reintegrate to society as a normal subject. The support of this theory is that bring an enormous quantity of material observation in other aspects of society, providing and using the concepts that society uses to determine the subjects inside it. For example the use of labels that are not only related to crime. Another contemporary theory with a wide perspective and more accurately related to actual crime is the environmental theory. This theory has a very situational approach to crime, because it is based on the characteristics that a special place must have for crime to be something executed. Crime occurs within the intersection of a space, time, a motivated offender, an attractive target, and lack of guardianship (Francis T. Cullen). The approach of this situational context has also the inclusion into theory of the daily activities of society, demarking the situation and the possibility of decrease crime by nullifying the situations in which crime can be committed, according to the routine people has. This theory has an opening to set crime as something different from the theories used before the 60’s. The possibility of seeing crime as something that may happen in every context, changes the relations of a stigmatized person to a situational expression of crime. Crime becomes the main subject of study, not the context[4] or the person who commit crime. When in this theory it is said that the focus is on crime, still a lot of concepts and ideas are part of the theory. For instance, the influences of Chicago school of mapping and characterizing crime zones. One contemporary expression of the applications of this theory is the broken windows theory[5]. The third analyzed theory in this text is the Developmental theory. This theory proposes the approach on how crime is explained by the whole history of one subject, group, and society. Crime is attached to every life expression that has happened since birth. Having a research of the main aspects of one person’s life, the individual expression and social values get mixed as the theoretical approach explains crime. This mixture of social and individual behavior is what allows this theory to be one of the most wider and contemporary (Paris). This theory is most applied to young people[6] and it takes into account the perception of the people who commits crime and the people who are victims of a crime. As other contemporary theories, there is possibility of change in the criminological behavior, allowing the criminal to be a normal individual. Some authors explain three ways in which this theory is applied to specific situations. The first one is the continuity of behavior in life course. The second one is that life course behavior might change or continue during time and on its characteristics. And the third one is that the life course behavior continues and changes. This theory is a multiple perspective to analyze crime, by studying the things to take into account to set an idea of how crime develops inside society by the life course of individuals, making a reciprocal analysis of the individuality and collectivity. All together These three theories provide a wide range of analysis, if the three of them are put together there are a lot of factor that would be covered by these theories. Still is not like just mixing the three theories. Each theory has a valid point and perspective to take into account. For example, the developmental theory takes into account the life course, which is an abstraction of the material and real life of the people. It is really a manifestation of the influence of all the material aspects under the mirror of time. This approach is quite accurate to study specific phenomenon because the analysis is deeper in context and it show the influences of society altogether with the individual tendencies. The approach of this theory at certain ages is what restrains this theory to be used. Because of its focuses on age, their analysis perspective loses weight when it is tried to be used in studying different groups, and in the theory itself. This loss of weight is because one of the main cores of this theory is the social development related to biological development. One of the tendencies of these three theories is to provide an option to explain how crime can be changed. Proposing a solution, like the shaming theory[7], or proposing new safety procedures to secure the environment. All these three theories keep the opportunity of becoming a normal[8] citizen or member of a society. Still, besides of the solutions proposed, the praxis of a theory can be very different from what the expectations are. One of the characteristics of these theories, is that are short in context matters. This means that theoretical explanations are only based as maximum to a nation level[9], provoking that many of the structural and contextual representations in politics, economics, culture, education, etc., in the world, cannot be part of the theoretical analysis. But still these representations have their manifestations even in small communities. This is impossible to not take into account macro-tendencies, but it is possible just to focus in micro-tendencies, even if this does not explain a complete context. Labeling theory, as the developmental theory, is not a completely sentence of explanation, but the analysis perspective that is valuable of this perspective is precisely the idea of a label. With the consent or without it, people always make judgments and make labels to identify other people, and to be identified among society as an individual. What criminological theory does is to focus on the labels related to crime. This is a much attached way in which theory explains reality with constructions of reality from society. One of the characteristics of this theory is also that label is just a value granted for the people participant in society, and because of that, according to the social capital[10] and possibilities of change that people have, they might change their label at will. Another fact of this theory, but no so attached to social reality is one of the manifestations of this theory, because of the idea of shaming, not because is not possible, but because is sometimes a motor to commit more crimes in certain contexts. The environmental theory has the possibility of treating crime as a situation with a specific context and circumstances that must be accomplish for the crime to be committed. The focus on the crime as a main subject allows this theory to be the bond for the combination of the other three theories, increasing the possibility of explanation and praxis that these theory have in total. These theoretical perspectives allow taking into account the elements of developmental theory, and use them together in the same explanations or theory. Of course in this conjunction of works, the aspects that restrain developmental theory must not be taken into account. The same goes for the labeling theory. Environmental theory has the possibility of being the connection between the individual perspective of crime in labeling and developmental theory, but at the same time it takes into account the idea of generality prescribed in both. Together with the perspective that environmental theory uses of situational context, crime becomes a definition with a lot of defined perspectives. Using the idea of label and the identity factor to set inside society, and as a representation to the outside society, the idea of crime explains one side of the individual behavior, by the representation that people has during a certain act. The environmental theory explains the event expressed as crime according to the material context in which people lives, but also making reference to another expression of behavioral crime conduct. Using some perspectives of the developmental theory, the factor explained before is part of a whole construction of life, providing a deeply analysis of a crime event, circumstance, conduct, behavior, context, social representation, and manifestation. Contexts and explanations The idea of the scientific revolutions explained at the beginning of the text, is to express one of the situation in which crime theory can be expressed more attached to explain reality. In case of the criminological theories, the perspectives are as many as a bunch. In the whole package of theories, the time has played a main role to develop each theory as the knowledge in crime situations and circumstances becomes wider. But there is a moment, and had happened before, that theory needs a new view and perspective. The citations and influences of the theories in the XIX are immersed in the theories of the XX, and now the contemporary theories are making improvements to explain by new paradigms the new circumstances that involve crime in our society. This, according to Kuhn’s idea, is the traditional process of making the scientific revolution. That is why is importance to pose a new circumstance that provokes a crisis in the criminological theory. Using these three theories may provide a great angle of perspective to analyze a concrete situation. But still the theories are short when it comes to practice. For example: the Mexican context. At first sight is a country like any other, but their main economic and political relations are with United States. The country has a first sight corruption; the police[11] are one of the main actors in these situations and are colluding with the narco[12]. The country is subject of constant violence, but the government is unable to solve the situation, because of the illegal trades and agreements that had surpassed the government power politically and economically. This is at macro-scale, but a micro-scale is almost the same, with the addition that is the poor people who gets involved in this violent context to have something to eat every day. So, how can these three theories make an approach to the context of Mexico? Evidently the crime is on one of the highest rates of Mexican history nowadays. But what is the work of the criminological theory when the established law steps aside and leaves the path to the everyday survival law? Criminological theory must be applied to the context in which it must[13] be an explanation that requires a reaction from people. Criminological theory as it is right now, does not have the possibility of explaining the events that are happening in the world like Islamic State, Mexico’s violence, Ukraine war, and more. Criminological theory is being insufficient for the fast and changing environment in the world. The implications are every time wide in economy, politics, culture, etc. Using the actual theories to explain crime[14] may explain some aspects of reality, but recovering just the important aspects of each theory does not lead to a complete explanation and possibility of change of the real context. Being transdisciplinary is one of the new paradigms that criminological theory can use. Not closing the explanations of the criminal world to just the criminal theory. The possible revolution that criminology as a theoretical science can have is to be at the time of the context. References: Francis T. Cullen, Robert Agnew, Pamela Wilcox. Criminological theory: past to present. New York: Oxford university press, 2007. Kuhn, Thomas. Estructura de las recoluciones cientificas. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 2006. Paris, Jessica. “Environmental criminolgy and crime prevention.” n.d. criminology intel led policing.pdf?from=404. 29 09 2014. Plummer, Ken. Labeling theory. University of Essex, United Kingdom, 29 09 2014. . 27 09 2014. [1] According to the criminological theory, this is focused on crime. [2] This is an implication that this theory has when is applied to explain crime. The results vary, because of personal behavior, situations, and social strains. Even, instead of reducing crime, these implications can even increase it. [3] Those who are consider criminals. [4] This does not mean that context is not taken into account. [5] The maintaining and safety control of urban environments may be a big influence to stop crimes. [6] There is a graphic that represents the main ages in which crime occur that set the age of 10 as the beginning and 20 when the young people stop committing crime. [7] Emphasize on social punishment to provoke shame. It focuses on the behavior on the offender. [8] According to the establishments of what normal is, and also if crime is considered as something abnormal. [9] Contextually, this is a big spectrum, but the political tendencies, economics, society and culture, in which crime is a subject of constant representation, are bigger than the idea of a nation. [10] Explained deeply in “Two concepts of social capital: Bourdieu vs. Putnam” By Martti Siisiasen, Department of Philosophy, Trinity College, Dublin Ireland. From: [11] The public force that most stop the crime and apprehend the offenders. [12] Production and commerce of drugs, and traffic of people. [13] The using of this word emphasizes a moral reaction against crime. This must be included as a factor that may change according to the context. [14] Under the look of a moral conception of good and evil.

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Cybersecurity Planning & Management Question

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Cybersecurity Planning & Management Question.

I’m working on a computer science discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

Sub: Cybersecurity Planning and Management Task 1:What do you think is the single greatest physical threat to information systems? Fire? Hurricanes? Sabotage? Terrorism? Discuss this question and provide support for your answer.Please write answer not less than 500 words in word doc Task 2:Some organizations prohibit workers from bringing certain kinds of devices into the workplace, such as cameras, cell phones, and USB drives. Some businesses require employees to use clear or see-through backpacks when carrying personal items. What other devices might not be allowed in certain facilities, and why would they be restricted? The video on Google’s Data Center may give you some ideas to write about for this assignment.Your written assignment should consist of 2-3 paragraphs. Please write answer not less than 500 words in word doc ——————————————————————————————-Sub: Network SecurityTask 38.1 What is the difference between RFC 5321 and RFC 5322?8.2 What are the SMTP and MIME standards?8.3 What is the difference between a MIME content type and a MIME transfer encoding?8.4 Briefly explain base64 encoding.8.5 Why is base64 conversion useful for an e-mail application?8.6 What is S/MIME?8.7 What are the four principal services provided by S/MIME?8.8 What is the utility of a detached signature?8.9 What is DKIM?Task 4In no less than 250 words, describe a type of email threat and how a hacker can use it to get sensitive information. How can a network administrator prevent this type of attack from happening? Respond to two other learners by the end of the week.
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological Cybersecurity Planning & Management Question

Labor Market in Gulf Countries

India Steps Up Pressure for Minimum Wage for Its Workers in the Gulf The Labor Market in Gulf Countries This section of the report is about the labor market in the Gulf countries and how it is affected with changes in the labor policies by the governments of GCC countries. The GCC consists of six Arab countries including all Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The labor market is growing with the rapid growth of the economies of GCC countries. The governments of GCC countries prefer their national to be part of their organizations because of their higher education, and the nationals are also attracted towards the government sector of GCC countries because of the higher wages and generous benefits, job security, early retirement with pension and many other benefits associated with the government jobs. However, the labor market of GCC countries also contains a significant portion of expatriate workers, therefore the private sector heavily rely on the working on expatriate workers and the expatriate labor work also attracted towards the private sector because of the jobs that are available on fixed terms, the contracts of the jobs are specific and they are under the sponsorship of nationals. The labor migration to Gulf countries is considered to be of vast importance. The factors related to its importance are the relatively larger size of the Gulf countries and better economic conditions prevailing there. According to the recent reports, foreign workers especially from South Asia and Philippines make up around 90 percent or more of the private sector in all GCC countries except Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the rate of increasing population and the birth rate of foreign citizens in the Gulf countries also among other factors of increasing labor migration in Gulf countries. An individual labor law for every country in GCC is designed in accordance with international labor laws and standards, conventions and recommendations of International Labor Organization that aim to eliminate unfair labor practices and equal treatment of laborers regarding to the nationality, social status or religious belief. This is also because of the Global Economic Crises which cause the working class of South Asian countries to be affected badly, as a result many of the workers were not paid and most of the foreigner laborers had to leave the country and they put Gulf countries on the priority because of the high economic level and better wages rates than the European countries. Gulf countries recent policies and regulations on the protection of rights emphasize on the regulation on the labor market and boost national man power in private sector, by keeping the balance in working relationships at work place, increasing the labor protection and safeguarding the employees’ interests at all. The above figure shows the supply and demand of labor market in the Gulf countries. It has shown that the labor market of the Gulf countries is effecting accordingly to the number of workers or workforce present there. If the supply of the workforce is increasing in Gulf countries because of the rising migration workers in Gulf countries, the demand is also increasing because of the increasing effect of the economies of Gulf countries, and the demand is also increasing because of their high expertise and high education in their relevant fields. According to the reports issued by the World Bank, there is various numbers of factors that have been contributed to the situation of youth employment situation in the Gulf countries. If considering the supply side, a demographic wave has increased the share of young people in the population because of the migration youth individuals to the Gulf countries has resulted the labor supply pressures. And if the demand size of the labor market is considered, young people in the labor markets of Gulf countries widespread with structural distortions. And the fact is that the public and private sector of GCC continues to attract young people towards themselves, with higher wage and benefit packages and better job security. Labor Market in India This section of the report considers the level of labor force and labor market in the economy of India. The India is considered to be the second largest country in the population growth after china and according to the reports of 2012, the labor workers who were working in India were 487 million, and 90 % of these workers were working in unorganized and unincorporated companies, while only 10 % of them are working in the organized private, state owned enterprises and government sectors. In local terms, the organized sector or formal sector are described as the sectors in India related to licensed organizations that are registered and pay income tax, and sales tax etc. These organizations of India include the publicly traded companies, corporations, factories, incorporated or formally registered entities, shopping malls, hotels, and large businesses. Unorganized sector, also known as informal sector or own account enterprises, refers to all unlicensed, self-employed or unregistered economic activity such as owner manned general stores, handicrafts and handloom workers, rural traders, farmers, etc. If the labor market of India is to be seen, the matter of the fact is that there are two broad groups of migrant laborers working in India – one group of migrant laborers is that who migrates to Gulf countries and overseas in order to work temporarily, and another group is that one who migrates on a seasonal and work available basis. According to the latest reports, the migrant workers who are Indian-origin laborers are about 4 million in number who are migrant workers in the Middle East and Gulf countries alone. They are accredited to been a part of Gulf countries and the majority of workers are those and are proud themselves who built many of Dubai, Qatar, Bahrain, and Persian Gulf modern architecture, and major of their architecture is the Burj Khalifa, which is considered to be the tallest building in world’s history which has started its operation in 2010. It is the common factor that no one wants to leave his country and the reason of leaving home country and to go abroad is that of financial surplus. These migrant workers are also attracted towards the Gulf countries because of better salaries, and getting the opportunity of even better jobs in order to remit funds and financials to support their families in India. In 2009, the reports by Middle East analysts show that the Middle East-based migrant workers from India remitted about US$20 billion. In many cases they also have to face the challenges and problems in dong jobs that is labor abuses and problems such as unpaid salaries, poor living conditions and unsafe work conditions have been claimed by the Indian migrant workers. Moreover, it has also been seen that national migrant workers in India have been assessed to be about 4.2 million. These migrant workers work according to their capacity and abilities and they have shown the range from full-time to part-time workers, permanent and temporary workers. They are typically employed for remuneration in cash or kind, in any household through any agency or directly, to do the household work, but do not include any member of the family of an employer. While talking to the India workforce in GCC countries, the reports suggests that India is the principal and major country of South Asia origin for the 17 million migrants in GCC countries. The Indian states are also sending their individuals also to GCC countries in order to get better employment and better remunerations. In 2004, the Indian state of Kerala only consists of the 26 percent of all households that had at least one temporary international migrant. And 89 percent of these were found to be in GCC countries (Zachariah and Rajan 2009, pp. 35, 162). According to the Philippines reports, that there were about 1.5 million temporary Overseas Filipino Workers (POEA 2011), in 2011 represented themselves while working abroad through the act of Philippine Overseas Employment Administration and according to the entire national labor force (BLES 2012) there were about 4 percent of the GCC migrants are Philippines who were working there. The figure below shows that the financial flow comes to the India because of the remittances from abroad and it has been seen that in the period of 2009-2011, 31.4% has been received by India only from the remittances of FDI from all over the world, and in 2012, only 30 of the total remittances came from GCC countries only. The above figure shows that India receives about as much in remittances from the GCC countries as it receives in FDI from the whole world The demand and supply of the labor market of India is not elastic and that the supply of the labor market is high and that the demand is ot that much high because of the economic conditions of the country and that the wages rates as well not according to the demands of the workers as well. Moreover, the high rate of population and unavailability of employment caused the migrants o move towards the GCC countries and overseas. According to the latest reports, the Indian migrates are not getting paid according to their demands and that the wages rate is quite minimum in Gulf countries for them. References,. (2014). The Gulf Research Meeting 2014: Workshop Details. Retrieved 29 August 2014, from