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Public Health Issue: Alcohol Misuse

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Alcohol misuse as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) is the alcohol use that places people at risk for problems, including “at-risk use,” “clinical alcohol abuse,” and “dependence.” Although the use of alcohol brings with it a number of pleasures, alcohol increases the risk of a wide range of social harms, generally in a dose dependent manner (WHO 2011). Alcohol misuse is one of the most devastating non-communicable deceases that contributes, or directly causes chronic ill-health, high mortality, violent crime, and anti-social behaviour (Alcohol Concern, 1997). According to the global status report on alcohol and health published in 2011 by World Health Organisation (WHO), the harmful use of alcohol results in 2.5 million deaths each year globally (WHO 2011). According to the same report, by 2011, alcohol misuse is the world’s third largest risk factor for disease burden, and it is the leading risk factor in the Western Pacific and the Americas and the second largest in Europe. Alcohol is associated with many serious social and developmental issues, including violence, child neglect and abuse, and absenteeism in the workplace (Harvey, 2000). Excessive alcohol consumption is a major cause of different types of diseases and conditions, including injuries, mental and behavioural disorders, gastrointestinal conditions, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, immunological disorders, lung diseases, skeletal and muscular diseases, reproductive disorders and pre-natal harm, including an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight (Moore and, Pearson, 1986). For most conditions, alcohol increases the risk in a dose dependent manner, with the higher the alcohol consumption, the greater the risk. For some conditions, such as cardiomyopathy, acute respiratory distress syndrome and muscle damage, harm appears only to result from a sustained level of high alcohol consumption, but even at high levels, alcohol increases the risk and severity of these conditions in a dose dependent manner. The frequency and volume of episodic heavy drinking are of particular importance for increasing the risk of injuries and certain cardiovascular diseases (Moore and Pearson 1986). The causes of alcohol misuse can be traced to many factors including family history, psychological factors such as anxiety or depression, the addictive pharmacology of alcohol, and the environment in which people live. Some research works show that genes could influence people drinking habits and their susceptibility to alcohol addiction. For others who drink alcohol above the guidelines, at ‘hazardous’ and ‘harmful’ levels, alcohol misuse may be due to habit, lifestyle, lack of awareness of the health effects and an absence of obvious symptoms. This assignment seeks to discuss the problems associated with alcohol misuse, and the collective efforts currently being put in place in term of research and government policies to address it. The understanding of local, national and global trends of alcohol misuse and the associated deceases will be demonstrated using the available statistical data from the Public Health Observatory. Following the introductory section, where background of alcohol misuse, the justification for chosen it, and the importance of alcohol misuse as a public health concern are provided, Section 2 will discuss the epidemiology and trends of alcohol misuse. In Section 3, the social determinants of alcohol misuse will be explored, while Section 4 will address how the issues and problems of alcohol misuses are tackled at both national and global level. Section 5 will be devoted to the local public health. Specifically, the problems associated with alcohol misuse in Bradford will be discussed. The last section will provide some recommendations and strategies to address the issue of alcohol misuse. Methodology The research methods used for this assignment included reviewing poster, televisions adverts, internet research on alcoholism and journals. The main website was the national institute of alcohol abuse, but others included healthy living, NHS Stockport. These research methods were very useful as they provided a wealth of information which resulted in a through investigation in to alcoholism and the effects on an individual’s lifestyle 2. Epidemiology of Alcohol Misuse The alcohol misuse is a global phenomenon, which hinders both individual and social development. On a global level, World Health Organization (WHO 2011) reported that: The harmful use of alcohol results in 2.5 million deaths each year. 320 000 young people between the age of 15 and 29 die from alcohol-related causes, resulting in 9% of all deaths in that age group. Alcohol is the world’s third largest risk factor for disease burden; it is the leading risk factor in the Western Pacific and the Americas and the second largest in Europe. Researchers in numerous countries have conducted analyses of alcohol consumption and general population surveys to ascertain the level and consequences of alcohol use. In recent years, investigators also have made attempts to compare drinking rates and other drinking variables across different countries. One reason for researching across national borders is the need for descriptive epidemiology (Room and Makela1988). The total economic cost of alcohol to the EU was estimated to be €125 billion (WHO Europe, 2009), while the government of United Kingdom estimated the cost of alcohol related harms to the National Health Service (NHS) to be £2.7 billion in 2006/07 prices (NHS 2012). Alcohol consumption is a major cause of ill-health in England. More than 10 million people (31 per cent of men and 20 per cent of women) are now regularly drinking above the guidelines set by Government (NAO, 2008), and many of these are likely to suffer ill-health or injury as a result. In England, it is estimated that 18 per cent of the adult population (7.6 million) are drinking at ‘hazardous’ levels; another seven per cent (2.9 million) are showing evidence of harm to their own physical and mental health, including approximately 1.1 million people who have a level of alcohol addiction (NAO, 2008). Social Determinant on Health Alcohol use and abuse is a major preventable public health problem. To be able to do this, we must be able to understand the social determinant of alcohol misuse and abuse. Different factors such as gender difference, race, culture, ethnicity, social class, poverty levels are among the most important factors that have been found to influence the level of alcohol consumption. According to the research findings reported in the Alcohol Needs Assessment Research Project (ANARP), 2004, about 38% of men and 16% of women (age 16-64) have an alcohol use disorder , which is equivalent to approximately 8.2 million people in England. It has also been reported in the literature that alcohol use disorders generally decline with age. In relation to ethnicity, black and minority ethnic groups have a considerably lower prevalence of hazardous/harmful alcohol use but a similar prevalence of alcohol dependence compared with the white population (ANARP, 2004). Another important social determinant of alcohol misuse is the family background. The family plays a central role in the use of alcohol by children and adolescents. Early drinking and much subsequent use of alcohol by children and adolescents is sanctioned and sometimes encouraged by their families. Unlike experimentation with alcohol, problem drinking is associated with low levels of family social support and with dysfunctional coping strategies of families that may lead children to use drinking as an adaptive behavior. Addressing Alcohol Misuse Issues The harmful use of alcohol is a serious health burden, and it affects virtually all individuals on an international scale. Both the government policy (NHS) and the scientific literature have recognized the necessity to control the general population’s alcohol consumption. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the global strategy to control the misuse of alcohol will focuses on ten key areas of policy options and interventions at the national level and four priority areas for global action. The ten areas for national action are summarized as follows: Leadership, awareness and commitment; Health services’ response; Community action; Drink-driving policies and countermeasures; Availability of alcohol; Marketing of alcoholic beverages; Pricing policies; Reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication; Reducing the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol; Monitoring and surveillance. The four priority areas for global action are: public health advocacy and partnership; technical support and capacity building; production and dissemination of knowledge; resource mobilization At national level, Government policy continues to place emphasis on the primary care setting to undertake health promotion. Prior to 1995, the sensible drinking policy in the UK was that men should drink no more than 21 units (168 g) and women 14 units (112 g) per week (Department of Health 1992). However, by 1995, the Department of Health in UK has put in place guidelines for the responsible consumption of alcohol (UK Department of Health 1995). The comparison of UK units/day and grams of pure alcohol/day in light/moderate/heavy drinking is summarized in Table 1. Table 1: comparison of UK units/day and grams of pure alcohol/day in light/moderate/heavy drinking Local Public Health Of most concern to public health is the number of local people drinking excessively. In this work, the public health of Bradford will be discussed. National data suggests around 20,000 residents of the Bradford district are dependent drinkers. According to the Bradford and Airedale Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008, the national average consumption in Bradford district is significantly greater than the national average. In all adult, the mean units alcohol consumed by drinkers in a typical week in Bradford is 23% for men and 14.5% for woman as compared to national average of 21% for men and 11% for woman (BJSNA 2010). The Bradford and Airedale Healthy Lifestyle Survey (BJSNA 2010) shows that 9% of men and 7% of women are drinking at a harmful (higher risk) level. For men, this finding is in line with the national average; for women, the finding as nearly double (England 4%). Amongst men, this problem is concentrated in the 35-64 age groups; amongst women, the under 24s and 45-54s exceed the district average. Recommendations and Strategies Current Strategies There have been various current strategies currently being put in place both by the local and national government. Some of the current strategies are aimed to: reduce the number of people who drink alcohol above recommended limits, thus reducing the adverse health impact of alcohol. reduce alcohol-related crime, disorder, intimidation, nuisance and anti-social behaviour. develop a comprehensive range of effective treatment, support, rehabilitation and reintegration services for alcohol victims, with easy access and clear care pathways. reduce the harm caused by alcohol misuse within families and relationships, including domestic abuse and the “hidden harms” caused to the children of alcohol- misusing parents. reduce the number of babies born with a disorder in the Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder range, and to decrease the risk of related problems experienced by children born with one of these disorders. reduce alcohol-related accidents and fires, thus reducing avoidable premature death, disability and less serious injuries. reduce the economic costs of alcohol misuse. ensure that information and services are accessible and welcoming to all sections of Bradford’s diverse population. Recommendations In other to address the problem of alcohol misuse at local, national, and global level, the following recommendations are provided: Education is on of the general way to address the issue of alcohol misuse. Government can make sure that all local schools have programs in place to educate children about the risks posed by alcohol misuse. It is important to arm young people in community with knowledge about the consequences of abusing drink and drugs. Government at both local and national level should fund youth clubs, art facilities and other activities to give young people alternative things to do instead of spending time on the streets drinking. The general practitioners as well as nursing practitioners should continue to provide better support/consultancy services to the victims of alcohol. Provision of support group at different localities to provide improved counselling services and treatment programs for those with substance abuse problems in the community. Discussion should be established with schools, colleges, local employers, government and policy makers to see if they have any facilities in place to identify and help those struggling with alcohol misuse. Conclusion The public health issues on alcohol misuse are discussed in this work. Alcohol misuse is found to be one of the most devastating non-communicable deceases that contributes, or directly causes chronic ill-health, high mortality, violent crime, and anti-social behavior. The epidemiology and trends of alcohol misuse was discussed, while the social determinants of alcohol misuse based on gender difference, age, ethnicity, and family background was addressed. The policies put in place by both the local and national government to address the issues and problems of alcohol misuses are assessed. The last section provided some recommendations and strategies to address the issue of alcohol misuse. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Business Research 3.

Part One: 03 Discussion – Practice through Article Review(Needs to be 150 words)Initial Post: Read the following journal article titled, The Dimensions of Customer Preference in The Foodservice Industry.After reading the article, determine the primary research question or hypothesis, investigative questions, and measurement questions (if available), research methods, variables, the measurement scale, errors, and/or other limitations of the study.________Part Two: 03 Course Project – Finalize your Research Plan/ProposalIn a previous module, you began developing your research plan/proposal, and now it is time to expand upon, perfect, and finalize your research plan by identifying:research methodologyinvestigative questionsmeasurement questionsmeasurement scale(s)likely participantspotential for errorshow you will compensate for or explain errorsYour final research plan should include key elements from your initial research plan/proposal submitted in an earlier module, and should mostly be written in paragraph form (use bullet points or a numbering system for the measurement questions). You do not have to include your full literature review, though it is a good idea to refer to and include aspects from the literature review that informed your research plan. Your plan should be aim to be approximately two pages; your plan may be longer depending on the demands of your research project.Include an APA formatted cover page, and include APA in-text citations and a reference page if sources are used.
Note: After constructing your research plan, begin putting your research plan into action. If your plan includes administering an electronic survey, remember that you can search online for “survey tools” or “survey makers” to locate helpful survey creation software; Google Forms and SurveyMonkey are two of the most popular. Record results and relevant data as you conduct your study. You will begin analysis of your research results and data later in this course.https://www. .com/discuss/5113227/business…
Business Research 3

Salt Concentration Effect on Reaction Rates

Salt Concentration Effect on Reaction Rates. Enzymes are proteins that catalysis chemical reaction to its highest speed. They do so by lowering the activation energy. Enzymes contain an active site where a substrate, in this case, the hydrogen peroxide binds to it and breaks into water and oxygen. Salt concentration denatures the structure of the protein, therefore, causing the rate of the reaction to decrease. The main purpose of this study was to discover whether the salt concentration affects the rate of reaction. Turnip Peroxidases were used, known as enzymes which are found in plants and animals. The hypothesis was that as the salt concentration increases, the absorbance rate decreases. This study was completed by running test of four different percent salt concentrations, 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Using 0.5ml of peroxidase, .02 ml Guaiacol, 0.2 ml hydrogen peroxide, and a pH 7 buffer. Perform two tests per tube for accuracy. Each tube was put in the spectrophotometer at 500nm. According to the data 15% salt concentration yield the highest absorbance. Introduction Plants and animals contain enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that are not consumed in the chemical reactions, but rather it can speed up the reaction. Catalysis is an enzyme which is found almost in all living cells especially in eukaryote cells (Cummings, 2005). It main function is to break down the hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is just produce naturally in chemical reactions, but the cells have to get rid of it before it builds up in a large amount. A cell uses catalysis to break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide will going to feed into the catalysis and it is going to break that down into two products (Cummings, 2005). It does that at very incredible rate. Basically, an enzyme contains an active site. This active site is part of an enzyme where there has a hole in it. The substrate will than fit into it. The substrate is hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme basically tugs on substrate and breaks it down. Enzymes are very important in the chemical reactions, without them the reaction will occur at the lower rate. There are two types of inhibition. Inhibition can either be competitive, that is where a chemical is blocking an active site or the allosteric, where the enzyme is actually changing the shape of its active site, unable the reaction to take place (Hosoya, 1960). An enzyme itself never changes its shape, only the active site does. However, its unique structure of protein under specific circumstances can easily be denatured. An enzyme needs to be in certain atmosphere to be more affective. One of the factors that can effect the enzyme reaction is salt concentration (Cummings, 2005). Salt concentration has to be in its intermediate state for an enzyme to work properly. For instance, if the salt concentration is too high, then the enzyme site will be blocked by the salt ions (Huystee, (1987). Therefore, it will lower the reaction activity rate. The main intention of this experiment was to figure out the salt concentration and its effect on enzymes. To perform this experiment, use the turnip peroxidases. Peroxidases are an enzymes found in plant and animal cells (Gjesing, 1985). Because salt concentration denatures the enzyme we did an experiment to see how the salt concentration would effect the reaction. It is believed that the increase in salt concentration will lower the absorbance rate of turnip peroxidases. Materials In this experiment, the solution materials that are needed to perform this lab are: Enzyme Solution: 5 g turnip blended into 500mL water (1% solution) and then filtered through a p2 filter, Substrate Solution: NaCl (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%), Indicator Solution: Guaiacol, Buffer Solution: pH 7 buffer (distilled water), and Hydrogen peroxides. The list of supplies that are need is follows: a spectrophotometer, cuvette tubes, and micropipette. Methods Prepare a control test tube (called the “blankâ€Â), containing all of the ingredients: 0.5 ml of turnip peroxidase, 0.5ml pH buffer, .02 Guaiacol, and put 0.2 hydrogen peroxide last, except the NaCl. Then, obtain the four additional cuvette tubes and start adding 0.5 ml (0 to 15%) of NaCl in each tube plus the same solution that control tube contains. Mix and put these tubes one by one in the spectrophotometer at 500 nm and record the absorbance every 15 seconds for 3 minutes. Repeat the trial for two times for each tube, then take the mean average. Results The peak absorbance was at 15% concentrate (See Figure 2). After the concentration passed 15% the reaction slowed gradually. Discussion As higher percent of salt concentration was added the absorbance increased. This happened because the salt concentration did not denature the enzyme (peroxidase), therefore, causing the enzyme to work its way out throughout until there was not enough enzymes to work with hydrogen peroxide. The data collected did not support the hypothesis because the absorbance peak was at 15% salt concentration. As assumed that the higher the salt concentration, the lower the absorbance would be. But that was not the case in this experiment. Salt concentration at 5 and 10% showed the lower peak, meaning that the presence of salt concentration actually lowered the reaction rate. It is the only 15% of salt concentration, where the peak was its highest. This could have happened because of the human error, miscalculation in finding the mean average, misreading the spectrophotometer or not having enough solution. If this experiment is to be repeated one of the question that should be addressed is what would happen if the higher than 15% of salt concentration was added, what would be the result? Figure Legends and Figures Figure 1. The Effects of Salt Concentration on Turnip Peroxidase Activity. Enzyme activity was measured using a spectrophotometer by recording the change in coloration of guaiacol to brown, indicating that hydrogen peroxide is complete. Figure 2. The Effects of Salt Concentration on Turnip Peroxidase Activity. Enzyme activity was measured at the high peak of 15% salt concentration. Literature Cited: Campbell, Neil., Jane Reece (2005). Biology, 7th ed. Beth Wilbur. Benjamin Cummings, Publishing Menlo Park, California. pp. 150-157. Gjesing, K.W( 1987). Plant peroxidases. The Febs Journal. 151: 497-504. Hosoya, Toichiro (1960). Turnip peroxidase: Purification and physicochemical properties of multiple components in turnip peroxidase. The Journal of Biochemistry. Vol. 47, No. 3. Huystee, R. B (1987). Some molecular aspects of plant peroxidase biosynthetic studies. The Journal of Plant Physiology. 38: 205-219. Salt Concentration Effect on Reaction Rates

NYU Epic of Gilgamesh and New Schools Contract with Predecessors Religious Views Response

help me with my homework NYU Epic of Gilgamesh and New Schools Contract with Predecessors Religious Views Response.

Please pay attention to the times of these texts. Knowing the dates that these texts were created is very important for answering the questions below. (For example, some of the excerpts from Rig Veda are older than the Upanishads and some other excerpts in the texts assigned for Hinduism).Please answer 2 questions from the pool here: (the answers should based on the reading, no need to research)In what ways do the teachings of the new schools contrast with the ‘religious’ views of their predecessors in their respective regions? Hint: What role does the human being play in this new teaching? Please give examples.What do we learn fromThe Teachings of the Magi: A Compendium of Zoroastrian Beliefs about Zoroastrianism? How did ‘Epic of Gilgamesh Tablet XI’ tell the story of flood? Who was Utnapishtim and what did he do? Is this story familiar to you? If it is, how is it familiar? (Hint: Remember Noah’s story in both Christianity and Islam) Please focus on Kevin Reilly’s Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader. Please think about the changing nature of Hinduism from the earliest Vedas to the latest Upanishads. Please use the earlier selections and later selections to show how Hinduism has changed in time. Please reflect on our texts from Confucius and Lao-Tzu. What do we learn from these texts about their understanding of spiritual? What were the things that important for Confucius and Lao-Tzu? Please also ask a question at the end of discussion.
NYU Epic of Gilgamesh and New Schools Contract with Predecessors Religious Views Response

Development of Warning System for Earthquakes

Development of Warning System for Earthquakes. A solution to safety from earth’s natural disasters? A 10-second warning may not sound like much, but when it comes to natural disasters, early warning systems seem to be the answer. In the photo, an early-warning text message reads: “An earthquake at Fukushima-oki has begun. Please be prepared for strong tremors.” The devastation of Japan’s Tōhoku earthquake of 2011 still resonates for many. On March 11, 2011, a magnitude-9 earthquake shook north-eastern Japan, unleashing a savage tsunami. The number of confirmed deaths was 15,894 as of June 10, 2016, with more than 2,500 people still reported as missing. An earthquake is a discernible tremor in the surface of the Earth, which is initiated by seismic waves occurring from the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust. It originates from the movements of tectonic plates below the surface of the earth. These motions produce seismic waves which transmit through the earth. A tsunami is a powerful series of waves that result from a sudden disturbance of the ocean floor due to earthquakes, underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, meteorites or asteroids. The primary factor that influences tsunami generation is earthquakes. An earthquake on the ocean floor can result in a sudden rise or fall of the earth’s crust. This movement can cause water above to rise or fall, creating tsunami waves. Japan has an infamous earthquake history as the country is prone to experience 2-3 earthquakes daily, resulting in 1,500 earthquakes per annum. Contrastingly, the rate of tsunamis is one occurrence every ten years. In the previous five years, from 2014 to 2019, Japan has experienced seven major earthquakes and one tsunami which have struck the island nation. Japan has an advanced and well-preserved infrastructure, which consistently undertakes upgrading and expansion. The Tōhoku earthquake caused unthinkable devastation, contributing to more than 125,000 severely damaged buildings, an estimated worth of more than $310 billion. Earth tremors are the primary cause of an earthquake’s immense damage to man-made structures. Buildings and infrastructure are not sufficiently resistant for the intense levels of shaking that can occur from an earthquake. As a result, the collapse of structures plays a principal role in the death toll. In addition, great fatalities and property damage in coastal regions are sourced from tsunamis.Buildings and objects are damaged by the weight of the water, generally reduced to skeletal foundations and exposed rock. Earthquakes and tsunamis claim thousands of lives worldwide. Forewarning authorises people to seek safety which in a matter of seconds could be the difference between life and death.Japan has the most advanced earthquake early-warning system in the world. The nationwide system launched in 2007, observes tremors and calculates an earthquake’s epicentre. This system provides an advance announcement of the evaluated seismic intensities and predicted arrival time an earthquake. When a substantial seismic activity happens, changes in the sea level are observed by surface buoy sensors. Tsunami warning centres monitor the data, perform analysis, and determine whether conditions are met to issue alerts to government officials and the mass media, such as radio, television, and communication companies. The warnings can appear seconds to minutes before a natural disaster which permits at-risk individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and act appropriately and within sufficient time to minimise harm. The alerts are aimed to reduce the impact of natural disasters from many sectors of society with countermeasures which will reduce injuries, fatalities, the economic and material impacts. With the provision of lead time, individuals are inclined to take protective measures by escaping to higher ground, seeking protection from falling debris or evacuating from hazardous environments before they are overtaken by these events. The duration of time from the announcement of an Earthquake Early Warning until the arrival of the main tremors is within a matter of seconds. Areas that are adjacent to the centre of the earthquake are affected as the warning may not be transmitted before strong tremors strike. Using data from only one seismograph can generate false Earthquake Early Warnings from factors of noise from accidents, lightning or device failure. Consequently, too many false alarms in both an earthquake and tsunami warning system would weaken faith in the systems and inaccurate or inappropriate information could deceive or delay evacuation and increase the loss of lives. Furthermore, it is difficult to separate earthquakes and provide accurate warnings when multiple occur simultaneously or near one another. During the 11 March quake, many of the sensors were taken offline by the tremors and tsunami waves. In addition, because of the large magnitude of the earthquake, the remaining sensors were overloaded with data making the results difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the underestimation of the tsunami’s height likely contributed to the delay in people’s evacuation, restricting their escape from waves at heights up to 120 feet. References: Geology Page 2017, What is an earthquake?, Geology Page, viewed 31 July 2019, Cliffs Notes 2016, How earthquakes form, Cliffs Notes, viewed 31 July 2019, Korpella R, 2017, What causes tsunamis to happen?, Sciencing, viewed 5 August 2019, Bigwavi 2019, How often do tsunamis occur?, Bigwavi, viewed 5 August 2019, Reid K, 2018, 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami, World Vision, viewed 5 August 2019, Rafferty J, Pletcher K, 2019, Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011, Britannica, viewed 6 August 2019, Earth Magazine 2011, Japan’s megaquake and killer tsunami: How did this happen?, Earth Magazine, viewed 6 August 2019, Rouse M, 2016, Early Warning System, WhatIs, viewed 9 August 2019, Birmingham L, 2011, Japan’s earthquake warning system explained, TIME, viewed 10 August 2019, Voa News, 2011, Tsunami warning systems: Lessons from Japan, Voa News, viewed 11 August 2019, JMA 2019, Limitations of the earthquake early warning, JMA, viewed 11 August 2019, Development of Warning System for Earthquakes

SJSU ?Individual Justice Argument Demands that We Treat Equals Equally Discussion

SJSU ?Individual Justice Argument Demands that We Treat Equals Equally Discussion.

For your INDIVIDUAL JUSTICE ARGUMENTYou are to write a Justice argument in full sentences and paragraphs, that applies JUSTICE to one of the cases offered, and fully follows the JUSTICE theory outline. There will be no feedback for this individual assignment. You must first read the 7 links to JUSTICE cases.Next go to discussion topic INDIVIDUAL JUSTICE ARGUMENT, Announce to your team which case you are doing. If someone else has already picked the case you wanted to do, then choose another. Nobody on your team can do the same case. If you do, you will have to redo with a different case.Use the JUSTICE ARGUMENT OUTLINE as precisely as possible, the argument should be around one page.Upload your written argument under assignments. Or copy/paste it into “assignments”. The argument must be in full sentences and paragraphs: no numbering, no bullets and no one or two sentence paragraphs.This assignment should be the ARGUMENT section and only the ARGUMENT. You should not write INTRO or CASE DETAILS or a summary. I know the case details. This is an exercise to practice writing JUSTICE arguments.OUTLINE FOR JUSTICE ARGUMENT.RULE OF THUMB for step 4: When applying Justice, if possible, state differences, do not state equalities. There are logical problems with equalities (universal instantiation problem): when you say “all should” this could mean none should, better to stress differences if you can.1. Define JUSTICE: Justice demands that we treat equals equally and unequals unequally. (just copy/paste the definition)2. Give a general statement of the unfairness (or fairness) of the case. Best language to use:X is being treated the same as YorX is being treated differently from Y3. Give some idea of who is doing the distribution of judgment in the case. (Be careful, a party being compared in the case cannot be the one doing the comparing.)4. State whether equals should be treated equally or whether unequals should be treated unequally. Best language to use:X should be treated the same as YorX should be treated differently from Y5. Give your criteria (can be more than one) for why equals should be treated equally or why unequals should be treated unequally.6. Explain how your criteria fit.7. COUNTERARGUMENT: Give an argument for the other side that people would likely or have proposed.8. Explain why your comparison fits better, and why it is ethically better.
SJSU ?Individual Justice Argument Demands that We Treat Equals Equally Discussion