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Psychology homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Higher Education Scavenger Hunt Instructions assignment. The paper also provides additional guidelines to use in writing the assignment paper clearly.,Higher Education Scavenger Hunt Instructions assignment,EDUC 665,Higher Education Scavenger Hunt Instructions, Complete the worksheet below by exploring the official websites of institutions of your choosing in each of the six categories provided. As you fill out each section, be careful to report your findings thoroughly and accurately, making note of inconclusive information. Each response provided should be followed by a truncated link to the specific page where the information was accessed (i.e. …the institution provides a 24 hour counseling hotline for crisis intervention (GCU Crisis Hotline)., After completing the worksheet, provide a one page summary of your findings in current APA format (excluding a title page and abstract). The summary should discuss your observations in comparing and contrasting the support approaches of the six instititions (with specific examples), as well as a strong conclusion with a succinct recommendation for offering an ideal array of services (this can be used in your module/week 7 assignment).,The Higher Education Scavenger Hunt must be submitted by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 5.,____________________________________________________________________________,I. Public Flagship:,a. Institution name:,b. List ten co-curricular support services and their division (i.e. Student Affairs):, i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,c. Thirdly, provide the title and description of any services specifically and overtly aimed at retention (i.e. Office of Student Success), if any. *Note – this type of office can be rare.,d. Fourthly, where are students directed for help? How many “clicks” are these resources from the homepage?,e. What academic support services are offered? Also, are any of these academic supports required?,f. Additionally, what is the reported Freshmen retention rate?,g. Subsequently, what is the reported six-year graduation rate (as defined by IPEDS)?, h. Lastly, what department appears to be in charge of student success and retention, and on what information are you basing this assertion?,The EDUC 665 higher education assignment paper,II. Ivy League:,a. Institution name:,b. List ten co-curricular support services and their division (i.e. Student Affairs):, i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,c. Thirdly, provide the title and description of any services specifically and overtly aimed at retention (i.e. Office of Student Success), if any. *Note – this type of office can be rare.,d. Fourthly, where are students directed for help? How many “clicks” are these resources from the homepage?,e. What academic support services are offered? Also, are any of these academic supports required?,f. Additionally, what is the reported Freshmen retention rate?,g. Subsequently, what is the reported six-year graduation rate (as defined by IPEDS)?, h. Lastly, what department appears to be in charge of student success and retention, and on what information are you basing this assertion?,III. Faith-based:,a. Institution name:,b. List ten co-curricular support services and their division (i.e. Student Affairs):, i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,c. Thirdly, provide the title and description of any services specifically and overtly aimed at retention (i.e. Office of Student Success), if any. *Note – this type of office can be rare.,d. Fourthly, where are students directed for help? How many “clicks” are these resources from the homepage?,e. What academic support services are offered? Also, are any of these academic supports required?,f. Additionally, what is the reported Freshmen retention rate?,g. Subsequently, what is the reported six-year graduation rate (as defined by IPEDS)?, h. Lastly, what department appears to be in charge of student success and retention, and on what information are you basing this assertion?,IV. HBCU:,a. Institution name:,b. List ten co-curricular support services and their division (i.e. Student Affairs):, i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,c. Thirdly, provide the title and description of any services specifically and overtly aimed at retention (i.e. Office of Student Success), if any. *Note – this type of office can be rare.,d. Fourthly, where are students directed for help? How many “clicks” are these resources from the homepage?,e. What academic support services are offered? Also, are any of these academic supports required?,f. Additionally, what is the reported Freshmen retention rate?,g. Subsequently, what is the reported six-year graduation rate (as defined by IPEDS)?, h. Lastly, what department appears to be in charge of student success and retention, and on what information are you basing this assertion?,V. Community College:,a. Institution name:,b. List ten co-curricular support services and their division (i.e. Student Affairs):, i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,c. Thirdly, provide the title and description of any services specifically and overtly aimed at retention (i.e. Office of Student Success), if any. *Note – this type of office can be rare.,d. Fourthly, where are students directed for help? How many “clicks” are these resources from the homepage?,e. What academic support services are offered? Also, are any of these academic supports required?,f. Additionally, what is the reported Freshmen retention rate?,g. Subsequently, what is the reported six-year graduation rate (as defined by IPEDS)?, h. Lastly, what department appears to be in charge of student success and retention, and on what information are you basing this assertion?,The EDUC 665 higher education assignment paper, ,VI. Online, For-profit:,a. Institution name:,b. List ten co-curricular support services and their division (i.e. Student Affairs):, i., ii., iii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,c. Thirdly, provide the title and description of any services specifically and overtly aimed at retention (i.e. Office of Student Success), if any. *Note – this type of office can be rare.,d. Fourthly, where are students directed for help? How many “clicks” are these resources from the homepage?,e. What academic support services are offered? Also, are any of these academic supports required?,f. Additionally, what is the reported Freshmen retention rate?,g. Subsequently, what is the reported six-year graduation rate (as defined by ,IPEDS,)?, h. Lastly, what department appears to be in charge of student success and retention, and on what information are you basing this assertion?,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Psychology homework help

PUB 660 Grand Canyon University The Most Important Communication Skills Response

PUB 660 Grand Canyon University The Most Important Communication Skills Response.

I’m working on a public health question and need an explanation to help me learn.

WRITE A response EITHER AGREEING/ DISAGREEING FOR FUTHER ELABORATING ON THE SUBJECT POSTED BY CLASSMATE.PLEASE:- minimum of 150 words or more- strong academic writing / APA style 7TH ED – scholarly ( peer review) articles, no older than 5 years (please use in-text citing and HYPERLINK to article to must be in the Reference section.- please be original writing and must answer all parts of question for full credit.PLEASE, SEE BELOW CLASSMATE WEEKLY DISCUSSION QUESTION ANSWER AND WRITE A response EITHER AGREEING/ DISAGREEING FOR FUTHER ELABORATING ON THE SUBJECT POSTED BY CLASSMATE. communication skills allow you to give and receive information. Communication skills are abilities that allow giving and receiving different kinds of information. While these skills may be a regular part of your day-to-day work life, communicating in a clear, effective, and efficient way is an extremely special and useful skill. Communication skills involve listening, speaking, observing, and empathizing. It is also helpful to understand the differences in how to communicate through face-to-face interactions, phone conversations, and digital communications, like email and social media (Rowitz, 2014).The three most important of the 20 listed communication skills, I believe are active listening, computer communication skills, and social marketing (Rowitz, 2014).Active listeningActive listening means paying close attention to who you are communicating with by engaging with the individual, asking brief open-ended questions, and rephrasing what was said to confirm that it was understood correctly. Practicing active listening help build respect and increase understanding. When actively listening, focus on the speaker, paying attention to facial expressions, body language, and tone and avoid distractions like cell phones, laptops, or other projects, and preparing questions, comments, or ideas to thoughtfully respond. Instead of preparing what you will say, focus on what the other person is saying and how they are saying it. If you need to clarify something, ask follow-up questions, or rephrase what was said to confirm that it was understood correctly. For example, to build trust and establish rapport: “Tell me what I can do to help.”COMPUTER COMMUNICATION SKILLSThe advent of the personal computer, cell phones, and tablets have increased communication. The integration of computer technology and communications technology that is, personal computers, fax machines, cellular phones, and pagers has allowed organizations to become even more interconnected. For example, people with common interests communicate with each other through blogging, and other social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. The field of public health and the way public health leaders go about doing their jobs have been impacted that it has become necessary to change inter-organizational and intra-organizational structures.SOCIAL MARKETINGSocial marketing is the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, which has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. The purpose of public health-oriented social marketing is to increase the general acceptance of certain health practices so as to induce the public and policymakers to support health promotion and disease prevention concepts and programs. Social marketing was used effectively during the crisis months in 2020 of the COVID-19. The public got daily guidelines to wear masks, wash hands or use hand sanitizer, and social distancing of 6 feet in order to avoid getting infected and spreading the virus in crowded areas.ReferenceRowitz, L, (2014). Public Health Leadership: Putting Principles Into Practice. http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/jones-and-bartlett/2014/public-health-leadership_putting-principles-into-practice_3e.php
PUB 660 Grand Canyon University The Most Important Communication Skills Response

This week as you are reading in your text about the news I’d like you to watch a 1/2 hour local newscast, a 1/2 hour national newscast, and a 1/2 hour of cable news.

custom writing service This week as you are reading in your text about the news I’d like you to watch a 1/2 hour local newscast, a 1/2 hour national newscast, and a 1/2 hour of cable news.. I’m working on a English exercise and need support.

DB 11
11 unread reply.11 reply.

“News”
Post your answers and reply to at least two classmate’s posts.
This week as you are reading in your text about the news I’d like you to watch a 1/2 hour local newscast, a 1/2 hour national newscast, and a 1/2 hour of cable news. That’s a total of 90 min of news. I’d like you to analyze the newscast. In addition please answer the following questions about each newscast. Please give the name of the newscast, channel, time and date you watched. Please name the anchors as well. Then proceed to answer each of the following questions about each newscast. Title and number your newscast and answers. This is due Sunday by 9pm.
1. Was there a bias or opinion in the reporting or was it strictly factual? Explain and give specific examples.
2. Were there obvious questions a viewer might have about a story that went unanswered.
3. Were any stories sensationalized (media hype)?
4. Did you see any examples of fear tactics being used to entice viewership or scare the viewer unnecessarily? Meaning the information is not necessarily factual. Think back to the article you read called”The Media Scares Us and We Like It.”
5. What newscast did you enjoy most (local, national, or cable)
Just in case you need help knowing the difference local news is something like NBC 7 San Diego. National news is like CBS World News Tonight. Cable news would include FOX, MSNBC, CNN etc…
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This week as you are reading in your text about the news I’d like you to watch a 1/2 hour local newscast, a 1/2 hour national newscast, and a 1/2 hour of cable news.

PSYCH 335 CCBC Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Personality Psychology Paper

PSYCH 335 CCBC Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Personality Psychology Paper.

I need assistance with a paper. Below are the details: The Applied Personality Project requires you to critically analyze personality information found in the popular media in relation to empirical research, personality theory, and your own life. You will demonstrate that you are an intelligent consumer of personality research and can think critically about personality theory, assessment, and research in relation to your daily life.The Applied Personality Project consists of four components:Component 1: Summary and Analysis of Popular Media Article or Current EventYou will start by locating a popular media article, video or current event that is relevant to personality psychology. Relevant topics may include personality theory, assessment, use of assessment results, personality disorders, or personality research. Your article or current event must have been published (or occurred) within the last six months. For this component of the assignment, you will use information found in the popular media. This includes articles or events distributed via social media, blogs, videos (e.g., Ted Talks), television shows, newspaper reports, magazines, and similar sources.For example, the LA Times published a report of identical triplets separated at birth in a secret psychology study to understand the relative influence of nature and nurture in personality development (“The surreal, sad story behind the acclaimed new documentary, ‘Three Identical Strangers’”: https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/la-et-mn-three-identical-strangers-documentary-20180702-story.html). An article such as this would be appropriate for your target article/event.Provide a two-page summary and analysis of the article/event that addresses the following questions:What is the focus of the article/event?Why is this article/event relevant now?What is the relationship between this article/event and personality psychology?What are the key conclusions, questions, or issues relevant to this article/event?What questions remain unanswered in relationship to this article/event?Your summary and analysis should be written as a coherent essay (do not format as a list of answers to these questions). You may include additional insights in your analysis, but you must address these key issues. In addition, you must provide a hyperlink to the article/event that you are focusing on; if the article/event is not online, you must provide a complete citation so that the instructor can view your article/event.Component 2: Research Article ApplicationThe next step is to find an empirical, primary-source journal article that is relevant to your article/event. Empirical, primary-source articles are original reports of research published in scholarly journals (such as the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology). You will use the UMGC library database to find primary-source, empirical research. To find a relevant article, you will use personality terms, ideas or theories discussed in your article/event as key words in your library database search. It is your responsibility to make sure that the journal article you select is appropriate. If you are unsure about the relevance of your article, contact your instructor for approval. Articles must meet the following criteria:Primary research – Articles should report the results of an original research study (no meta-analyses, summaries, editorials or theoretical articles).Refereed – Articles must come from peer-reviewed journals found in the UMGC library.Personality focus – Articles must be relevant to personality psychology.Recent – Articles must have been published within the last 10 years.For example, the following would be a relevant primary-source, empirical journal article for investigating the influence of nature and nurture on personality:McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Jr., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Hřebíčková, M., Avia, M. D., … Smith, P. B. (2000). Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 173–186. https://doi-org.ezproxy.umgc.edu/10.1037/0022-3514…Write a three-page summary, analysis, and application of the journal article that addresses the following questions:What is the purpose of this research?How did the researchers investigate their research question?Are the conclusions of the study appropriate? Has the author overemphasized or under-emphasized any findings?What are the key strengths and weaknesses of this study?How does this research add to our understanding of personality or personality theory?How does this study inform your popular article/event?Do the conclusions of this research align with the message of your article/event?Your summary, analysis, and application should be written as a coherent essay (do not format as a list of answers to these questions). You may include additional insights in your analysis, but you must address these key issues.Component 3: Connection to Personality TheoryThe third step is to analyze your popular article/event in relation to three different theories that we explored throughout the course. For each theory, you will want to explore the relevance (or lack thereof) for understanding your article/event.Write a one- to two-page analysis for each of your three theories that includes the following information:Brief overview of theory (up to two paragraphs with appropriate citations)Discussion of how the theory either supports and explains your article/event OR how the theory offers an alternate understanding of your article/eventAnalysis of the value of the theory for understanding personality in the context of your article/event Component 4: Personal RelevanceThe last step is to reflect upon the popular article/event, research, and personality theory in relation to your own life.Write a three-page reflection and analysis that addresses the following questions:How is the material in this article/event relevant to your life?What can you learn from the personality theories or research relevant to this article/event?Does the article/event or research challenge any of your old opinions? Or does it challenge you to form any new opinions?How can you apply what you have learned about personality research or theory to better understand your life? What is the practical value to understanding personality research or theory?What concerns do you have about the article/event, personality research, or personality theory?Your reflections should be written as a coherent essay (do not format as a list of answers to these questions). You may include additional insights in your reflection, but you must address these key issues. Assignment Guidelines Prepare your assignment according to the following guidelines:Structure your assignment utilizing APA style; this includes title page, headers, subheadings, in-text citations, reference page, and general paper format (1-inch margins, double-spaced, 12-point font, etc.). An abstract is not required. (Excellent guidance on utilizing APA style can be found in our classroom’s Course Resources -> Writing Resources.) Submit as a single document (do not submit each component of the paper separately) in either Microsoft Word, PDF, or RTF format.Utilize the following subheadings to organize the body of your paper:Summary and AnalysisResearch ApplicationPersonality TheoryTheory 1: (name the theory)Theory 2: (name the theory)Theory 3: (name the theory)Personal ReflectionInclude three to five references (one should be the research article utilized in your analysis).Your final paper should be approximately 13 to 16 pages:Title page (1 page)Body of paperSummary and Analysis (2 pages)Research Application (3 pages)Personality TheoryTheory 1 (1-2 pages)Theory 2 (1-2 pages)Theory 3 (1-2 pages)Personal Reflection (3 pages)Reference page (1 page)
PSYCH 335 CCBC Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Personality Psychology Paper

Realism in the Service of Politics: Two Views of War Compare and Contrast Essay

Art has a long history of being involved in the achievement of political goals; consider the monumental imperial advertisement of power and control of resources represented by the huge Colossus of Rome[1]. In the early 20th century, what was termed realism was not the direction that popular art movements were taking. However, what was termed realism seemed to serve the aims of totalitarian movements at the time[2], despite the fact that no art is truly realistic and all art represents a set of choices from all the visual detail available. Nevertheless, the objections of the Nazi regime to all the non-realist artists is understandable in light of the Third Reich’s goals and methods of achieving them. They were trying to influence people to do things that were difficult and morally ambiguous, if not downright horrible. To accomplish this, they needed powerfully effective images that everyone could understand without laborious or inconvenient verbal explanation. The artists that the Nazi regime disapproved of had the opposite aim in creating art. They were seeking to create art that was a vehicle for personal expression. Given this attitude, it is no wonder that non-realistic artists were suppressed. Useful examples of these two divergent approaches are found in the art of Fritz Erler and Otto Dix. The term ‘realism’ has meant different things over time. It meant something different in the 1800s than what it suggests today. Before the early 1800s, most painting tried consciously to show everything in as beautiful, serene, classically pure a fashion as posssible, even if this meant deliberately changing things around in the picture, as, for example, advised by an accepted authority of the time, Roger de Piles[3]. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starting with the Romantic movement in art, there was a gradual reaction away from a classical idealization of the subject, whether a person, a scene, or a landscape. The gritty reality of the world became more acceptable and desirable in art. An example is the often gory work of Théodore Géricault, a proponent of Romanticism, such as his Raft of the Medusa[4]. This work, and by extension, much of the effort of the Romantic movement, was described as an,” extended, no-holds-barred quest for truthfulness and intensity” [5]. However, up until the period of the Impressionists in the mid to late 1800s, there was a generally shared goal of depicting the world as most people could recognize it. For example, a person had two eyes symmetrically laid out, sky was more or less blue, and trees were more or less green. With Impressionism, Cubism, and their successor art movements, this all changed, dramatically. The depiction of objects in the real world was no longer safely to be assumed. Buchloh describes this process of movement away from figurative art as follows: “the perceptual conventions of mimetic representation – the visual and spatial orderign systems that had defined pictorial production since the Renaissance… systematically broken down since the middle of the nineteenth centry”.[6] Buchloh is drawing attention to a phenomenon that even non-artists can observe. It seems reasonable to assert that all art imposes a warping of physical reality to some extent. Simply by trying to depict a three dimensional world on a two dimensional surface, there is inevitable distortion. The tree is not the picture, nor vice versa. It cannot be. The simplest tricks of perspective, such as foreshortening, or narrowing two parallel lines down to a vanishing point, demonstrate this. In any work of art, a process of transformation has taken place as the scene or object is translated by the artist onto paper or canvas or marble. We will write a custom Essay on Realism in the Service of Politics: Two Views of War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A recent news story humorously and clearly demonstrated this: A quirky installation artist in Philadelphia, who apparently regularly enrobes local landmarks with knitted textile art, tried to measure the famous statue of Rocky Balboa for a sweater. She discovered the that the proportions of the eight foot tall statue were wildly different from those of an actual real person’s[7]. However, photos of this statue do not strike the viewer as bizarre. The artist clearly altered the real proportions of the subject in a way that looks normal from a distance. Thus, even in representing a real-world subject with the aim of fidelity, the process involves the abstraction, or pulling out, or alteration of certain elements and the de-emphasizing of others. This may be used to indicate, for example, that the subject is a distance away, or to allow the viewer to distinguish the subject from its background. This is a matter of making sure that the viewer can see the forest for the (edited) trees. Thus, when anyone is uses the term realism in art today, they are speaking relatively. A formal definition of realism describes it as,”Fidelity to nature or to real life; representation without idealization, and making no appeal to the imagination; adherence to the actual fact.”[8] It requires some visual training to understand any two-dimensional representation, as students learn in History of Art classes. It is relatively easier for someone trained by experience at decoding two-dimensional representations to recognize a realistically painted subject. Nonetheless, when we use the term realism today, implying that the subject of the work of art is able to be recognized for what is intended, we understand what is meant. This term is probably widely and intuitively understood in our era. The Nazi regime, like many other oppressive governments, sought to use all available tools to alter people’s opinions, direct their behavior, or change the entire form of government. Art was just one of these[9]. Not sure if you can write a paper on Realism in the Service of Politics: Two Views of War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their goals were often violent and involved hurting other people, such as Jews, gypsies, and the crippled. These folks had often been neighbors and colleagues. This is a course of action that could inspire ambivalent feelings about cooperating, in many people. The ugliness of the Nazi’s goals, and the negative reaction of the rest of the world, like made it desirable to communicate their intention as much as possible without words. If the Nazis had said in plain terms that they were going to kill with poison gas millions of harnless people, it would have sounded harsh. But if the Nazis could make the German people feel that they were threatened and that the threat should be removed in whatever way was most effective, the government could get better cooperation. This threat, as we now know, was blamed on non-German elements in society, especially the Jewish population. As it happened, the rise of the Third Reich coincided with the development of a new concept in the new sciences of psychology and psychiatry. The idea of archetypal images was pioneered by Carl G. Jung[10]. Jung suggested that the human mind shares a collective unconscious. This collective unconscious contains within it patterns that reliably generate images, or archetypes everyone can recognize. This, Jung asserts, is true over time and across the globe. He suggested that an example of the expression of archetypal images can be found in many myths, for example the myth of the Hero[11]. Clearly this is a great convenience for a regime that hopes to affect the population’s ideas and attitudes without actually coming out and saying what they want. Jung himself believed that the trends in Germany leading up to the war were an expression of archetypes that had been repressed.[12] While evidence for specific use of Jung’s ideas in creating Nazi art is not readily available, it is interesting that Jung and a relative of one of Hitler’s close advisors, Goring, shared the editorship of a psychiatric journal[13]. This suggestst that the Hitler regime was well aware of Jung’s work and ideas. If the Hitler regime was using archetypes, or even telling a story, they needed for viewers to recognize the message. This is more difficult to accomplish in non-realistic form. This is because the messages that the Nazis were attempting to propogate had to do with human issues and concerns, such as motherhood, or attachment to a place, or pride in one’s heritage, for example. At the time, artists – those who were innovating and at the cutting edge of their field – were not oriented towards telling stories or sending explicit or implicit messages. They were not oriented towards, “the direct creation of universal beauty”, but instead, “ the aesthetic expression of oneself”, as Mondrian put it[14]. The movement away from the subject entirely was seen, as expressed by Mondrian, as an evolution of art, and highly desirable Mondrian says that, “by its existence non-figurative art shows that ‘art’ continues always on its true road. It shows that ‘art’ is not the expression of the appearance of reality…nor of the life that we live…” [15]. This process of making art something that needed only to please and express the artist’s own feelings, can and did result in art that was and is less accessible to many viewers. Buchloh asserts that this inaccessibility was an irritant. He asserts that there was pressure at the time from viewers (the public) against the abstractions that had dominated the art world. Discussing the swing back to figurative art after the first World War, he says, “And how did this shift come to be understood as an autonomous achievement of the masters, who were in fact the servants of an audience craving for the restoration of the visual codes of recognizability, for the restoration of figuration?”[16] The leading lights of the art world were not sympathetic, to these consumer longings, if the views of Mondrian are typical. Mondrian, in defending non-realistic art, criticized those who had made, “no effort to know pure abstract art”.[17] These people, he asserted, were against the, “progress of the elite”[18]. The implication of this attitude on the part of the artist is that it requires specific and rather sophisticated training on the part of the viewer to appreciate the pure abstract art. Mondrian’s atttitude implies that if a viewer is not willing or able to invest this effort, then their opinion is not worthwhile. Thus, the viewing public that shook their heads in puzzlement at abstract art were dismissed. All these attitudes are very self-centered, and not at all in tune with nationalistic self-sacrifice. Unfortunately for artists with this seemingly self-centered approach and obliviousness to whether or not the art was being understood, the Nazis, like the Russian revolutionaries, explicitly wanted art that supported their goals, a “heroic realism”[19]. They were concerned about a national elite rather than a class elite[20]. In Hitler’s words, “For the artist does not create for the artist, but like everyone else, he creates for the people.”[21] Hitler explicitly referred to this isssue of comprehensiblity in the following statement of intention: ‘Works of art’ which cannot be understood in themselves but for the justification of their existence, need those bombastic instrucitons for their use, finally reachign that intimidated soul, who is patiently willing to accept such stupid or impertinent nonsense – these works of art from now on will no longer find their way to the German people.”[22] The Hitler regime went to extremes in implementing his extreme intention. To see how these conflicting ideas of art for the artist’s sake, and art for the good of the regime played out, it is useful to examine two artists who addressed similar subject matter. They were, however, far differently regarded and treated by the Third Reich. Both were actvie in and after the first World War. Both artists included war and battlefied subjects in their works. Both were, in retrospective, competent technically. Fortunately, works by both of them survive. It is interesting that two pictures of the same subject, created within seven years of one another, should be looked at so differently by the Third Reich. Fritz Erler (1868-1940)[23], who (although he did distort reality) depicted soldiers as heroes, was approved of by the regime. Otto Dix (1891-1969)[24], who distorted figures to look like monsters, but depicted soldiers as well, was not approved of. They were both technically very competent. Erler produced a number of war bonds posters for the first World War. One, entitled Helft Uns Siegen, shows an idealized soldier gazing into the indeterminate distance with eyes that glow internally. He is a strapping, well-fed, heroic fellow, with his gas mask down around his neck, alertly at ease after the attack. He appears fully human, despite those wierdly glowing eyes, oddly elevated mood, and unseen visual point of focus. He is a fellow you would happily share a meal with or for whose benefit you would happily buy a war bond, if you were a loyal German. Although this picture dates from 1917, Erler had a continuing career. Erler was highly thought of by the Hitler regime. This is attested to by the fact that he was rewarded for his complimentary perspective on the German soldier with at least one commission for a portrait of Hitler. This was a signal honor [25] for any artist or photographer in Germany. The most famous surviving such piece painted by Erler is probably his Portrait of The Leader. This shows Hitler as the genius and sponsor of art and architecture[26]. The Kunsthalle, Hitler’s most ambitious architectural design that was implemented, is shown in the background. Hitler appears before a heroic statue of a mounted horseman. It is useful to compare Erler’s work to that of another favorite of the Third Reich’s, Arno Breker. Whereas Erler’s soldier did not look classically beautiful, and in fact has features which are somewhat coarse, Breker seemed to consciously hearken back to Roman and Greek models. This must have flattered the regime with references to an earlier, very powerful empire. Arno Breker created sculptures of naked men that were heroic in size, and in mood. They were chisel-faced, with clearly defined muscles and extreme poses. In spite of his close relationship with Hitler’s government, he worked to help artists who were out of favor[27], indicating that the political beliefs and artistic production were not inextricably linked. Looking at an artist who was decidedly not in the good graces of the Third Reich, we see a very different approach from either Erler or Breker. Otto Dix, who served in the German army in World War I, was another artist who portrayed soldiers in the action of war-time. He produced a terrifying etching of soldiers wearing gas-masks. It is entitled Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas[28]. The soldiers look like imps or goblins, or at best, children in Halloween masks. They weapons make a diagonal cross-hatch in the composition, with their bayonets pointing in one direction, and some sort of blunt instrument and fists pointing in the other direction. They have no grace, and seem to waddle or stumble in the midst of the confusion and terror of battle. Their forms and proportiions are distorted and they are almost cartoonlike. They appear less than human, and unrecognizable as one’s neighbors or son. When one compares the sturdy and heroic soldier in Erler’s work, and the cartoon-like figures in Dix’s work, it is easy to see why the German government objected to being portrayed that way. Hitler did not want soldiers depicted as space aliens or evil dwarves. He wanted handsome heroes, preferably looking like the heroes of ancient Greece and Rome. Dix was certainly not showing that – he was showing what it felt like to be on there on the battlefield with stormtroops and mustard gas. Both artists actually distorted reality, but Dix did it in such a way as to insult the soldiers, while Erler did it in such a fashion as to make them look inspired. They were both drawing on archetypal images, but Erler’s was evoking the hero, like Theseus after slaying the Minotaur, while the other (Dix) was evoking something more like the Furies descending on a hapless mortal, in the form of stormtroops. Given the aims of the Nazi regime, it is entirely comprehensible that one should have been rewarded and the other discredited. Clearly, the approach that Erler takes to the subject of the German soldier is more complimentary. Dix, on the other hand, is obviously critical in his attitude towards war, and its methods. He was also openly critical of the major players in the Third Reich. A painting of his entitled The Seven Deadly Sins actually caricatures Hitler as a baby (mustacheless) demon. He painted this after he was discharged from the art academy in Dresden[29]. In our own lifetime, the governments of both South and North Korea have used images to control thinking and behavior[30]. This is an interesting phenomenon in light of the overt attempts by previous totalitarian regimes to harness art for their own aims. It is also interesting in light of the power that popular media has today, even in supposedly free societies. Art has been a tool of governments since the earliest times. Until the middle of the 1800s, there was a shared expectation that art would represent things in the physical world as they appeared to most of the viewing public. The term realism, however, referred to different things before then. No matter whether the approach is Neo-classical, grittily Romantic, oddly Mannerist, or Impressionist, all art distorts the physical truth of its subject matter. There is unavoidably a choice of what to include and what not to include. Thus, when governmental regimes that say they want realism are actually saying that they want the prerogative to choose which distortions they permit. Fritz Erler’s particular distortions, which contributed to a heroic image of the German soldier, served the Nazi purposes. His representation was less beautiful than that of Arno Breker, a sculptor of very different style who also found favor with the Nazis. On the other hand, Otto Dix’s idiosyncratic distortions, which made the German soldier look like a troll, was decidely not what the Nazis were looking for in their public messages. Given that the regime wanted art for propaganda, and self-praise[31], it is easy to see why they preffered Erler’s sturdy heroes to Dix’s goblins.[32] They wanted the German people to identify with healthy and strong images rather than with ugly representations of themselves. Such use of art to control opinion is still used today in regimes such as the North Korean’s. We need to be cautious, still, even in democracies, that we do not allow art to become the uncontrolled tool of government propaganda. (Erler, Helft Uns Siegen 1917) (Erler, Portrait Of The Leader 1938) Breker, Arno. ‘Torchbearer” 1938-1945 (Dix, Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas 1924) (Dix, The Seven Deadly Sins 1933) Source: Newsweek. “North Korean Propaganda Art”. Newsweek. Bibliography Art in the Picture. “Otto Dix.” Art in the picture. 2011. Web. Asssociation of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. “AKhRR Declaration.” In Art In Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 403-406. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Brainyquote.com. Realism. 2011. Web. Breker, Arno. Torchbearer. Unknown, unknwon. Breker, Arno. Torchbearer. Great Triumphal Art, Berlin. Buchloh, Benjamin D. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting.” In Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts, by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, edited by Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris, 222-238. London: Phaedon Press, 1992. Crimmins, Peter. Gritty in Pink. 2011. Web. de Piles, Roger. The Principles of Painting. Vol. 2, in A Documentary History of Art: Michelangelo, the Mannerists, the Baroque, and the Eighteenth Century, edited by Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, 176-187. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1958. Dix, Otto. Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas. National Gallery Of Australia, Canberra. Dix, Otto. The Seven Deadly Sins. Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe. Dobrzynski, Judith H. “Sex Blood and War from Wiemar Anti-Nazi Otto Dix.” Antifascistencyclopedia.com. 2011. Web. Erler, Fritz. “Helft Uns Siegen.” Imperial War Museum. Web. Erler, Fritz. “Portrait Of The Leader.” Unknown. 1938. Web. Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Nazi Approved Art: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust. 2005. Web. Géricault, Théodore. The Raft of the Medusa. Musée du Louvre, Paris. German Propoganda Archive. Hitler in Nazi Art. 2011. Web. Griffin, Roger. “Nazi Art: Romantic Twilight or Post-modernist Dawn?” Oxford Art Journal, vol. 18, no. 2. 1995. Hitler, Adolf. “Speech Inaugurating the Great Exhibition of German Art.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 439. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Jung, Carl Gustav. “On the Concept of the ‘Archetype’.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 378-381. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Lankov, Andrei. The Official Propaganda in the DPRK: Ideas and Methods. 1995. Web. Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. “On Proletarian Culture.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 402. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Medweth, Mark. “Jung and the Nazis.” Personality and Consciousness. 1996. Web. Mondrian, Piet. “Plastic Art and Pure Plastic Art.” In Art in Theory: 1900 – 2000, by Charles Harrison and Peter Wood, 387-393. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Newsweek. “North Korean Propaganda Art.” Newsweek, May 27, 2010. Platner, Samuel Ball. “Colossus Neronis.” In A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, by Samuel Ball Platner, 130-131. London: Oxford University Press, 1929. Prometheseus. “Arno Breker Biography.” Prometheseus. 2002. Web. Wilkin, Karen. “Romanticism at the Met.” The New Criterion 22, no. 4 (2003): 37-42. Footnotes Such a piece had no function other than overwhelming the viewer with how strong the emperor must have been to have created such an object. The Colossus was a bronze statue 120 feet high, and the Emperor Nero had it erected solely to honor himself and make himself seem more impressive. Subsequent emperors modified it to suit their own purposes, changing the face, and adding rays around the head, for example. The gigantic sculpture gave its name to the Coliseum.Samuel Ball Platner (as completed and revised by Thomas Ashby). “Colossus Neronis”. A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. (London, Oxford University Press 1929). Page 130A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, London: Oxford University Press, 1929. Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. “AKhRR Declaration”, Harrison, C. and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 403. De Piles, Roger. “The Principles of Painting”, in Holt, Elizabeth Gilmore, ed. A Documentary History of Art: Michelangelo, the Mannerists, the Baroque, and the Eighteenth Century. (Garden City, Doubleday and Company, 1958), page 180. Géricault, Théodore. “The Raft of the Medusa”. 1819, Musée du Louvre, Paris. The New Criterion. “Romanticism at the Met”. December 2003. The New Criterion. 22 no4. Pages 37-42. Buchloh, Benjamin. “Figures of Authority, Ciphers of Regression: Notes on the Return of Representation in European Painting”. In Frascina, Francis; Harris, Jonathan. Art in Modern Culture: an Anthology of Critical Texts. (London, Phaedon Press, 1992), page 222. Crimmins, Peter. “Gritty in Pink”. Brainyquote.com. “Realism”. Brainyquote.com. Lenin, Vladimir. “On Proletarian Culture”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 438. Jung, Carl. “On the Concept of the ‘Archetype’”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 379. (Jung 2002, 380). Medweth, Mark. “Jung and the Nazis”. Personality and Consciousness. 1996. (Medweth 1996). Mondrian, Piet. “Plastic Art and Pure Plastic Art”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 388. (Mondrian 2002, 389). (Buchloh 1992, 222). (Mondrian 2002, 389). (Mondrian 2002, 392). (Lenin 2002). Griffin, Roger. “Nazi Art: Romantic Twilight or Post-modernist Dawn?”. Oxford Art Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, November 1995. Pages 103-107. (Griffin 1995). Hitler, Adolph. “Speech at the opening of the Great Exhibition of German Art”. In Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 441. (Hitler 2002, 440). Spartacus.com. “Fritz Erler”. 2011. Art in the Picture. “Otto Dix”. 2011. Of the importance of portraits it has been observed that, “Hitler knew the importance of his image. Photographs of him could be released only with his personal approval. Art was even more carefully watched.” German Propaganda Archive. “Hitler in Nazi Art” 2011. German Propaganda Archive. 2011. Erler, Fritz. “Portrait of the Leader”. 194X. Prometheus. “Arno Breker Biography” Prometheus. Dix, Otto. “Stormtroops Advancing Under Gas”. 1924. Drypoint etching and aquatint. National Gallery Of Australia, Canberra, Australia. Judith H. Dobrzynski. “Sex, blood and War From Weimar Anti-Nazi Otto DIx”. Lankov, Andrei. “Propaganda in DPRK: Ideas and Methods”. 1995. Dirkburghof.com. Florida Center for Instructional Technology. “Nazi Approved Art: A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust”. This sort of preference is expressed in modern North Korea, as noted in the following description:“On the whole, paternalist ideas about “the ruler – father of the nation”, typical of the Confucian philosophical tradition, are the norm in North Korean propaganda. In propaganda stories one can find in North Korean magazines and school textbooks, Kim Il Song depicted as a fatherly figure, a wise and attentive parent caring for his people. In one story, he stops his limo to give a lift to an old woman, in another he personally oversees how a medical help is delivered to a young worker hurt in a factory incident, and in a third he inquires about the living conditions of a handicapped veteran. These stories about the Kims number in the many hundreds, and are constantly repeated in the media and textbooks, read aloud at meetings, or portrayed in paintings. Some of these stories are not simply Confucian in spirit, but are often remakes of popularstories from the Confucian mythology.” (Lankov 1995) A graphic example is found with the other pictures.

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