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Psychology Essays – Children Neurological Test

Psychology Essays – Children Neurological Test. Children Neurological Test House-Tree-Person Test Anguish engulfs life in many forms – lurking behind secret emotion. Bitter pain grips hearts, strangling breath; vague cries gnaw darkness. Each year countless amounts of children are physically or emotionally abused or neglected. Unfortunately, the number of battered children who remain buried among shadow continues rising as liberation fails. These children, as well as many others hiding different underlying emotions, fall through obscurity undetected, awaiting rescue – continuously holding hope. Therefore, through recent years, a new attempt at personality interpretation and child abuse recognition has been developed -the House-Tree-Person test. Can today ensure tomorrow? What is it? This specific projective personality test was developed by John N. Buck, in 1948 and updated in 1969. The test was published by Western Psychological Services located in Los Angeles, California. The House-Tree-Person test (HTP) is a projective personality test in which the participant simply reacts to or presents ambiguous, abstract, or unstructured stimuli -typically in the form of pictures or drawings (Fahmy, 2007, p. 1). Usually, it is administered to anyone over the age of three. Yet, because the HTP requires its participants to draw, it is normally dispensed to children or adolescents, which could be a significant factor in why it is used in aiding child maltreatment detection. According to Buck (1977), “The House-Tree-Person is a technique designed to aid the clinician in obtaining information concerning an individual’s sensitivity, maturity, flexibility, efficiency, degree of personality integration, and interaction with the environment, specifically and generally” (p.1). The HTP is very useful due to its simplicity, which assists in delving among individual’s personalities, making it a very popular technique used today, especially among children. The basic aim of the HTP is to “measure aspects of a person’s personality through interpretation of drawings and responses to questions” (Fahmy, 2007, p. 1). Yet, the test has also been reported to have helped evaluate brain damage or general neurological performance. Essentially, through requiring the drawings of houses, trees, and people, Buck believed that these could provide relevant information about the functioning of a test taker’s personality through a sense of familiarity (Faymy, 2007, p. 1). Therefore, the HTP has been a widely used tool in association with determining child abuse as well as through its encouragement of hidden self-perceptions and awareness. Interpreting Images On average, the HTP takes about 150 minutes to finish, which merely adds to the test’s popularity. However, this can change according to whether the individual’s particular personality operates among the “normal” scale range, which would take less time to administer, or if the test taker is neurologically harmed, which could take much more time to complete. The test has two basic phases: drawing and questions/interpretation. Essentially, the first part of the test is to draw a house, a tree, and a person, each on a separate piece of paper with only the label of the drawing at the top of each page, using a pencil. The test taker has the opportunity to be as creative as they see fit throughout this completely non-verbal step. However, the examinee is allowed to only represent the particular picture with which they are asked to sketch and to only use the drawing utensil which is given. From this point, the examinee is allowed the opportunity to describe, in a sense, exactly what they have drawn – defining their artwork in association with themselves. Obviously, this is the phase during the test where the examiner can start to assess participant’s personality aspects through their responses toward each drawing. During the second phase, basically the same step taken in phase one occurs. The test taker is again asked to depict a house, a tree, and a person, but this time using crayons. Then, the individual is again asked to explain what they have drawn as well as how it pertains to them in particular. During both of the individual’s explanations, the administrator is given the chance to ask the test taker questions in relation to their drawings. Sample test questions range from, “Is it a happy house?”, “What is the house made of?”, “Is the tree alive?” or “How does that person feel?” depending on which particular drawing the questions are directed towards (Faymy, 2007, p. 2). Depending on their answers to these questions and how they relate them to their pictures can definitely bring out different personality interpretations for the administrator. Of course, there are different variations to the test consisting of more or less phases, which include different writing utensils. However, this is the most basic and preferred form of the HTP administered. According to Buck (1977), “The objects of House, Tree, and Person were chosen because they (1) were familiar items or concepts even to very young children; (2) were more willingly accepted for drawing by Ss of all ages and types than were other suggested objects; and (3) appeared to stimulate more frank and free verbalization than did other items” (p. 1). Therefore, it is through these drawings that the psychologist can further analyze an individual’s private perceptions and personal outlooks among their lives. Due to the amount of flexibility provided through the HTP test, a number of valuable considerations in favor of this particular assessment have been observed. According to Blain, Bergner, Lewis and Goldstein (1981), the test is an important apparatus because it is disguised and unobtrusive, there are minimal intellectual demands, and it does not rely on conscious report (p. 668). Hence, individual’s who are normally withdrawn, unrefined, or who typically unconsciously encumber repressed thoughts, such as young children in particular, will be likely to become much more adept at “coming out of their shell” in this particular testing situation due to the extremely non threatening environment presented. The HTP could be thought of as a nice ice-breaker, in a way, for clinician and participant to get to know each other and invite a more relaxing atmosphere. Drawing allows the freedom of open expression, which does not intimidate, especially children. However, difficulty can often approach during the questioning part of the phases, which could develop participant’s anxiety and withdrawal. Scoring In scoring the HTP, projective qualities are blatantly surfaced. Basically, the HTP is assessed using an objective quantitative manner and a subjective qualitative manner. Quantitative items are judged on a particular scale, which gives a numbered score, and qualitative items are marked projectively if they could not be assessed using the quantitative tabulation scales. However, different details provided within the test takers drawings exhibit very dissimilar standpoints. Diverse details can apply differential value from the perspective of the intellectual level of function only when they appear in the drawings as well as when they are not present; similarly, some details provide no significant quantitative importance as far as the intellectual level of function is concerned, and some details have differential value only when considered in relation to other details (Buck, 1977, p. 35). Some examples of these characteristics could include missing windows, smoke issuing from the chimney, and only drawing one ear of a person – each of these examples could possibly represent imperative regressed thoughts, which the psychologist tries interpreting. However, quantitative items are judged also according to a “good” and “flaw” scoring system. “Flaw” items were essentially those details which appeared in about 50 or more of the drawings of those which exhibit lower intelligence, and “good” items were those which emerged in at least 50% of the drawings of those of borderline intelligence or higher (Buck, 1964, p. 20). All in all, depending on what and how a test taker draws could provide extremely significant cues into their subconscious perceptions, as well as their answers to the questions provided. For example, Buck explains that an examiner who is insecure is likely to be found drawing symmetrical objects such as two windows or two chimneys, and maladjusted individuals sometimes draw sequentially such as using extreme details without little consideration for the relationship of the fine points together or as a whole (Buck, 1977, p. 84). The fact that certain characteristic attributes of drawings can be associated with assured personality traits, can perhaps provide safe assumption that the HTP may bring out certain unconsciously hidden thoughts, which would not otherwise surface, especially among children. Therefore, ideas related to neglect, abuse, anger, hurt, sadness and several other emotions could rise and give face to many acts which children engage, like fights or depression, yet do not realize as to why they have acted in this particular way due to their inability to understand this very concept. Hence, the HTP provides means of possibly allowing children as well as adults to “escape” turmoil’s of their own minds and bring light to regressed thoughts through drawing simple pictures and interpretation. Also, administrators of the HTP must be very well educated in the scoring of this particular projective test. In fact, the test publishers have provided a very detailed 350-page administration and scoring manual, which requires proper training to oversee. Basically, you cannot simply look at the picture and determine whether this person has a “normal” background or not, extensive training must take place beforehand. Therefore, scoring of the HTP can be very difficult indeed due to the amount of preparation and knowledge which the test examiner must undergo and attain. Norms This test grants many ways of interpreting an individual’s inner emotions and thoughts as well as aiding in strengthening the relationship between counselor and children or adults. However, the analysis hugely lacks validity and reliability proof, which has made the HTP subject to significant criticism due to its shortness of dependability. However, the Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Man test has reportedly been a very good projective personality test to administer in terms of psychometric properties, which when placed in conjunction with the HTP could aid in providing a better range of reliability and validity for the House-Tree-Person. One of the reasons for the tests absence of validity and reliability can be seen through its subjectivity. This bias can take place simply because the examiner merely sees what is drawn on a piece of paper and hears what the child or adult tells them about the particular drawing, rather than understanding the entirety of the individual’s background and circumstances. Groth-Marnat (1990) relates, “It has been suggested that interpreters often use their intuitive judgments when interpreting the drawings of children rather than using proven scoring methods, even when they are available such as the D-A-P scoring method to assess cognitive development” (as cited in Deffenbaugh, 2003, p. 8). Therefore, critics can suggest that HTP test administrators are not fully able to manage this particular test and may not ever acquire this opportunity. Unfortunately, due to the nonexistence of reliability and validity presented by this test, undeniable proof cannot be offered by examiner’s, which has been known to cause slight controversy in the direction of actually taking the HTP seriously. Groth-Marnat (1990) expands through stating, “The age, relative drawing skill and ability, testing situation, intelligence, and the child’s experience with previous projective drawing tests must all be taken into consideration and standardized to begin to make reliable conclusions” (as cited in Deffenbaugh, 2003, p. 9). Essentially, the examiner cannot underestimate the test taker’s prior experience or life situation; they must take into account these characteristics beforehand and realize that just because something is aloof in a drawing, this may not necessarily cue problem areas. Target Areas However, on a different note, the HTP has attempted to prove itself to play a significant role in suggesting child abuse detection, which is a very important factor among today’s society for many different reasons from the increasing child’s blatant denials to parents’ excuses. For instance, Von Hutton (1994) produced a scoring system for the HTP, pertaining to target children with personality and emotional characteristics, which may be present among those who are battered. The system was composed of four scoring scales, which were preoccupation with sexually relevant concepts (SRC), aggression and hostility (AH), withdrawal and guarded accessibility (WGA), and alertness for danger, suspiciousness, and lack of trust (ADST) (as cited in Deffenbaugh, 2003, p. 10). Essentially, the basic focus of this study was to find means of determining children who hold maltreatment characteristics and learn how to distinguish them from other kids. The study consisted of 145 children, both male and female, who were chosen from rural areas. The HTP was given to each of the children, much the same way as typical House-Tree-Person administration. The supervisors took several notes as the children made their drawings. Yet, the only difference of this presentation of the HTP was when the administrators scored the children’s drawings, asking them questions which pertained to Hutton’s newly developed scale. According to Hutton (1994), “Children with scores in the 84-94%ile were judged borderline with possible abuse and those in the 95-98%ile were determined significant scores and considered in the probable range of being sexually abused” (as cited in Deffenbaugh, 2003, p. 10). Therefore, from Hutton’s standpoint, this novel scale provided the means possible to accurately determine child maltreatment. After Hutton’s study was completed, a spark of interest of HTP in determining child neglect overwhelmed many psychologists. Other studies were made, featuring known children of child abuse, to test the reliability of Hutton’s scale. Unfortunately, although Hutton’s scoring system was found as successful in the small study it pertained to, it has yet to be successfully duplicated, which means that it has not yet been judged as valid or reliable (Deffenbaugh, 2003, p. 12). Therefore, the HTP could provide systematic leads towards speculation of mistreatment towards children; unfortunately, psychologists still cannot solidify this evidence due to the tests subjectivity. Yet, aside from absolute proof, the HTP provides many well-equipped means of offering relaxing avenues of associating clinician and participant and can assist many psychologists among several personality possibilities correlated with individuals. Tangled Perceptions – Believed or Dismissed? My opinion of the House-Tree-Person test is that, although it cannot be taken completely seriously, due to the face that no evidence of reliability or validity stands, it is still a nice test to administer for young children. I think that it is an exceptional way for counselor and patient to basically, get to know each other and learn that they are in a relaxed and open atmosphere, which could essentially open doors of opportunity for perceiving characteristics further along counseling sessions. As far as interpreting drawings in relation to personality traits, I think speculation is all that is possible. I have worked at a daycare center for two years -kids love drawing, especially scribbling exotic exaggerations. Therefore, I find it difficult to believe that anything other than a child’s creativity, not home life, could possibly be found among the colorful depths of an 8X11 piece of paper. However, I do believe that it is possible to use the drawings as a starting technique to allow children the freedom needed to relinquish fear and begin talking about themselves as well as emotional events. Unfortunately, I think that in order to provide a clear interpretation of the drawings in association with personality traits, more knowledge is needed about the patient in general before a solid conclusion can establish. On the other hand, I think that using the HTP as a means of determining child abuse is a great technique used because, although it does not completely prove maltreatment, it does help to arouse suspicion as well as give the child the opportunity to come forth, which is a rare occurrence in other situations. The HTP forces awareness and allows relief. Redemption. My mom has been a foster parent since I was a freshman in high school. Many memories of children reside among silent corners of my home, each providing their own unique whispers. I have seen first hand the difficulties children face each day amid hurt’s flaming fringes. I believe that any step towards improving this destruction is a stride among guaranteeing tomorrow. Therefore, I think the HTP is, although unstable, a wonderful addition to our world of psychology. Works Cited Bergner, R.M., Blain, G.H., Goldstein, M.A., Lewis, M.L. (1981). The Use of Objectively Scorable House-Tree-Person Indicators to Establish Child Abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(3), 668. Buck, J.N. (1964). The House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) Manual Supplement: Administration and Interpretation of the H-T-P Test. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Buck, J.N. (1977). The House-Tree-Person Technique: Revised Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Fahmy, A. (2007). House-Tree-Person Test. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from Psychology Essays – Children Neurological Test
HLTH 4205 Walden University Skin Cancer in Women Research Proposal Presentation.

Learning ResourcesRequired ReadingsJacobsen, K.H. (2017). Introduction to health research methods. (2nd ed.). Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Chapter 31, “Posters and Presentations,” pp. 275–286Chapter 32, “Article Structure,” pp. 287–296Chapter 33, “Citing,” pp. 297–304Chapter 34, “Critically Revising,” pp. 305–308Chapter 35, “Writing Success Strategies,” pp. 309–318Chapter 37, “Selecting Target Journals,” pp. 323–328Chapter 38, “Manuscript Submission,” pp. 329–336Chapter 39, “Review, Resubmission, and Publication,” pp. 337–344 Journal of Young Investigators. (n.d.). Journal of young investigators. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from University Academic Skills Center. (n.d.). Skill builder series: PowerPoint. Retrieved January 16, 2019, from…Optional ResourcesCouncil on Undergraduate Research. (n.d.). Our organization. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from Microsoft. (n.d.). PowerPoint help center. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from National Institute of Health. (n.d.). Home. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from National Science Foundation. (n.d.). Research experiences for undergraduates (REU). Retrieved January 5, 2019, from… National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse. (n.d.). National undergraduate research clearinghouse. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from Assignment: PowerPoint® Research ProposalTo prepare for this Assignment:Review the topics and concepts that were introduced throughout the course including study questions, purpose of research, study design, sample size, data collection, data analysis, and reporting findingsReview the chapters in the textbook that address each topicReview your past Discussions and Assignments and take into account the feedback that you received from your colleagues and Instructor ( HEY ELEGANCE I CAN GIVE YOU A LIST OF ALL THE FEEDBACK FROM MY PROFESSOR IF YOU NEED IT) JUST LET ME KNOW.Revise the pieces of your research based on feedbackTo complete this Assignment:Design a 9- to 12-slide presentation of your research proposal including the following information:Slide 1: Title SlideNameCourse NumberTitle of your researchSlide 2: The Study QuestionIdentify your study questionExplain how you came to this question: did it stem from something that was observed, or did you brainstorm to find the topic?Be sure to take into account the feedback that you received on your study question in Week 1. ( Here’s the feedback I got from my professor on my study question in week 1. ” Your post demonstrates a full understanding of the concepts and key points presented in the text and accompanying resources. You provide significant detail and personal insight to fully explain your research topic. Good use of evidence to support your ideas. I may suggest also defining the key terms that will be used in your particular study. Please engage with at least two classmates by Saturday in order to receive credit for peer feedback.”)Slide 3: The Purpose of Your ResearchWhy is this research important?How would this research be used in practice?Slide 4: The Study DesignWhich study design is most appropriate for your research? Explain.Slide 5: Population and Sample SizeDescribe the population that is being studiedExplain how you selected an appropriate sample sizeSlide 6: Data Collection StrategiesExplain the data collection strategies that are most appropriateExplain why these strategies are most appropriateYou may need to add an additional slide to cover all of the informationSlide 7: Analysis ProcedureHow would you analyze the data?Include information on any ethical issues you may need to addressYou may need to add an additional slide to cover all of the informationSlide 8: Reporting FindingsIdentify the journals, conferences, etc. that may be appropriate for reporting the findingsExplain why you chose these means of reporting findingsYou may need to add an additional slide to cover all of the informationSlide 9: ReferencesYour written assignments must follow APA guidelines. Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and additional scholarly sources as appropriate.By Day 4Submit your Assignment.Submission and Grading Information
HLTH 4205 Walden University Skin Cancer in Women Research Proposal Presentation

Write an research proposal about identity.

Research Proposal Rough Draft AssignmentThe Research Proposal Rough Draft Should:· Be speculative in nature.· Be approximately two pages in length with 1” margins and 12 point font· Include the following information in paragraph form:1) THE TOPIC (about a paragraph long)Provides a general overview of the problem, question, or issue addressed. Specifies thecontroversy about the topic and the stakeholders/constituents to the problem. Defineslocations, time periods, etc. and cites specific sources to illustrate the scope andsignificance of the topic.2) A RESEARCH QUESTION & RELATED RESEARCH QUESTIONS THATHELP FOCUS THE TOPICArticulates questions that lead to analysis rather than summary.3) AN OUTLINE OF THE APPROACH YOU HAVE DEVISED TO EXPLORETHE TOPICSpecifies key terms and concepts, names the case studies, and explains any proposedtheoretical frameworks (such frameworks and cases may be vague at this point, but youshould be moving in this direction).4) (OPTIONAL) A TENTATIVE HYPOTHESISIf you are able to, formulate a tentative hypothesis that answers the main researchquestion posed above.5) A PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY of 3 – 4 credible sourcesTry to identify case and frame sources as early as you can. Please use MLA citationstyle.This is just a proposal. I don’t need a real research paper.
Write an research proposal about identity

The Importance Of Effective Maintenance

Since the maintenance has significant impacts in industry, it has received a deep attention from the expert and practical maintenance. According to study, maintenance costs can represent from 15% to 40% of the costs of goods produced [x2]. Maintenance of process equipment is one of the inescapable tasks associated with the operation of industrial plants and until relatively recently, it was implemented either on a routine basis or after the failure of equipment. Attitudes are changing and now many organisations are adopting methods for identifying incipient faults, so that maintenance can be scheduled before there has been a failure, which would lead to loss of production and spoilage of raw material. Plants and different machine centres are assembled from a wide variety of mechanical and electrical equipment, which due to their very nature are subject to wear, corrosion, erosion and other forms of degradation [1]. It is widely accepted that intelligent, sensor based manufacturing is vital to achieve a high availability level of the sophisticated manufacturing systems in conjunction with high quality levels of manufactured components. Advanced sensor design, coupled with signal processing technologies, permits improved information about the process condition enabling process optimisation and control. It is not adequate to have information relating solely to the tool condition. Additional capabilities such as in process quality control and machine tool diagnostics are a requirement of the future, i.e. a shift from monitoring the tool condition to monitoring the process condition and the resulting part quality. [2] The use of mechanical vibration and acoustic emission signals for fault diagnosis in rotating machinery has grown significantly due to advances in the progress of digital signal processing algorithms and implementation techniques. The conventional diagnosis technology using acoustic and vibration signals already exists in the form of techniques applying the time and frequency domain of signals, and analysing the difference of signals in the spectrum. Unfortunately, in some applications the performance is limited, such as when the signals caused by a damaged element are buried in background noise. [x3] In recent years, the possibility of obtaining more detailed information regarding the operation of process equipment by applying signal analysis techniques to conventional process measurements has, hitherto, been largely overlooked. This is because the principal purpose of the majority of process measurement systems is to provide a ‘smooth signal’ for process control purposes. Therefore most process measurement systems are designed to produce a steady output signal, which is achieved by restricting the frequency response of the measurement system and thereby suppressing the ‘noise’ component. [1] Signal transients are generally characterised by a short duration in time as compared to the observation interval. Research has shown that very important measurement information is often associated with the transients [1,2]. For example the vibration signals generated on a gearbox, the transients usually correspond to the local fault of the gear teeth, such as deformation, breakage and fracture. Thus analysing the transients of gearbox vibrations is useful for representing the characteristics of the gearbox health. However, it is not an easy task because the vibration measurements often carry heavy noise in the working environment, which could bury the essential vibration information of gears. Therefore, it is important and necessary to detect the transients with the machine health information in the very low signal-to-noise ratio conditions [3,4]. 1.2. Previous Work: This section contains information about the previous work that has been carried out with regards to condition monitoring and signal processing techniques. It also provides an outline of the different modern signal processing techniques used by researchers to identify faults with various machine components. 1.2.1 Machine tool A machine management system was developed at Cardiff University as a part of the MIRAM project (Machine Management for Increasing Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) that provides rapid fault diagnosis and allows the implementation of a predictive maintenance strategy [4]. This was used to extract data from the machine components by the sensors attached to it. The data processing methods implemented in the system allowed the characterization of normal and faulty behaviour of the machine component under investigation. An analysis has demonstrated the application of vibration monitoring using signal processing techniques such as Skewness, Standard deviation, RMS (Root Mean Square) and Kurtosis on the spindle system of machine tools. The results obtained from a signal after implementing kurtosis as a signal processing technique show a relatively high kurtosis value compared to other signals, which indicates a fault, associated with the spindle system. This analysis also describes the variations in the transients obtained from the coolant system of the machine tool. [5] Water treatment plant The research work conducted by a PhD student on the WRAP (Water Resources and Action Programme) test rig set-up at Cardiff University focuses on analysing the flow, pressure and pump speed request characteristics with respect to blockages induced on different valves. This analysis also studies the performance of the plant in relation to any leakages occurring in the system. Another analysis, which studies the performance of the same water filtration plant considers inducing 25 %, 50%, 75 % and 100 % blockages on the valves pre and post the pump. A fault dictionary created using a mathematical model approach was used to differentiate between the pre and post pump blockages and their degree of severities. [6] Use of modern signal processing techniques A review of modern signal processing techniques applicable to the analysis of signals whose frequency content is non-stationary has been studied in (R. Burnett, J.F. Watson*, S. Elder) [7]. Techniques like FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), STFT (Short-Time Fourier Transform) and Spectrogram have been discussed and compared using both test and actual data. Results are presented which identify the technique most appropriate for the task of fault detection in machine components under transient conditions [7]. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT) technique used for fault signal diagnosis in an internal combustion engine and its coolant system by using vibration signals has been studied by Wu

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presentationOnce you complete all of the above components of the assignment (the pdf bellow which includes: Increase your understanding of a particular group’s health behaviors and associated social determinants of their healthLearn how health organizations attempt to serve the health needs of this group. You will be assigned to a group to understand a specific cultural group’s health behaviors and disparities, identify a case study using a community organization in the DC Metropolitan area that serves the health need of your particular group, assess a neighborhood of the population being served by this community organization, and review research examining culturally sensitive approaches and interventions that have been found successful with promoting the health of your assigned group. Submit Presentation Proposal: Community Organization Interview and Case StudyNeighborhood Assessment:Research Article Summary: Consultation with the InstructorPresentation:), each student will submit a one-page summary of lessons learned from this assignment and reactions to the case study. please refer to the pdf 1 page summarysinge space12 times new roman
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Food Insecurity In Bangladesh Economics Essay

The international community often uses the term food security to describe not only the availability of food, but the ability to purchase food. It means not only a reliable source of food but also adequate resources to purchase it. When members of a family do not live in a hunger or fear for starvation then the family considered as food secure.. According to the World Food Summit(1996), “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. Generally, the notion of food security is defined as counting both physical and economic access to food that meets people’s dietary needs as well as their food preferences. This definition of food security is built on three principal elements: adequate food availability, adequate access to food and appropriate food utilization. Food security occupies a significant position in social and political constancy of a country. Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is the First Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) targeted by United Nations(2012). The apprehension of this goal would not only improve the health and well-being of millions around the globe, but it would also maintain the attainment of the remaining seven MDGs. Food insecurity which is a condition that exists “when people do not have adequate physical, social, or economic access to food”(Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO], 2010 p8). Eradicating hunger and food insecurity is mostly important providing it is a key risk factor for malnutrition and illness, which jointly reduce productivity and economic development(Motiur Rahman et al.). Although the number and proportion of hungry and malnourished people has retreated slightly since the 2009 economic and food price crisis, an estimated 870 million people will be hungry in 2012(FAO, 2012). Little progress in poverty reduction is likely to be seen whereas hunger and malnutrition remain extensive. In other words, poverty, hunger and poor health are interlinked; the rate of each contributes to the presence and persistence of the others. Figure 1 is a conceptual framework interpreting the linkages to desired outcomes (central and upper half of the diagram) and potential risks (lower half). Source: Webb and Rogers, Addressing the “In” in Food Insecurity(2003) This framework recommends that food availability obtains from domestic agricultural output such as cash crops, livestock and food crops, preferably through feasible use of natural resources (water, land and vegetation). At the national level net food imports enhance the total food availability from domestic sources. Food access deals with the capability of households to secure food in the marketplace or from other sources (transfers, gifts, etc.). Household purchasing power is the key to access and this varies in relation to market integration, price policies, and temporal market conditions. Food utilization organizes issues of food quality and safety, sufficiency of intake at the individual level, and the conversion efficiency of food by the body that results in sound nutritional status and growth. In the latter illustration, the disruption of health infrastructure, lack of nutrition education and discrimination against women in controlling resources all have a detrimental impact on individual outcomes(Webb and Rogers). Bangladesh is a small country in southern Asia. According to the 2011 census, the population of Bangladesh in 2011 was about 149 million(Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). Bangladesh is home to a densely populated flood plain delta in the world with 1,062 people per square kilometer(PRB, 2012). It regularly suffers from natural disasters such as floods, cyclones and drought. It is also vulnerable to the growing effects of global climate change. Tendency to natural disasters, distribution and quality of agricultural land, access to education and health facilities, level of infrastructure development, employment opportunities, and dietary and caring practices are the main factors of food in security in Bangladesh. Food availability likely to be hampered by production failures associated with labor restraints, gender inequality in land possession and loss of productive assets needed to sustain household food production(Maxwell and Smith, 1992). The adequate production, distribution and availability of fundamental food items in Bangladesh have always been a cause of ineterst for governments, international donor organizations and socio-economic researchers. Rice is the staple food of Bangladesh and contains around 94 percent of all food grains produced per annum Food security, in the context of Bangladesh, is therefore strongly related around the production, import and price stability of rice. Food availability in the domestic market does not essentially guarantee food security for the masses. According to the BBS Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010(BBS), 31.5 percent of households in Bangladesh have income that is considered to be below the poverty line, and a substantial portion of these poor households suffer from food deficiency and malnutrition. The major reason for food insecurity in Bangladesh is poverty, which is both the cause and outcome of food insecurity. Poor households are lack of sufficient and nutritious food, and are likely to be food insecure. Food insecure people may have to sell or consume their productive assets to satisfy their instant food needs. This destabilizes their longer-term income potential and they may become poor. To analysis food security, both national and individual perspectives are important. Food security at the national level means there are sufficient stocks of food available in the country to meet domestic needs until such time as stocks can be refilled from harvests and /or imports. On the other hand, at individual level it means all members of the society have access to the food they require, either from their own production, from marketplace and/or from different transfer system of the government. Usually the national level food security masks the actual food security situation at the household level. National level analysis always evaluates the availability and requirement of food grains. It has to be understood that availability and supply are not always the same. Household purchasing power has major impact on access to food. This purchasing power fluctuates in relation to market integration, price policies and temporal market situations. The dominant food rice contributing to over 63 percent of the caloric intake for urban consumers and over 71 percent for the rural population based on 2010 household survey data by BBS(BBS, 2010). These percentages are much higher for the poor. A number of factors in Bangladesh prevent poor households or individuals from accessing food even adequate food supplies are available. The level of earnings may be too low to purchase the essential foods at existing prices from the market, lack of own land for cultivation, or may lack the fundamental resources or approach to credit to help handle with difficult times. Moreover, they may locate themselves exterior to any community support or program that offers them with in-kind or cash transfers to subsidize their food attainment capability. Food security has been a critical issue in the recent past regime of high food prices across the globe. In rural Bangladesh, agricultural wage employment is the major source of income for a poor household. Though, household members may be attached in a whole range of diverse liveliness throughout the year. A household becomes vulnerable to cyclical food when it depends on agricultural wage labor as this employment opening differs according to season. Through the lean seasons that are in March-April and October-November, earlier to harvesting the main rice crops, job opportunities are low. As a result there are low wage rates whereas food prices are at their peak. Earnings derived from non-agricultural sources supplies a potential safeguard across the cyclical nature of agricultural income which in turn can improve household food security. Vulnerability can be defined as the exposure and sensitivity to livelihood shocks, a concept that begins with the notion of risk(Greenblott, 2006). Households in Bangladesh experience a multiplicity of risks that can, independently or in combination, drag them into poverty. There are shocks that involve numerous households directly, likely to overcome social coping approaches established upon support inside families and communities, and there are case-specific shocks that stress involved units. By lowering exposure to risks and rising the household’s capability to deal with shocks vulnerability can be curtailed, but responses count on the extent and severity of damage. Damage caused by natural disasters is one of the major risks encountered by poor Bangladeshi households. Huge damage to crops, houses, livestock, household and community properties occurred by floods, cyclones erosions and droughts. In each year this disasters can lead to illness and death. Physical access to food and food stocks are hampered by disaster, it destroys crops as a result markets are temporarily dysfunctional that lead to an increase in the essential food price. Household food security status affected by natural disasters directly by crippling their asset base and indirectly by loss of employment opportunities, an increase in health expenditure and an increase in essential food expenditure(Coates et al.). Market availability of, and household access to food are not adequate to ensure food security. In what way household members utilize the food is also very important. Socio-cultural factors that determine the availability of food, access to and utilization of food affects the food consumption behavior, nutritional status, health and food security. Poverty, gender, age and disability, geographical location and cultural practices are important factors that affect food consumption patterns. Poverty directly influences food consumption due to lack of access to resources, knowledge and markets. Gender disparities in food distribution can cause malnutrition, especially for pregnant/lactating mothers and children(Coates et al., 2006). Lack of incomes is the principal driver of under-consumption and malnutrition for approximately 31.5 percent of Bangladeshis who live under the poverty line(BBS, 2010). Households that lack productive assets and depend on inconsistent sources of daily wage labor are more vulnerable to food insecurity. Groups such as landless, agricultural day laborers, casual fishermen and beggars fall into this category. Within households, children, the disabled, pregnant women and nursing mothers, and the elderly face relatively high nutritional risks. Over 60 percent of all pregnant and lactating women have insufficient caloric intake, which can produce malnourished babies(World Food Programme [WFP]). General nutritional awareness, access to proper sanitation and health care, and caring practices are essential elements of an individual’s capacity to absorb and utilize the nutrients in the diet and eventually of one’s food security status. Other than consumption levels, different household characteristics can also show improvement in the standard of living. While standard of living and food security are anticipated to be highly linked, it would not be unexpected to find these characteristics to be related with food security issues. Therefore, it would be rational to anticipate that households with better qualities are also demonstrating lesser level of food insecurity. Quality of housing and food security level are closely related in Bangladesh(Narayan et al., 2007). Rushad Faridi and Syed Naimul Wadood(2010) stated in their study, households which are living in houses built with straw roofs (hemp/hay/bamboo) are the poorest segment of the population. Similarly, households living in houses with straw roofs, food insecurity is the most prevalent. On the other part, houses with brick wall seem to be the most food secure. These two surveillances show that household infrastructure is a strong indicator of wealth and consequentially, the food security situation. After categorizing the households by the level of ownership, occupancy status has an important role in determining the household welfare situation. Compared to other groups house owners are better off in terms of food security. Households, with their head engaged in salaried wage employment, are around 10 per cent more likely to be food insecure than households with their head in agricultural labour. In the same manner, electricity connection is also a marker showing higher orders of food-insecurity surrounded by the households which have no electricity connection. Education is clearly connected with food security issues with the assumption that household heads with more human wealth are prone to suffer less from food insecurity. Food insecurity is a key apprehension for the global development community as it negatively impacts diet and nutritional status. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that household food insecurity is also linked with various non-nutritional consequences in children, adolescents, and adults(Weaver and Hadley, 2009), including poor infant feeding(Saha et al., 2008), poor physical growth(Saha et al., 2009), poor child development(Hernandez and Jacknowitz, 2009, Jyoti et al., 2005), educational achievement(Jyoti et al., 2005), poor physical and mental health(Heflin et al., 2005, Siefert et al., 2004), behavioral problems and problems in parenting(Huang et al.,2010). These findings have guide to apprehension that household food insecurity influences well-being through multiple pathways involving social and psychological conditions such as deprivation, worry, distress, alienation, and alteration of family interactions as well as a pathway involving dietary intake to nutritional status(McCurdy and Gorman). These quantitative findings and the related concepts of non-nutritional pathways are supported by qualitative work showing that food insecurity, in addition to its nutrition-related effects, manifests itself through social and psychological conditions leading to altered behavior at individual and group levels. There are various social and psychological consequences of food insecurity in Bangladesh. First, anxiety and worries, concerning not having food for consumption or other social and religious needs and regarding determinants of food availability such as flood, cyclones, drought persist throughout the year, lead to weight and sleep loss, and point out more severe food insecurity. Second, influence of socially undesirable ways of coping with food insecurity (borrowing and asking for foods) generates dishonor which contributes to and is a sign of isolation from the society. Failure by the head of household to perform his primary accountability of providing food leads to feeling guilt and deprivation. Fear of isolation and deprivation regulates the decision-making of the household related to treatment of food insecurity, including child feeding. Lastly, food insecurity changes intra-household attachment through irritability and aggressiveness in adults, and by lack of food that makes it tough for parents to keep children at home. The weakness of social model is that it gives the blame on victims those who are food insecure as well as it pointing the finger at deficiencies in public policy and behavior of the administration. Regarding victim blaming, the ill health caused by food insecurity is not due to exclusively individual actions. Some people argued that there should be more responsibilities on the shoulders of individuals for adopting lifestyles which will diminish the risks of becoming their ill health from food insecurity. On the other hand it is not the victims who are responsible for their behavior and ill health from the food crisis. Peoples are influenced and restrained by the social, economic, cultural and physical environments in which they live and the structural settings within which they work. Thus the government’s failure to provide proper investments to reduce the food crisis may damaging the health of the vulnerable groups. Bangladesh needs to improve the availability, access, and utilization of food. Efforts to improve food security need to take into account natural and man-made challenges and changes in the domestic and international landscape, including population growth, urbanization, natural resource constraints, and climate change. In general population growth and particularly urbanization put high and growing pressure on land, making it obligatory to increase in agricultural productivity. Millions of marginal and small farms dominate the agricultural production in Bangladesh whereas crop diversification is still limited. Smallholders need to conform to changing demands, markets, and supply chains. Furthermore, the soil is seriously degraded in many parts of the country, fresh water availability for irrigation is increasingly insufficient, and natural disasters regularly damage part of the agricultural output The future food security plan needs to maintain successes in areas where positive trends have been seen; whereas, at the same time, achieving certain milestones that have not yet received enough attention. Public investment is one of the most direct and valuable instruments that governments can use to promote growth, food security, and poverty and hunger reduction. Given both the existing state of food insecurity in Bangladesh and the challenges that the country will face in the future, a comprehensive policy framework is needed that places focus on investment strategies in three major areas: (1) agricultural research and extension, (2) improved access of farmers to well-functioning markets, and (3) improved insurance and targeted social safety net programs for vulnerable groups, especially undernourished women and children. Across these three areas, attention needs to be focused on capacity building and good governance. BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS (2011) Bangladesh Population and Housing Census 2011. Dhaka, Statistics and Informatics Division,Ministry of Planning,GoB. BBS (2010) HIES Survey Report 2010. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. COATES, J., WEBB, P., HOUSER, R., ROGERS, B.

Economic, Environmental And Social Impacts Of Tourism

Tourism is one of the largest and most dynamic international sectors. Its rapid growth, evolving infrastructure, foreign currency flows, and the introduction of advanced management techniques have influenced numerous sectors positively by contributing to social and economic development. Negative impacts Positive impacts Social Foreign influence may cause society to lose values and traditions. Locals may have their privacy invaded. Creates new job opportunities Helps implement modern ideologies. Travel helps society on a psychological level as it gives people a degree of freedom of movement. Bringing foreign expertise to the destination through conferences, therefore strengthening ties. Developing intercultural understanding Developing friendships Environmental Tourism transportation harms the environment of the destinations of origin and arrival, and pollutes during transit. Harms the destination’s appeal to foreigners. Tourism may give national authorities the incentive to safeguard the environment. Economic Pollution causes strain on the national health care system, which may increase government deficit and long term debt. Local economy may suffer because of competition from other emerging destinations. Allocation of funds may be directed towards pleasing tourists rather than pleasing long-term residents. Creates employment which adds to government taxation revenue. Financial gain by stakeholders. Tourism’s actual and potential impact is astounding; however such impact is not purely positive. For almost every positive impact, there happens to be a negative one. These may be subdivided into economic, environmental and social impacts, as tabulated below: Society Social contact between tourists and locals may make way for cultural appreciation through understanding, tolerance and awareness. As tourism contributes to beneficial developments in sectors such as education, why not embrace it and ensure that people continue to visit? The human aspect is crucial for the success of any tourism product. Tourists enjoy speaking to locals, and locals should be open to discourse with tourists to add value to their experience. If local culture is the base for attracting tourists to the area, it gives added incentive to preserve the local traditions and crafts which are typical to that area. In certain localities of the Maltese islands, tourists contribute significantly to the preservation of local crafts such as glass blowing and lace, as well as the maintenance of important historical monuments and structures. Although it is fortunate that tourism drives national organisations to preserve historical artifacts and monuments, it is unfortunate to know that little would be done if it were not for tourism. To maximise the positive social impacts, foreigners and locals alike must be educated. Locals must be made aware that they must care for their belongings and surroundings, and respect other cultures to make their destination more attractive on a physical and social level. On the other hand, foreigners must also be educated to ensure that they respect the traditions, cultures and surroundings of host communities. As a result of the lack of awareness amongst tourists, the fortified city of Mdina in Malta is very much disturbed by tourists. It is home to just over one hundred people, but is visited by hundreds of people on a daily basis, often running into the thousands during the summer months. The city has become such a popular attraction that the local people are beginning to feel commoditised. As a result they are developing negative attitudes towards tourists. This concept is know as ‘Greenwashing’. Greenwashing refers to the commoditisation of indigenous residents and natural surroundings, creating severe social problem. Residents are often subject to invasion of privacy as tourists fail to respect their daily lives, often gazing into people’s houses, and on many occasions, entering them to take a few quick photos. On the other hand, tourism is often beneficial in helping relatively conservative societies become more open to the world. This is the case in certain regions of Libya for instance, where state leaders have recently given the go ahead for the development of numerous sea side resorts along the coasts, as well as eco-touristic areas. As a result, Libyans may become more open to foreigners in the long run. Even though these plans have been opposed to by numerous nationals, it was done for the long term benefit of the country. During the 1980s, the Libyans were very much resistant to the changes proposed by their leaders. Foreign observers believed that the heads of states were in for a difficult time trying to convince the public of the need for social change. The importance of travel must also be pushed within companies, as it not only broadens ones perspectives but it can also help people become more productive. Travel for leisure is proven to improve psychological health by reducing stress levels. Leave from work is now obligatory in most countries around the world, simply because of the importance of leisure time. Another benefit of tourism on the structure of society may be the introduction of foreign expertise to the destination, which in turn may improve the skills of the local workforce. Foreign experts may visit a destination for conferences, through which they can develop or strengthen relationships with local entrepreneurs. As a result of such relationships, travel has given companies the possibilities to form partnerships or join affiliate programs with overseas companies. The distinctiveness of a destination is instrumental to its success, so national government or international agencies must ensure that the necessary systems are in place to avoid any sense of ‘placelessness’. ‘Placelessness’ is a concept coined by E. Relph which states that places become more and more similar to each other due to globalisation. Although this may seem farfetched to some, it is still a probable scenario in the future as the world becomes even more connected. National and local governments must therefore do their utmost to promote the unique identity of the destination. For instance, Malta is the only island of its size to have its very own official language which is not spoken anywhere else in the world. Over the years Malta has been significantly influenced by foreigners, however, many of its traditions have remained intact, such as the local village feasts and the traditional Maltese folk music called ‘ghana’. However, while presenting a culture to tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even destroy it. Local communities must therefore present traditions in their purest forms, without excessive tampering. Although the European Union’s aim is to create a strong network between European countries, it strongly believes that each country must safeguard its own traditions to remain appealing. Environment The excessive development of a resource can lead to numerous negative impacts such as overdevelopment and loss of natural habitats. From an ecological point of view, some people may see tourism as the more acceptable industry. They may say that it is a lot less damaging than deforestation or overfishing, for instance, which may be true. However, those people who analyse tourism closely from all perspectives will notice that tourism does cause a significant amount of damage to the natural environment. Tourists tend to leave behind a trail of environmental degradation in the form of litter, from the excessive use of water in their hotel rooms, leaving lights on after they leave their rooms, to the burning of fossil fuels when making use of transportation to and from their final destination, as well as within it. It is well known that the tourism industry is not only made up of direct players, but also indirect players, and these play a significant part in polluting the environment. Another important factor to consider is the fact that certain localities can only accommodate a limited amount of people at a time. This concept is known as carrying capacity. Mathieson and Wall (1982) defined the tourism carrying capacity as “The maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors.” To ensure the longevity of certain attractions, carrying capacity guidelines must be respected and evaluated to ensure that little harm is caused. Although restricting the number of entrants into a facility may infringe upon profitability, in certain scenarios it is more valuable to protect something unique than to exhaust it. Advancements in environmentally friendly technologies are well underway, and numerous airline manufacturers are designing more fuel efficient aircraft which fall within emissions guidelines. Land transportation is also becoming increasingly environmentally friendly with the introduction of hybrid as well as all electric vehicles, and more fuel efficient fossil fuelled vehicles. US President Barack Obama is setting a big example by wanting all public transportation within the New York area to be environmentally friendly within the next few years. Tourism in Libya is on the rise, bringing increased demand for hotel accommodation and for capacity at airports such as Tripoli International. A multi-million dollar renovation of Libyan airports has recently been approved by the government to help meet such demands. At present 130,000 people visit the country annually; the Libyan government hopes to increase this figure to 10,000,000 tourists. Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, the second-eldest son of Muammar al-Gaddafi, is involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which seeks to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area. Economy Minimise the negative impacts- Economic The introduction of environmentally friendly transportation systems would reduce health risks, therefore cutting health care costs for national government. This would cause less strain on the economic system. Ensure that local markets are up to date and can compete with foreign markets. Organisations must be dynamic and adaptable to rapid change. Maximise positive impacts- Economic -Promoting a country’s most popular assets will create employment as new business ventures may begin and new job positions will be made available as a result. The government must promote its destination as a secure place for investment, therefore increasing financial gain for stakeholders. Government must improve the state of the environment and make it more appealing to tourists.