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Describe the behaviourist approach in psychology and evaluate the research methods used by behaviourist psychologists (10 marks) Behaviourists regard all behaviour as a response to a stimulus. They assume that what we do is determined by the environment we are in, which provides stimuli to which we respond, and the environments we have been in in the past, which caused us to learn to respond to stimuli in particular ways. John Broadus Watson revolutionised psychology and established behaviourism.

He states the consciousness’ could not be seen or meaningfully defined and therefore should not be studied. He claimed behaviour could be shaped and manipulated, in 1930, he famously said, ‘Give me a dozen healthy infants… and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become… a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and yes, even beggar man and thief. ‘ After conducting research on animal behaviour, Watson stated that the laws of learning in animals could be applied to humans. Operant conditioning is learning due to the consequences of voluntary behaviour, through ositive and negative reinforcement and punishment.

Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist. He developed radical behaviourism claiming that feelings and sensations cannot be measured reliably. Instead psychology should focus on behaviour and its consequences. Skinner claimed all behaviour is learnt as a result of consequences in our environment, such as positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Skinner conducted experiments on rats. In one experiment, he put a hungry rat in a box, and inside the box was a level arch which when pressed would deliver a pellet of food. When the rat pressed the lever, a pellet of food would drop onto a tray.

The rat soon learned that pressing the lever would result in food (a reward). Therefore Skinner observed that as a result of its actions, the rat continued to display his newly learned behaviour. Reinforcement encourages behaviour. Positive reinforcement is giving something, for example giving someone a present for doing something good. Negative reinforcement is taking something away, for example taking away the chore of washing dishes. Punishment discourages behaviour. Positive punishment is also giving something, in this case, something like a slap.

Negative punishment is taking something away, such as computer privileges. Classical conditioning is learning due to the association of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned, reflex response, meaning learning occurs through association; we behave accordingly to things happening around us. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov conducted an experiment with the prediction that whenever a dog was presented with food it would automatically salivate, and he wanted to see whether if another stimulus was presented to the dog at the same time as the food, then this stimulus would become associated with the food and cause the dog to salivate.

In the experiment, Pavlov rang a bell (conditioned or neutral stimulus) at the same time that food was presented to the dog. The dog continued to salivate as an involuntary response. After a number of trials, Pavlov discovered that he no longer needed to present the food to the dog; the dog salivated Just to the sound of the bell. He concluded there are 3 stages of learning. Stage 1 is before learning: UCS (unconditioned stimulus) being food, moving (food) + CS (conditioned stimulus) being the bell, moving to UCR salivation. Stage 3: after learning: CS (Bell) to CR (conditioned response) which is Salivation.

Because behaviourists use rigorous, experimental methods of research, the credibility of psychology as a scientific discipline is enhanced. This approach has also provided a number of practical applications and techniques to shape behaviour, for example the use of rewards in education. However, the behaviourist approach ignores the mental processes that are involved in learning unlike the cognitive approach which views these processes as important. This approach also rejects the possible role of biological factors, that is nature, in human behaviour, meaning it’s reductionist.

Discussion Forum For Managing Dynamic Environment

When an organizational change is implemented, it is critical that the organization has a strong vision in place. Unfortunately, during times of change and uncertainty, many organizations have not developed a clear vision, which has resulted in many issues.
Select a Middle Eastern organization that underwent a change due to internal or external factors. Then, address the following:
Share information about the change and what caused the need for the change.
Explain why the change was successful or unsuccessful.
Create a unique and powerful vision for the change, which could have guided the change from the get-go. Explain how the developed change vision is aligned with and different from the organization’s vision?

Student must apply Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.
Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
A mark of zero will be given for any submission that includes copying from other resource without referencing it.
Plagiarism percentage must very very low.
At least 2 references.