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Psychological Explanations for Schizophrenia

ATHYNEA BURCHALL Assignment 6 Outline and evaluate one or more psychological explanations for schizophrenia. In your evaluation you should refer to research evidence. Many people perceive Schzophenia (sz) as a personality disorder relating to a split personality. This interepratation could be because in Greek the name translates as skhizen (to split) and phren (mind). Sz “is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown in thinking and poor emotional responses., Kapur ( 2009).[1] It is actually a detachment from reality with common symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, hearing voices and paranoia to name a few. ” schizophrenia does not imply a “split personality”, or “multiple personality disorder“—a condition with which it is often confused in public perception. Rather, the term means a “splitting of mental functions”, reflecting the presentation of the illness. Baucum, (2006).[2] The symptoms are so many and varied that it has been argued that they are actually many disorders umbrelled under the term sz. It is estimated to effect 1% of the population however “It is estimated that there are over half a million schizophrenics and that 10%of all NHS beds contain a schizophrenic. As a nation we spend an estimated £1.7 billion on treating schizophrenia each year. That is more than we spend on cancer!” psychology4a[3] There have been many psychological explanations for sz from Biological to Psychodynamic, in this essay I will analyse and evaluate a few of these explanations. The Psychodynamic Approach. The main characteristic of the Psychdynamic approach is that it all stems from the persons childhood and the childhood experiences the person has had, and the disruption between the child and it development of a personality as Freud termed Ego. “Freud believed that if the world of a schizophrenic has been particular harsh in the childhood environment, the individuals may regress to an earlier stage in development before the ego was properly developed and before he or she had developed realistic awareness of the external world and so Schizophrenics have a loss of contact with reality because their ego is no longer functioning properly.” Anonamous (2014) [4] Family model studies done in the 1950’s and 60’s blamed dysfunctional families for the cause of sz. If communication in the family unit became tense or broke down then this could result in the child becoming with drawn and emotionally unstable. If this persisted and wasn’t treated sz symptoms could start to develop. In a study done by Bateson et al (1956) in his double blind study where children who receive contradictory messages from their parents are more likely o develop Sz. For example, a mother telling her son she loves him yet, at the same time turning away in disgust. It is thought that the child will receive conflicting messages about verbal and non verbal communication and these interactions prevent coherent constructions of reality, and in the long terms manifest itself into Sz symptoms. “when a child has repeated experiences with one or more family members in which he/she receives contradictory messages. Repeated exposure to such contradictory messages causes the child to resort to self-deception and to develop a false concept of reality and inability to communicate. Those who are exposed to numerous counts of contradictory messages (the double blind theory) are more likely to develop schizophrenia and experience the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in their later life, such as flattened affect and social withdrawal.” Studymode 2014[5] Another dysfunctional family factor that has been associated with sz is the degree of of expressed emotions (EE). Expressed emotions can be to a high degree or a low degree and is in relation to how families communicate and interact with one another. High dgree of ee have family members who are frequently hostile to each other, critical, over involved and over concerned in each other lives. Resulting in the child not been able to form its own identity, formulate its own ideas and been able to learn through exploration. Low ee families don not exhibit these characteristics. Various studies have found that there is a relationship between high degree ee families and relapse rates. “Brown (1972) showed that patients who returned from hospital to homes where there was a high level of emotionality (High levels of Emotion were Expressed — HEE) were more likely to have a relapse, and would have it sooner than those with LEE (Low levels of Emotion Expressed) families” alevelpsychologynotes (2007)[6] Such as 51% of sz relaspsing once they go back into the high degree ee family environment, but these statistics are only slightly higher than relapse rates in a lower dgree ee family. No evidence has been found that clearly states that the ee rate of a family is actually a cause of sz in the first place. Waring and Ricks also disagrees with blaming parents and the childs upbringing for causing sz. They found “Instead they found they tended to be anxious, shy, withdrawn, and incoherent. It can also be argued that there is no difference between parents of schizophrenics and those of non-schizophrenics and that any differences in family interactions are an effect of having a relative with schizophrenia rather than a cause.” Waring and Ricks[7] Others studies done have also found that similar number of families who had children exhibiting sz symptoms came from ‘normal families’. “It is hardly surprising that communication becomes strained and routines are disrupted when a family is trying to live and cope with the behaviour of a schizophrenic member. It seems highly likely that the dysfunctional behaviour observed in some families with a schizophrenic member is caused by having to live with someone who has lost contact with reality. Furthermore, more recent studies of dysfunctional families show that few people reared in such homes actually develop schizophrenia and most schizophrenia sufferers come from ‘normal’, well adjusted families.” alevelpsychologynotes (2007)[8] The psychodynamic theory also does not account for why Sz develops so suddenly in late teens and early twenties, and therefore emphasised the importance of biological factors. McLoed (2007)[9] It has been suggested that Schizophrenics regress back to an earlier life stage, but there is little empirical research evidence to back this up and a lot of sz behaviour does not resemble a child inquisive nature such as children like to explore and play whereas schizophrenics may demonstrte instead the creativity and imagination a child shows in their thinking. Another point is if there is more than one child in the family unit, and only one child develops sz. If this explanation was correct then all the children in the family would develop sz as they are exposed to the same environmental conditions, the same parental conditioning and level of communication ect. The psychodynamic approach does not offer effective treatments. In general, psychodynamic treatments aim of find childhood conflicts however; this is no relevant for Sz. Comer found that psychodynamic therapy for Sz has generally proved to be unsuccessful which suggests that the psychodynamic explanation for Sz is not accurate. Recent research has actually suggested that psychodynamic therapies far from making schizophrenics better, may actually make them worse which suggests that the explanation is heavily flawed. Rosen tried to claim some success with the treatment of psychoanalysis however; he was heavily criticised and accusing of using patients who were not Sz and faking data. Therefore his data was discredited. In the 1970’s scientists were also starting to find other explanations for sz such as genetics resulting in the Biological explanation of sz which then over took the Psychodynamic approach and discredited a lot of the research done in the filed of explanation. Another psychological explanation for sz is the cognitive explanation. The cognitive explanation of sz The cognitive explanation regards sz as a thought disorder and instead of symptoms may actually be the cause. Hemsley study (1993) suggested that people suffering from sz cannot filter information coming in from their senses and they let too much irrelevant information in over whelming their capacity to make true sense from the information obtained, losing touch with what is real and what is not. Hence hullinations were internal thoughts that were not recognised by the person suffering symptoms of sz, and therefore the person interpreted them as their external reality.”Hemsley who suggested that the central deficit in schizophrenia is a breakdown in the relationship between information that has already been stored in memory and new, incoming sensory information. Hemsley suggests that this processing break down in schizophrenia and those schemas are not activated. As a result, people with schizophrenia are subjected to sensory overload and do not know which aspects of a situation to attend to and which to ignore.” Alevelpsychologynotes (2007)[10] Helmsey himself wrote “The basic automatic cognitive disturbance may be conceptulised in two ways firstly it may be viewed as a weakening of the influences of stored memories of regularities of previous input on current perception which leads to ambiguous unstructured sensory input and the subsequent intrusion into consciousness of unintended material from memory.” Hemsley (1993)[11] Another psychologist who also believes in the cognitive approach to explanning sz was Frith. Frith agreed with Hemsley stating the basic cognitive dysfunction may be recently developed difficulties with the self monitoring of intentions and actions, which would lead to individuals own intentions to act not being recognised and therefore being experienced as alien.” Frith (1992) [12]“Frith’s model (1992) was an attempt to explain the onset and maintenance of sonic of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. His idea is that people schizophrenia are cognitively impaired in that they are unable to distinguish between actions that are brought about by external forces and those that are generated internally. He believes that most of the symptoms of schizophrenia can be explained in terms of deficits in three cognitive processes. Alevelpsychologynotes (2007)[13] He also went on to futher explain that the faulty filtering mechanism caused irregular neural pathways to be created between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, resulting in the disruption of the production of dopamine levels. Both Hemsley and Frith studies found that basic cognitive disturbances resulted in the cause of sz symptoms, such as heightened perceptions, hearing voices, hullcinations, and unintentional thoughts, but is this explanation for symptoms of sz and not actually a cause of sz in itself. The cognitive explanation becomes closely untwined with the Bilogical explanation and because it is hard to discern between the two, and becomes a combination of both explanations, and the so the cognitive model may then become too over-dependant on biological explanations and therefore cannot be relied as a model solely on its own. The cognitive explanation also lacks empirical data to support it unlike Biological explanations. For example Helmsley has tried to link his cognitive model to an underlying neurological system. However, there is very little clear-cut empirical evidence. On the other hand, there has been some promising research supporting his ideas however, this research involves the use of animals. This is a problem as we cannot learn much about human behaviour from animal experiments and we cannot generalise any animal research findings to humans and at the very least we need to verify these animal findings with findings from human studies. Psychologist have also argue that cognitive explanations of Sz, such as Frith’s model are too reductionist in that they fail to take into account the role of social and environmental factors. Research has shown that traumas and major stress in a person life has contributed to higher risk of schizophrenic episodes. Sz symptoms seemed to rise and start after a highly stressed or traumatic event had happened in a person life and this became a triggered to the start of sz symptoms. Brown and Birley study found that prior to a schizophrenic episode, patients who had experienced Sz had reported twice as many stressful life events compared to a healthy control group. “Other triggers that herald the onset of an episode include momentous life events (Serious illness, Unexpected Bereavement etc.) or a combination of factors which could in isolation be dealt with. E.g. Unemployment, lowered sense of self worth, heavy drinking, marital problems, minor criminal activity, apprehension by the police and a magistrate courts appearance could all trigger an episode.” alevelpsychologynotes (2007)[14] Conclusion I do not feel one psychological explanation of sz clearly explains the complexity of the nature of sz and a combination of explanation approaches are needed, such as the Cognititve approach is so closely linked with the Biological approach you cannot consider one explanation with out considering the other. In the treatment of sz a more combined approach has seen a higher success rate. I believe the body and mind to be a interrelated organism and therefore what effects the mind must therefore effect the body and vice a versa and cannot be taken as a individual parts but must be investigated as a whole, hence why more than one explanation is needed. One approach that combines the two is Diathesis model, it is now accepted as the most likely cause of sz, since many factors contribute to the complexity of the disorder, and is considered less reductionist in comparison to other models as it takes a broader approach. As more information and research is done in this area I feel a more holistic explanation will evolved which will incorporate aspects from several of the pre existing explanation models. Biblography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia McLeod, S. A. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Retrieved 18/4/14 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html http://www.slideshare.net/sssfcpsychology/psychological-explanations-of-schizophrenia http://www.psychology4a.com/Psychopathology.htm http://alevelpsychologynotes.blogspot.co.uk/2007/10/schizophrenia.html http://psychwinter.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/a-level-psychology-notes-for-schizophrenia.doc [1] Kapur ( 2009).“Schizophrenia”.Lancet374(9690): retrieved 19/4/14 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia [2] Baucum, (2006).Baucum, Don (2006).Psychology(2nd ed.). Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron’s. retrieved 18/4/14 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia [3] Psychology4a Retrieved 19/4/14 from http://www.psychology4a.com/Psychopathology.htm [4] Anonamous 2014Outline And Evaluate One Or More Psychological Explanations For Schizophrenia retrieved 18/4/14 from http://www.allfreepapers.com/Psychology/Outline-Evaluate-One-More-Psychological/53012.html [5] Studymode 2014 psychological explanation to schizophrenia.StudyMode.com. Retrieved 18/4/14, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Psychological-Explanation-To-Schizophrenia-46393398.html [6]alevelpsychologynotes (2007) retrieved 19/4/14 from ttp://alevelpsychologynotes.blogspot.co.uk/2007/10/schizophrenia.html [7] Waring and Ricks retrieved18/4/14 from http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9781848720091/downloads/Chapter_10/Revision_Guide_-_Psychological_Explanations_of_Schizophrenia.do [8]alevelpsychologynotes (2007) retrieved 19/4/14 from ttp://alevelpsychologynotes.blogspot.co.uk/2007/10/schizophrenia.html [9] McLeod, S. A. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Retrieved 18/4/14 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html [10] alevelpsychologynotes (2007) retrieved 19/4/14 from ttp://alevelpsychologynotes.blogspot.co.uk/2007/10/schizophrenia.html [11] Hemsley 1993 Psychological Medicine, 2001, 31, 189±195. Printed in the United Kingdom ” 2001 Cambridge University Press retrieved 19/4/14 from http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/7199/1/7199.pdf [12] Psychological Medicine, 2001, 31, 189±195. Printed in the United Kingdom ” 2001 Cambridge University Press retrieved 19/4/14 from http://eprints.ucl.ac.uk/7199/1/7199.pdf [13] alevelpsychologynotes (2007) retrieved 19/4/14 from ttp://alevelpsychologynotes.blogspot.co.uk/2007/10/schizophrenia.html [14] alevelpsychologynotes (2007) retrieved 19/4/14 from ttp://alevelpsychologynotes.blogspot.co.uk/2007/10/schizophrenia.html
peer reviw.

this is the instruction what the professor said : you have to follow what the professor told me . and answer his qustions about juan’s paper Your second assigned peer review is of Juan’s draft, enclosed.The specific assignment is as follows:Explain, in your own words, the research question and hypothesis.Explain in your own words the key dependent variable, corruption. What does Juan mean by corruption? What kinds of actions count as corruption? How will he be able to know it when he sees it? (That is, how will he “operationalize” this variable?) In particular, Juan will need to be able to compare cases, and show how there is a more or less corruption in one case versus another case. What is a good way for him to do that, systematically, so that he is fairly using the same measure across many different cases?Consider the cases Juan says he will be comparing in the paper (he hasn’t completed all of these yet but that’s okay for this draft). Are these cases good ones to compare, given his hypothesis? That is, do they give him good variation on the independent variable? Are these cases that are “fair” tests of the hypothesis, or are there other factors that might be skew his analysis, that might make this sample of countries in some way biased? If you think he needs additional cases to compare, how should he go about adding additional cases? Are there any other suggestions for improvement you can think of?
peer reviw

CSUN Marketing Location Brokers Question.

Please read the WSJ article posted for this week (Click on the title below to view the article on WSJ.com; you can either purchase a discounted subscription to WSJ or use Oviatt Library Website to view a copy of the article).Apple and Google to Stop X-Mode From Collecting Location Data From Users’ Phones (Links to an external site.)QUESTIONS:Question 1: Explain what a location broker is and why the location data industry has become such a huge industry.Question 2: What are the marketing implications of Google and Apple banning the X-Mode software from apps on their platforms?Question 3: What exactly is X-Mode Social and what does it do?Rewrite the questions above in bullet-point format in the file you will create and respond to them separately.Your submission must meet the formatting requirements outlined in the syllabus and should have bullet points separately showing each question and your response.Be sure to explain your responses thoroughly and pay attention to the grading rubric for this assignment. Submissions that do not meet the formatting requirements or do not explain the responses thoroughly will not be considered.
CSUN Marketing Location Brokers Question

Enviromental Issues Law.

You are a business owner who is environmentally aware, and thus you use the local river to help generate some electricity for your small business. You are doing well using this method of energy generation, but you begin to notice that over time the river seems to be flowing more slowly, and that is causing you to have sporadic losses of power. Upon inspection, you notice the river does seem a bit slower, seem to have more debris in it, and now has a funny smell. What are some legal concepts you will need to know to understand your rights? You want to do something, but are not sure what. Then, you remember your business law textbook. What are some of the legal issues and concepts you will need to know to mount a legal fight? Be sure to support your response.
Enviromental Issues Law

Read the case study “Creating a Methodology” on page 108 and then answer one (1) of the questions on page 110.

Read the case study “Creating a Methodology” on page 108 and then answer one (1) of the questions on page 110.. I’m trying to learn for my Management class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Read the case study “Creating a Methodology” on page 108 and then answer one (1) of the questions on page 110.
Note: 1.References (this does not count toward the required paper length)
FINALLY, you must cite your sources after every sentence which contains information from one of your sources. Just putting a citation at the end of a paragraph or section is not sufficient.Also, do not state “The author” or “the text”. Use proper APA style. This is Last Name of Author (Year).2.The primary post should be at least 400 words in length,text book is attached along with the question
Read the case study “Creating a Methodology” on page 108 and then answer one (1) of the questions on page 110.

Morality and Modernity: Cronon and Daston’s Understanding of Nature Essay (Critical Writing)

online homework help Morality and Modernity: Cronon and Daston’s Understanding of Nature Essay (Critical Writing). Introduction Though the policy of sustainability is a rather recent development, the idea of balancing out nature and the results of people’s work is not new (Hardin, 1982). However, it seems that the balance will never be reached. Cronon, Daston and the Movie Cronon claims that nature should be viewed as something that is intrinsically wild and that should and will be adapted towards the needs of industries; in other words, Cronon makes it obvious that nature is manufactured. In his turn, Daston also offers the understanding of nature as something that people can and will shape so that nature would not stand in the way of progress and that its resources should be used to the maximum. In the recent movie, however, a completely different approach towards nature, which is based on the idea of sustainability, is provided. Although there is no connection between the ideas expressed by Cronon and Daston and the ideas that the authors of the movie are trying to convey, the latter can still be viewed through the lens of the texts in question, for the shock value will help appreciate the sustainability approach. Manufactured Landscapes and Histories As one must have expected, the readings in question also fail to make a connection between nature, manufacturing, and histories. Neglecting the needs of nature and showing little respect to the natural resources, Cronin and Daston address how landscapes relate to the history of the humankind next to never. The movie, on the other hand, shows the impact that nature has had on people and the way they live. Which is more important, the movie also shows the impact that people have had on nature over centuries; for example, the shot of a junkyard at 0:24:45 is a graphic example of people’s impact on nature (Baichwal, 2006). Manufactured Landscapes and Values When watching the movie, one can see clearly that the director promotes a sustainability approach, which presupposes that the industry makes as little harm to the nature as possible (Baichwal, 2006). The texts in question, however, lack the given delicate attitude: “Although wilderness may today seem to be just one environmental concern among many, it, in fact, serves as the foundation for a long list of other such concerns that on their face seem quite remote from it” (Daston, 2010, 73). Also, Cronon mentions that nature is a tool and, therefore, “a source of values” (Cronon, 1996, 26). Manufactured Landscapes and Cultures When considering Cronon and Daston’s ideas, one will see inevitably that the conflict between nature and people remains unresolved by both authors. Nature is either considered a tool for people to use for their purposes (Cronon, 1996) or to be feared as something unexplored and, therefore, hostile (Daston). The movie, on the contrary, provides an alternative approach that helps people relate to nature and get on terms with it (Baichwal, 2010). The Texts and the Film, Back to Back As it has been stated above, there is little relation between the ideas of the movie and the texts; moreover, at a certain point, it becomes obvious that the ideas in the movie are the exact opposite of the ideas in the text Conclusion Therefore, it can be considered that the movie and the text do not have anything in common. Cronon states that nature is manufactured by people, i.e., influenced and shaped by them so that it could be used for manufacturing and producing certain goods, and Daston emphasizes that nature is wild and will never be tamed. The movie, however, shows clearly that nature develops in its specific way, though still providing the resources that people use further on various industries; these are the people who harm nature and pose a threat to it with their unreasonable policies, neglecting the ethical aspect in relationships between people and nature (Leopold, 1949). Still, even though the ideas expressed in Cronon and Daston’s works and the movie are diametrically opposite, the former still has helped analyze the latter. To be more exact, Daston and Cronon’s paper helped evaluate the credibility of the movie, as well as understand the specific approach that is used in the movie to explain the techniques used in the company. Though, technically, the movie cannot be considered a successful explanation of how the company’s production clockwork ticks, the idea of how natural resources are used for a specific industry become much clearer once the movie is considered from the point of view offered by Daston and Cronon. Though there is no connection between the texts and the movie, the latter provide enough food for thoughts to address the questions raised in the former. Reference List Baichwal, J. (2006). Manufactured landscapes. YouTube. Web. Cronon, W. (1996). The trouble with wilderness, or, getting back to the wrong nature. In Cronon (ed.), Uncommon Ground. New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 69–90. Daston, (2010). The world in order. Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press. Hardin, G. (1982). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243–1248. Leopold, A. (1949). The land ethic. In Leopold (ed.) A Sand County almanac. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 201–226. Morality and Modernity: Cronon and Daston’s Understanding of Nature Essay (Critical Writing)

UCI Brianne Dairy Farm Business Venture Elevator Pitch & Target Customer Discussion

UCI Brianne Dairy Farm Business Venture Elevator Pitch & Target Customer Discussion.

I’m working on a business writing question and need support to help me understand better.

DESCRIPTION OF NEW VENTURE ASSIGNMENTIn order to complete the next three assignments, you will need to put together an idea for a new venture/company. This assignment will consist of the following:1) Elevator Pitch – Maximum two sentences that describes your company idea.2) Summary of new venture – Maximum of one paragraph that describes in greater detail your new venture and in particular the problem that you are trying to solve for your customer.3) Who is your target customer? Why do they want to buy your product? Describe who your target customer is and how you are going to reach them.4) How big is the current market? How fast is it growing? How large will the market be in five years?5) Who is your competition? Please describe.6) Status of your venture. Just an idea. Have developed initial product. Have sold initial product.7) How much money will you need. Please put together sources and uses table.Maximum length of this homework assignment is 3 pages.Double spaced utilizing 11 fontIn order to receive 100 on this homework all 7 items need to be completed in sufficient detail.In order to receive 85 on this homework all 7 items need to be completed.This assignment will be due by February 16th at 5:00 PM
UCI Brianne Dairy Farm Business Venture Elevator Pitch & Target Customer Discussion

SDSU The Seventh Day Adventist Denomination Worshiping on A Saturday Essay

SDSU The Seventh Day Adventist Denomination Worshiping on A Saturday Essay.

The main content of your portfolio is your final paper – Your essay should be 1500-2000 words, should use MLA citation style and should reference at least 5 academic sources. What is an academic source? Find out here:https://libguides.usc.edu/c.php?g=235208&p=1560699bThe essay should include a brief history of the denomination, the relation of the denomination to other Christian groups, the status of the denomination in San Diego, and information about the political stance that you researched about your denomination – either historically or more recently.The rest of the content should be the images, videos, new articles, or other digital material that you have collected over the semester about this denomination. It should at the least include the materials from the assignments (citations for the academic sources; on-line evidence of the position of your chosen denomination took on the political issue you chose; media evidence of the types and style of worship in your denomination) and any other relevant on-line/digital archive that you think is pertinent or interesting, and is somehow tied in to your essay. IT’S ATTACHED AS “SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST ESSAYS”
SDSU The Seventh Day Adventist Denomination Worshiping on A Saturday Essay