Many psychologists have proposed theories that try to explain the origins of personality. One highly influential set of theories stems from the work of Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud, who first proposed the theory of psychoanalysis. Collectively, these theories are known as psychodynamic theories. Although many different psychodynamic theories exist, they all emphasize unconscious motives and desires, as well as the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Freud developed a technique that he called psychoanalysis and used it to treat mental disorders. He formed his theory of psychoanalysis by observing his patients. According to psychoanalytic theory, personalities arise because of attempts to resolve conflicts between unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses and societal demands to restrain these impulses. The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious Freud believed that most mental processes are unconscious. He proposed that people have three levels of awareness: The conscious contains all the information that a person is paying attention to at any given time. Example: The words Dan is reading, the objects in his field of vision, the sounds he can hear, and any thirst, hunger, or pain he is experiencing at the moment are all in his conscious. * The preconscious contains all the information outside of a person’s attention but readily available if needed.
Example: Linda’s telephone number, the make of her car, and many of her past experiences are in her preconscious. The unconscious contains thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories of which people have no awareness but that influence every aspect of their day-to-day lives. Example: Stan’s unconscious might contain angry feelings toward his mother or a traumatic incident he experienced at age four. Freud believed that information in the unconscious emerges in slips of the tongue, jokes, dreams, illness symptoms, and the associations people make between ideas. The Freudian Slip Cathy calls up her mother on Mother’s Day and says, “You’re the beast, Mom,” when she consciously intended to say, “You’re the best, Mom. According to psychoanalytic theory, this slip of the tongue, known as a Freudian slip, reveals her unconscious anger toward her mother. The Id, the Ego, and the Superego Freud proposed that personalities have three components: the id, the ego, and the superego. * Id: a reservoir of instinctual energy that contains biological urges such as impulses toward survival, sex, and aggression. The id is unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle, the drive to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
The id is characterized by primary process thinking, which is illogical, irrational, and motivated by a desire for the immediate gratification of impulses. * Ego: the component that manages the conflict between the id and the constraints of the real world. Some parts of the ego are unconscious, while others are preconscious or conscious. The ego operates according to the reality principle, the awareness that gratification of impulses has to be delayed in order to accommodate the demands of the real world.
The ego is characterized by secondary process thinking, which is logical and rational. The ego’s role is to prevent the id from gratifying its impulses in socially inappropriate ways. * Superego: the moral component of personality. It contains all the moral standards learned from parents and society. The superego forces the ego to conform not only to reality but also to its ideals of morality. Hence, the superego causes people to feel guilty when they go against society’s rules. Like the ego, the superego operates at all three levels of awareness.
How do notions of quality change from the 1980s to the present
How do notions of quality change from the 1980s to the present.
Please pick any two of the questions below to answer in a formal essay of no more than 4 pages each (including work cited page). The essay should include academic references and works cited page. Each essay must have a thesis statement, supporting evidence (textual analysis and quotes from academic/critical articles) and a conclusions. Other requirements are 1” Margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman and label each essay with the chosen question at the top of the page.
Work cited (academic) source one for each topic 1/ Relate 2nd-4th wave Feminism with three series from 3 different era. (Not limited to shows screened in class). Be sure to socio-historically contextualize each series and each wave. 2/ How do notions of quality change from the 1980s to the present. Please incorporate technological advancements, aesthetic and narrative development, as well as key elements of quality.
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