Ashford 6: – Week 5 – Final Paper
Final Paper and Presentation
You are one of many training specialists in your company. You have
been asked to design a training module for managers on how to meet the
learning needs of their departmental employees. Meet the employees. The all have different needs. You will need to decide on these needs first.
The title of the training will be “The Importance of Understanding Your Learners’ Needs”.
If your proposal is chosen as the training module for the company, you
will be granted a substantial bonus and a raise. Woohoo! But you have
to get the job first.
For the written portion of your final assignment, you will create a
training module design that includes five strategic principles that you
will apply in the training to assist your own training module in being
successful, and a minimum of five principles of learning that you want
to “teach” to your group of managers. You will base your choices on the
hypothetical group of managers that you want to train. These principles
may include any theoretical elements that have been introduced to you in
the course. Examples of principles from these areas are provided below:
Behaviorism – repetition, reinforcement (feedback), association, and classical and operant conditioning Cognitivism – assimilation, accommodation, the information processing model, and intellectual stimulationConstructivism – scaffolding, metacognition, problem-solving and inquiry-based learningHumanism – holism, personal agency, and motivation
You may also wish to review the following online sources to guide you in making decisions for your training:
Cognitivism Humanism in Education Workshop: Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and LearningHow to Use Behaviorism in a Classroom.
You may want to apply an activity to your training that uses repetition
based on Behaviorism that suggests that reinforcement of responses is
done through repetition, giving the student small sequences of tasks and
providing constant flow of positive reinforcement to encourage
effective learning of responses. Why would you think this is important?
What learner needs did you notice?
A reminder – You do not need to design the activity or learning.
Simply explain what you will teach and why and how you would teach it
Or you may want to include a scaffolding strategy, such as linking the
information to past experiences each manager has had, based on
Cognitivism. What would this look like as a training session?
For the content you may want to include the importance of
Emotional Intelligence differences or Multiple Intelligences? There are
many we have discussed in this course. This is up to you, but you must
include 5 areas of content you think would be the most important to
teach. Remember the focus of your proposed training is “how to meet the
learning needs of their departmental employees”. You are the expert.
Your grasp of each of the five principles you include in your content,
as well as the applied principles from your course activities, will be
evaluated based on your assessment of learner needs, the accuracy of
your description, and the application of each in your proposed training
module. Be sure to download the “PSY331 Final Assessment Scenario”
document to view the specific information for the employees and
training. You should follow these steps to complete your assignment:
Evaluate the different types of learning your employees exhibit
and create a list of potential learning needs that should be considered
as you begin designing your training.Determine which five psychological principles/elements you will apply to your training to benefit those who you want to train. As you apply the principles to your activity, explain why you have chosen them based on your learner group.Research your training assignment. You will be training
managers on the importance of understanding how we learn and the
importance of their employees’ learning styles and needs.Analyze psychological principles related educational issues and
decide what learning styles and learner need content you should include
in your training.Align five areas that you will include in the content of the training with the strategies/principles you have chosen.Research the employees you will be training (see the “PSY331 Final Assessment Scenario” document) and use critical thinking and creative strategies to solve potential training problems.Apply basic research methods and gather resources that will support your content.
You must utilize at least four scholarly sources to support your proposed training course.Cite your sources in APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Write your paper.Pitch your idea through a great presentation.
A Suggested OutlineThrough the use of headings and subheadings, you should be
able to thoroughly explain what you would like to teach and how you
will approach your training. Please see the “PSY331 Suggested Outline format” document for an example.
Focus of the Final PresentationAfter completing your paper, it will be time to sell your
idea. You will create a presentation with the goal of having your
training module chosen for use by the company to train its management
teams. For this presentation, you will produce a screencast presentation
using PowerPoint and Screenr.com. You will only be allotted five
minutes for your presentation, so you will need to showcase you ideas
effectively. Learning how to market yourself and sell your ideas will be
extremely advantageous to you in your current and/or future career, so
you should think outside of the box and be as creative as possible in
the presentation portion of this final assignment. Additionally, this
final assignment will help you build technical skills that will
potentially aid you in your current and/or future career.
Consider the following questions as you create your presentation:
How will your training module “win out” over the other candidates for this project? What makes your training module great?In what ways are you able to meet all of your learners’ special needs? Is your training engaging? Why? How does your training consider the diversity of the learners? How does your training consider items such as the time it takes
to go through each module and/or how it will impact employee work
productivity? In real life, this pitch could mean a big promotion or bonus. How will you get this promotion?
Create a script document and a PowerPoint presentation from your
paper by highlighting the points that really show why your training is
the best option. The script will assist you in creating a video
presentation, which cannot exceed the five-minute time limit allowed for
your screencast. The PowerPoint presentation should be a minimum of six
content slides and must include the following elements:
A minimum of five principles of learning you have studied in
this course, which you included in your paper and applied to the
development of activities you created for your training.
The needs of your learners that were considered.
An outline of the overall content for your learning material.
Include at least five specific skills that will be addressed. (This is
separate from your five applied teaching techniques.)
A brief analysis of why it is important to apply learning theory to training/educating.
A brief explanation of how your current understanding of learning theory may assist you in your future career.
Using Screenr.com or Screencast-O-Matic,
create a screencast of your presentation. Include a title for your
presentation in the description box when you publish your screencast.
Refer to the “Screenr.com Quick-Start Guide” for assistance.
Your presentation time is limited to five minutes, so it is
highly recommended that you practice reading through your script prior
to beginning the screencast capture. Please do not read your slides.
This is boring, and it will not impress your manager (or get you that
The slides should provide selling points that support the
training module included in your paper. You should have put a lot of
time and effort into your paper; the presentation is where you convince
your boss how great it is and why the company should go with your
Copy and paste the URL link to your screencast at the top of
your script document and at the bottom of the reference slide in your
PowerPoint presentation. Although the reference slide must be present,
you will not read through it due to the five-minute time constraint of
the presentation. You must utilize at least four scholarly sources in
your paper that are cited in APA format as outlined in the Ashford
Writing Center. All sources used within the writing assignment and/or
presentation must be cited properly. You will submit both your written
paper and PowerPoint presentation files for the final assignment for
Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:
Must be five to six double-spaced pages in length,
excluding title page and references, and formatted according to APA
style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a title page with the following:
Title of presentationStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedURL link to your screencast
Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct statement about the training module you are going to implement.Must address the learning needs of your assigned employee body.Must include a rationale statement for each learning
method chosen based on critical thought. For assistance with the
critical thinking portion of the written assignment, please visit the Critical Thinking Community website.Must end with a conclusion that states your anticipated time frame of the training as well as your final goal of the training.Must use at least four scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
The PowerPoint presentation:
Must be a minimum of six content slides in length and
formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing
Center.Must include a title slide with the following:
Title of presentationStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submitted
Must present a creative pitch for your training module.Must include an overall summary of the important pieces
of your training module and why it should be chosen over the other
No references are needed for this portion of the assignment.
The most important aspects of this assignment are creativity and
thoroughness. You want the company to choose your training. In your
pitch, explain why it is great based on learning theory. For assistance
with ideas for creating an impactful presentation, watch the following
How to Give an Awesome (PowerPoint) Presentation (Whiteboard Animation Explainer Video) How to Pitch Your Ideas, Craft or Art
Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
PSY331 Ashford 6: – Week 5 – Final Paper
Supporting Diversity through 21st Century Teaching and Learning
This assignment re- introduces you to the framework of 21st century skills that you will consider each week as you work to redesign prior coursework for your Folio. Note that a similar format is followed for each of the assignments in this course. You will upload this assignment to the course for evaluation and to your Folio.
Specifically, after reviewing the Framework for 21st Century Learning (Links to an external site.), you will redesign or modify a prior assignment from one of your courses in the master’s program that represents your mastery of your programs learning outcomes (MACI, MAECEL, MAED, MASE or MATLT). An assignment you may want to redesign could be in the form of a lesson plan or teaching unit you previously created for a course. Your redesign of the assignment must show a representation of 21st century learning through incorporation of student outcomes and support systems, which are defined as follows:
Student Outcomes: Learning and Innovations Skills (critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity), Core Subjects 3Rs and 21st Century Themes, Information, Media, and Technology Skills, Life and Career Skills.
Support Systems: Standards and assessments, curriculum and instruction, professional development, learning environments.
When selecting an assignment to redesign, think about how the assignment should consider the diverse strengths, differences, cultures, and communities of students while offering a safe, collaborative, engaging, and inclusive learning environment. If you do not have previous work to use for this assignment, please contact your instructor for guidelines on how to proceed. As needed, refer to your program learning outcomes (PLOs) list download(MACI, MAECEL, MAED, MASE or MATLT).
NOTE* Before you select the PLO’s you will highlight in this assignment, be sure to read the final assignment for this course to ensure that you will cover each of your programs PLOs adequately.
In your paper,
Create your assignment to meet the content and written communication expectations noted below.
The Redesign expectations explain what you are required to do with the prior coursework you choose to redesign. The Summary expectations are for the separate written portion of this assignment.
Redesign – Outcomes (2 Points): Redesign of the lesson plan or teaching unit includes at least one component of the following 21st Century Student Outcomes: Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes, Learning and Innovation Skills, Information, Media, and Technology Skills, and Life and Career Skills.
Redesign – Support Systems (1 Point): Redesign of the lesson plan or teaching unit includes at least one component of the following 21st Century Support Systems: 21st Century Standards, Assessment for 21st Century Skills, 21st Century Curriculum and Instruction, and 21st Century Learning Environments.
Summary – Introduction/Conclusion (1 Point): A one paragraph introduction to the summary that concisely presents the scope and organization of the summary writing, as well as a one paragraph conclusion that recaps your summary’s key points.
Summary – Modification (2 Points): For each revision, summarize in a paragraph how you revised the activity to address the components of 21st Century Student Outcomes and 21st Century Support systems. Explicitly state how your redesign assignment provides evidence of mastery of at least two PLO’s from your master’s program. .
Summary – Reflection (2 Points): In one page, reflect on your experience with the redesign in terms of challenges you encountered and how you overcame those challenges, including any difficulties experienced in revising to address the components of 21st Century Student Outcomes and 21st Century Support systems.
AU Supporting Diversity through 21st Century Teaching and Learning Paper
InstructionsThis assignment requires you to read the scenario below, and then provide competence-basedrecommendations.Denise’s parents have come to you to help them determine the best treatment for their daughter. She is having difficulty in school academically, behaviorally, and socially. Her parents are confused. Like many other parents, they have consulted with therapists and psychologists, and have read books by so-called experts for their opinion regarding treatment for a disorder. As an expert, Denise’s parents expect you to help them sort out the recommendations. Some recommendations are easy to ethically support. For example, Denise’s teacher recommends that she receive 1-2 hours in math tutoring each week until the end of the term.Now Denise’s parents are asking your opinion on neurofeedback for her possible ADHD symptoms or for medication for the same disorder. The child’s physician is recommending exposure therapy to reduce her anxiety–specifically her fear of the neighbors’ dogs. Denise’s school counselor is recommending Martial Arts to increase her self-esteem. The family chiropractor is recommending the Feingold Diet to increase her focus. When the parents approach you for your advice and opinion, you feel that you cannot just refuse them.Now, develop a table that offers your competence-basedrecommendations. These recommendations will include information needed to evaluate an expert’s opinion regarding each of the five recommended techniques. As an ethical practitioner, who values competence, you should complete this table before offering an opinion. The research does not have to be extensive, but you should rely only on peer-reviewed studies. Here is a sample table for you to consider.Upon completion of your chart, make your final recommendation to the parents by providing them with a brief report that explains why you believe you are complying with the APA ethical standard of competence.Support your assignment with at least one scholarly resource for each of the interventions listed. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including seminal articles, may be included.Length: chart plus 1-2 pages report, not including title and reference pagesYour assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.
Ashford University Competency Based Recommendations Ethical Approach Paper
Discussion Board: Location Analysis and Logistical Integration
Discussion Board: Location Analysis and Logistical Integration. I’m trying to learn for my Management class and I’m stuck. Can you help?
This week we examine and build an entire supply chain network. One critical issue is location decisions. Many manufacturing facilities are located near resources (supply) or consumers (demand). Pick any manufacturer that has information available about the company online. Where are they manufacturing their product? Why did they choose that location? Make sure to list and analyze all the major factors in their decision. Address the company’s logistical systems? In your opinion is it successful? Why or why not?
Resources for Discussion Board: https://www.industryweek.com/the-economy/article/21938883/where-to-locate-manufacturing-plant-business-costs-vs-noncost-factors
Write around 300 words
Discussion Board: Location Analysis and Logistical Integration
ECO 420 Miami University Slow Recovery from The Financial Crisis Discussion
assignment writing services ECO 420 Miami University Slow Recovery from The Financial Crisis Discussion.
Your assignment is to write two compact, carefully polished essays on current macroeconomic issues facing the U.S. economy. Each essay will receive an equal weight for your course grade. The topics of the two essays are to be chosen from the suggestions below. Note that you are not required to address all the issues listed under each topic and there are certain important things to explore that are not listed.1. The slow recovery from the financial crisisWhat data support the case for slow recovery?Take a stand on whether “secular stagnation” is an appropriate description of the US economy in the years since 2008. Does the term apply in early 2021?What explains sluggish growth for so many years?How does this experience inform us about the relevance of different macroeconomic theories?What kind of policy responses does your analysis suggest?2. Monetary policyWhat macroeconomic circumstances recommend an activist, expansionary monetary policy? How does the answer to this question depend on one’s theoretical perspective？Describe the channels through which monetary policy affects economic activity.Consider both conventional policy channels and the less common approaches pursued in the aftermath of the 2008-09 financial crisis.What limits the effectiveness of the monetary policy?What are the risks of implementing expansionary monetary policy?What does your analysis recommend about monetary policy in early 2018?3. Fiscal policyDefine supply-side and demand-side channels for fiscal policy. Link the channels to different macro theories.In what ways to the supply-side and demand-side effects reinforce or offset each other?What kind of evidence is relevant in assessing which channels are most effective?Discuss debates about how government spending and public deficits can crowd out private economic activity?Compare the demand-side effects of fiscal policy to monetary stimulus? When is one or the other the preferred approach to provide a macro stimulus?What is your assessment of fiscal policy in early 2018? Consider the effectiveness of the Trump / Republican tax cut bill passed in late 2017. Assess the effects of larger government deficits and rising federal debt. What do you think about the macro impact of a large government infrastructure program (a policy that seems to get some support from both sides of the political debate)？4. The macroeconomics of international tradeSummarize the microeconomic “comparative advantage” argument for free international trade.Analyze the claim that low-wage countries are “stealing” U.S. jobs? Consider various theoretical perspectives.Under what circumstances does the U.S. macro trade deficit reflect a weakness in the U.S. economy?Assess the case for protectionist policies.Consider alternative policies to address the challenges of economic dislocation and stagnation that seemed important to the surprising electoral victory of President Trump.Note that for every topic suggested above, you should base your analysis on the theoretical framework developed in the course. That is, you should explicitly ground your analysis in the classical model, the Keynesian model, or the neoclassical synthesis. It would be useful to justify your choice of model (or possibly a mixture of models) and explain how your choice of theoretical framework could lead to different conclusions compared to alternatives.You may use outside sources if you find them helpful. The target length of each essay is 1500-2000 words; use single space, Times New Roman 12-point font, and 1-inch margins.You should pay careful attention to your writing. The papers that you turn in should be the best prose you have ever written. You will need to write first drafts and revise them.
ECO 420 Miami University Slow Recovery from The Financial Crisis Discussion
Doing Business in China: Marketing Retail Case Study
What are some of the unique aspects and challenges of doing business in China that Sarah Harrison has encountered? Doing business in China involves several unique aspects and challenges, as Sarah Harrison has found out. Firstly, there is a political challenge in the form of guanxi wang. This refers to a type of social network system that is common in the Chinese business practice. Guanxi wang mainly involves conducting business through social networks or connections. From her diary, Sarah informs us that both Professor Wong and the general manager at the First Department Store are close associates. In fact, professor Wong has done consultation work for the department store in the past. He has now brought Sarah Harrison as a consultant presumably to return the favor. Language barrier is another challenge of doing business in China. Sarah Harrison experiences this challenge firsthand when she goes to buy an umbrella at the First Department Store. Before entering the store, Sarah sees a sign that welcomes visitors into the store written in English. She therefore assumes that she will have to difficulty in making the purchase but to her dismay, nobody at the store speaks English. As a result, Sarah has to rely on hand gestures and nodding of the head to communicate with the staff. What are the problems facing the store? There are many problems facing First Department Store. To start with, the merchandise at the store is poorly organized. Most of the items have been crammed together and this makes it hard for customers to have a good look at the items on display. Another problem facing the store is over-staffing. Sarah finds several employees manning a single merchandise area. While purchasing an umbrella at the store, Sarah is served by more than 5 employees. The Kunshan store also has many employees. On the day that Sarah visited the store, most employees were idle. While some of the employees were busy reading magazines, a good number of them were napping. Another problem facing the store is poor display of items. Sarah gives the example of tightly packed garments hanging or racks in the same plastic covers they were transported in from the factory. The store also lacks a streamlined system of purchase. For example, once a customer has identified an item that he/she wants to buy, he/she has to queue in order to be invoiced for the item by the store clerk. the clerk issues them with an invoice. The customer queues once more to settle the invoice, before collecting the item. Consequently, the customer spends more time buying an item at the store. The store is also dirty and clattered, as evidenced by the dirty entrance and facade. The entrance door is very narrow, and customers have to line up to enter the store. The walking areas are also narrow, while the floor is poorly designed. This has resulted in crowded aisles. The store also lacks an inventory management system to track sales made and keep an inventory of the movement of goods in and out of the store. What recommendations should Sarah offer to the management of First Department Store? Why? In order for the store to overcome the challenges facing it, Sarah should consider offering the following recommendations to the management of First Department Store: Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is need for improved store layout and design The entrance door should be wide enough to handle traffic. The design at the store entrance should also be improved for enhanced visual appeal. Additionally, the management should consider using nonskid flooring materials. It is also important to ensure that the store remains clean, especially the entrance and the stairs. Improved physical layout of store merchandise on display The management should improve the display of merchandise on the store to enhance store success. As Piotrowski and Rogers (23) have noted, the interior design and layout of a store is greatly influenced by the kind of customers that the store hopes to attract and the type of merchandise on sale. Therefore, the store management needs to conduct considerable merchandising and marketing research to determine traffic patterns and the kind of merchandise that attracts customers to the store. Store inventory management software Sarah should also advice the management of the First Department Store to install a store inventory management software. This will increase the efficient movement of goods in and out of the store. The inventory management software will also help the management to keep track of stock on order and inventory trends. This will go a long way in improving the store’s operational efficiencies (Muller 41) and inventory replenishment. What other information should Sarah get to help her in making the recommendations to the store’s management? If Sarah is to make a solid recommendation to the store’s management, she needs to get detailed statistics on the store’s sales per square foot, sales per employee, inventory turnover, customer traffic, and competitor statistics like their location, items catalogue, and traffic. This information should be provided by the store’s headquarter at Suzhou. Works Cited Muller, Max. Essentials of Inventory Management, New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2011. Print. Piotrowski, Christine, and E. Rogers. Designing Commercial Interiors 2nd ed, New York: John Wiley
Deborah Stone And Essence Of Policy Making
Deborah Stone And Essence Of Policy Making. Deborah Stone calls the struggle over ideas the “essence of policy making.” Discuss this claim with respect to leading theories of the policy process. I name my answer to question as “Idea and Deborah Stone”, I want go through her book and explain why ideas are so important. According to Deborah Stone, ideas will help people to define alliance, strategic considerations also ideas will help people to get the legitimacy and draw policy boundaries. (Deborah, P 34). According to Deborah Stone, ideas will decide “who will be affected”, “how will they be affected” and “will they be affected legitimately” (Stone, P.34). In the first Chapter, Stone starts her analysis at the city-state (the Greek term polis) level. The public policy is considered as an attempt to achieve a certain community goals (Deborah, P 21). However, due to the fact that everyone has his own understanding of ideas, therefore the political community has become a place for internal debates over “who will be affected”, “how will they be affected” and “will they be affected legitimately”(Deborah, P 34) . The policy-making process has thus become a continuous interaction between the conflict and cooperation. In Stone’s model, individuals may pursue their goals through collective action. The motivation is not only based on self-interests but also based on public concerns. This is because the public interest is be related to the goal of survival (Deborah, P 33). However, when there is a contradiction between self-interest and public interest, the policy process will be more complicated (Deborah, P 33). When the group is motivated under common ideas, the group will get more strength, and there will be a balance between private interests and public interests in the conflict. Stone directly uses the “idea” as the core concept of this book. In her construction of “polis community vs market individual”(Deborah P 33) model, ideas have become the focus. Stone tries to use struggle of idea to explain all stages of policy-making process. Policy-making is followed by a continuous constantly struggle to fight for the classification of standards, types of boundaries, and guide people to conduct the ideal typical definition. The struggle of idea can be seen in several policy levels. According to Stone’s theory, idea defines what people want from the policy; it is the foundation for people to cognize and understands what the policy is. Idea provides a relationship between advocators and advocacy coalitions; Idea provides “causal relationship” for these people and groups, and ideas will be reflected to their policy objectives through their actions of obtaining support. And these people with the shared idea will persuade decision-makers to meet their preferences. As mentioned above, Stone sees idea as a constantly changing dynamic and resources of construction. And by given different interpretations of ideas, the concept of the ideas will also change. She points out that the politics of policy is to choose the interpretation (Deborah P 75). Stone argues that the authority to interpret idea is the key factor in the policy-making process. Only legitimated idea can be transformed into policy. And using the legitimacy, people’s knowledge or behavior can be changed. And policy change can also be made through this interaction of ideas. Ideas affects how people cognized politics, and the change of politics will also feedback on ideas. To Stone, idea is not static; idea is an ongoing of constructing and reconstructing process of concepts. Now I will try to exam whether Deborah Stone’s idea theory can fits with other policy process theory. In the punctuated equilibrium theory, Baumgartner and Jones also argue that idea is a potential power in the policy making process. According to their book “Agendas and Instability in American Politics”, “a powerful supporting idea is associated with the institution” (Baumgartner and Jones, P 7); In page 16, they also write”the tight connection between institution and idea provides powerful support for prevailing distribution of political advantage”. These statements mean that idea will help people understand “what is at stake and how will they be affected (Stone, 2002)”, policy advocators will use institution arrangement to make their idea be legitimate. Also, in order to gain more power those policy actors will manipulate images and ideas. To Baumgartner and Jones, ideas are important because they provide some potential undergirding institutional arrangements; and the struggle of idea is the struggle over legitimate institution arrangements. In the book Agendas, alternatives and public policies, Kingdon also discusses the importance. In order to make useful policy suggestions, participants in the policy process are competing to develop new ideas; and they are trying to provide their ideas in the form of potential solutions to policy makers. According to Kingdon, policy entrepreneurs “lie in wait in and around government with their solutions [already] in hand, waiting for problems to float by to which they can attach their solutions, waiting for a development in the political stream they can use to their advantage” (Kingdon, P 165). Shared ideas make policy entrepreneurs into alliance; and these alliances are trying to make their ideas become legitimate. Kingdon’s “primal policy soup” (Kingdon, P 139-143) model provides us a picture of how decision makers accept idea through coherent narrative process (ideas are flowing in the streams just as molecules flowing in the soup). According to Kingdon, a policy community creates a short list of ideas. If the ideas can go through the selecting process, softening up process and if they can pass the exam by specialists and policy makers, they may finally become policies. The whole process can be viewed as a continuing struggle of ideas. In this case, ideas are not only competing with other ideas, they are also struggling to survive in this primal soup. I also think Kingdon’s policy window model is another improvement to Deborah Stone’s arguments. People are now struggling to make their idea in front of the policy window at the correct time. This model discovers that the during the policy process, critical time is also important for ideas struggling. However, I think there are also some theories which do not fully support Deborah Stone’s argument. In the garbage can model, because the nature of unclear, policy is not necessarily to be the consequence of the idea’s struggling. In Kingdon’s Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, he describes that as” garbage can into which various kinds of problems and solutions are dumped by participantsâ€¦ removed from the scene” (Kingdon, P 85). In some sense, Deborah Stone’s “Struggling of ideas” assumption is more based on a goal-oriented policy making process, in order to make it work, there should be a clear policy goal from all participants; while the classical garbage can model is more like a method-oriented policy making process, it doesn’t require a clear goal or solution at the beginning. In the garbage can model, people are not fighting with each other over ideas in the final solution selecting stage, however it is still correct to say that each solution in the garbage can is a result of deliberative idea thinking. I think there is a slight difference between Deborah Stone’s theory and the garbage can model. Another policy theory which doesn’t fully consistent with Deborah Stone’s theory is the incrementalism theory. According to Lindblom, the incremental policy process is more relied on former existing policies. According to this model, the policy environment generally remains stable. Because the incremental nature of the policy, the new policy will inherent the policy environment from previous policy, if the former policy has resolved the struggling of idea, then there will be less struggling of ideas in the new policies. Since the policy environment is stable, it will be unlikely for us to speculate a violently struggle over ideas. The last policy process theory I want discuss in the context of “struggling over idea” is the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) theory. The central idea of this theory is that people or groups with the same beliefs (core/policy/secondary) will form a coalition. I think Sabatier’s concept of belief is similar to Deborah Stone’s concept of idea. Especially, I think the concept of policy belief is playing the role of idea in the policy process. I think his core belief is rooted even deeper than idea. The core belief will sometimes become unnoticeable. And using the ACF model, we can find out that the policy process is a competition among different policy beliefs, and I think this observation is close to Deborah’s “struggle over ideas the ‘essence of policy making.'”. But it does not mean that the change in the secondary belief level is also a result of struggling, according to Sabatier’s theory, such change is more like the result of an incremental learning process. In conclusion, I think Deborah Stone’s argument is useful for us to understand some policy process. However, by using different theories we should also notice whether “policy processes are struggle over ideas” should be analyzed in situations. The Punctuated-Equilibrium model, ACF model and Multiple Stream model indicate that Deborah’s argument is valid. In the P-E model, the change of existing idea or appearance of new idea will bring turbulence to the policy process; in the ACF model, the learning process can change beliefs at different level, and these changes will bring feedbacks to the policy process; in the M-S model, policy entrepreneurs will using the opportunity to propose their ideas, and when critical time is come, the coupled stream will become policy. Incremental Model suggests that policy process is not necessarily linked to struggling when the time span of the policy is very short. There could be no struggle when the whole policy process is already fixed. However, I think the origin/first policy in the incremental model is a result of idea struggling. The Garbage Can model suggests that the choosing process within the policy process may appear as a random process, it is not necessarily to be the consequence of the idea struggling. Deborah Stone And Essence Of Policy Making