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PSY 3304 Troy University Juvenile Delinquency Causes and Treatment Essay

PSY 3304 Troy University Juvenile Delinquency Causes and Treatment Essay.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need support to help me study.

Given what you know about juvenile delinquency, if government officials asked for your guidance on how to best deal with delinquency, what would you advise them to do, and why? Please keep in mind that delinquency covers a multitude of causes/treatment areas to include family, school, courts, community, etc., so you need to address ideas in each area. must be a minimum of 850-900 words (usually will amount to 2 ½ to 3 pages). They must be typed, double spaced, 12 pt. font, with 1 inch margins. Put your name and the date in the tope, right corner, on the first 2 lines (single spaced), then double-space and start your content.
PSY 3304 Troy University Juvenile Delinquency Causes and Treatment Essay

Literature review is a summary of past paper that conducted by the previous researchers and explanation about the terms involve during this study. It aims on the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. This chapter is important because it can be a guideline on how the study can be done. Simon Reich states that, globalization constitutes a multiplicity of linkages and interconnections that transcend the nation states (and by implication the societies) which make up the modern world system. It defines a process through which events, decisions and activities in one part of the world can come to have a significant consequence for individuals and communities in quite distant parts of the globe. According Laurence E. Rothenberg, globalization is the acceleration and intensification of interaction and integration among the people, companies and governments of different nations. According to Farhad Nezhad Haj Ali Irani globalization typically refers to the process by which different economies and societies become more closely integrated, and concurrent with increasing worldwide globalization, there has been much research into its consequences According to Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, globalization is a process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation technologies and services, mass migration and the movement of peoples, a level of economic activity that has outgrown national markets through industrial combinations and commercial groupings that cross national frontiers and international agreements that reduce the cost of doing business in foreign countries. Defined broadly, globalization is the process of integrating nations and peoples-politically, economically, and culturally-into a larger community (Gale Encyclopedia of US Foreign Policy). With business becoming increasingly global, employees with international experience have become an increasing important issue for multinational corporations (Hyder and Lövblad, 2007). We live in a world in which barriers to cross border trade and investment are declining. Transportation and telecommunication technologies are constantly making the world feel smaller. Material culture seems similar the world over; and national economies are merging into an interdependent, integrated and global economic system. Globalization is the reason for this incredible shift (Hills, 2007). It is a process that describes the integration of the world community into a common social or economic community. In layman’s terms, globalization means the free flow of goods and services across borders (Joanne Claire Miranda, 2009). Globalization has resulted not just in goods and services travelling across borders. It has also resulted in people moving across borders for better employment opportunities and thus better wages (Joanne Claire Miranda, 2009). Due to that, it gives positive and negative effects. Positively, people move easily to benefit from their skills and experience. Firms are able to enter new market. Negatively, however, as firms enter these new industries or markets, they lack the skills and expertise required for that industry and they face not only the challenge of sourcing for the right candidate but also there is no guarantee that there would be continuity of service by the skilled staff. The right candidate should be able to work in the present environment as well as be able to teach the team members. If this is not managed properly, it may well become firm’s biggest obstacle. In order for these companies to have the competitive edge in this global marketplace, they need to have the right person at the right posting (Hills, 2007). The effects of globalization have resulted in the number of expatriates rising in the developing countries including Malaysia. When Aida and Maimunah did their study on ‘Cross Cultural Challenges and Adjustment among Expatriates in Malaysia, 1999’ (Aida and Maimunah, 2007) the number of expatriates they reported was 21,859, a figure they obtained from the Immigration Statistics. In October 2007, the immigration record showed the total number of expatriates in Malaysia is at 35, 583. Expatriation in Malaysia is not a new phenomenon. The country has gone through three waves or phases of incoming expatriates. The first group of expatriates that came to Malaysia is the Britons. They were found in private sector and big organizations such as Shell, ICI, Dunlop, Guthries, Harrison and Crosfield and British Petroleum. Other than that, in the government sector, the expatriates are mainly posted as advisors, diplomats, academics and technical specialists. The second phase of expatriates came from United States of America and other European countries whom were assigned in large multinationals such as, Phillips, Siemens, Volvo, Nestle and Esso. Finally, the third wave of expatriates came to Malaysia which were mainly represented by the Asian group of managers mainly from Japan, Taiwan and Korea along with some other European and American expatriates. This third wave resulted from the “Look East” policy by the Government in 1980s as well as due to closer relations with Australia and the Newly Industrialized Countries in Asia specifically, along with the high growth of electronics industry in Malaysia. (Aida and Maimunah, 2000) 2.2 Expatriation Cycle 2.1.1 Pre-departure The pre-departure phase involved effective selection and preparation of expatriate. Most often expatriates are selected from within the corporation. The rationale is that current managers possess the technical expertise and they are more in sync with the company’s culture. (Maali H. Ashamalla, 1998) According to Luftans and Doh, making an effective selection decision for an overseas assignment can prove to be a major problem. Typically, this decision is based on international selection criteria which are factors used to choose international characters. Those criteria are:- a) Adaptability to cultural change Overseas managers must be able to adapt to change. They also need the degree of cultural toughness. Research shows that many managers exhilarated at the beginning of their assignment. After a few months, however, a form of culture shock creeps in. b) Physical and emotional health Most organizations require that their overseas managers have good physical and emotional health. The psychological ability of individuals to with-stand culture shock also would be considered as would the current marital status as it affects the individual’s ability to cope in a foreign environment. c) Age, experience and education There is evidence that younger managers are more eager for international assignments because they tend to be more “worldly” and have a greater appreciation of other cultures than older managers do. On top of that, many companies consider an academic degree, preferably a graduate degree to be of critical importance to an international executive. d) Language training Language can be a very critical factor and international experts have referred to it as “a most effective indirect method of learning about a country”. e) Motivation for foreign assignment Although individuals being sent overseas should have a desire to work abroad, this is usually is not sufficient motivation. Experts believe that candidate also must believe in the importance of the job. Other than that, applicants who are unhappy with their current situation, desire for adventure or a pioneering spirit, desire to increase one’s chance for promotion and the opportunity to improve one’s economic status are also viewed as great motivators. f) Spouses and dependents or work-family issues Experts believe that if the family is not happy, the manager often performs poorly and may either be terminated or simply decide to leave the organization. However, according to Maali H, Ashamalia, qualities that are looked for are:- a) Cultural empathy The ability to appreciate and respect beliefs, values, behaviors and business practices of individuals and groups from other culture. b) Awareness of environment constraint In a foreign country, an expatriate is faced with unfamiliar sets of environmental forces that can be very different from those of the home country. Ability to identify forces and function within their constraints becomes instrumental to the expatriates for effective decision making. c) Interpersonal skills These skills involve effective verbal and non-verbal communications, the capacity to build trust and the ability to utilize referent power in managing within a foreign environment. It also involved the understanding of differences in value orientations such as in the power distance orientation identified by Hofstede. d) Managerial and Decision Making abilities It is highly required particularly when a manager is operating under conditions of isolation or physical distances from the centre of decision making in the home office. These competencies are also necessary in situations where expatriates have full autonomy in their foreign positions. e) Other crucial qualities Foreign language proficiency, flexibility, adaptability, entrepreneurship, self-motivation, tolerance for ambiguity, and sensitivity to world events and their impact on long-range perspectives of the business are considered as crucial qualities for expatriate’s selection. Other than that, Ashamalla also argued that a rigorous selection program should also include the utilization of appropriate selection devices, consideration of the candidate’s self-evaluation, time devoted for the selection process where it must be adequate and strategic evaluation of the overseas operations on a frequent basis. The selection plan should also include the expatriate family. In addition, intensity of intercultural relation, pre-departure preparation, cultural training, multicultural personality, and technical competent and socio cultural knowledge is vital in order to determine expatriate, spouse and family adjustment effectiveness (Awang-Rozaimie, 2011) 2.1.2 During Assignment Support during the assignment is believed to be essential for moral and psychological sustenance as well as for performance effectiveness of international managers. Superiors and HR professionals in the home office need to give adequate consideration to the importance of keeping in close touch with their expatriates and providing them and their families with the needed support. A major source of concern for the manager while abroad is the loss of visibility to those in the home office. Sense of isolation from the domestic realities of the firm and feelings of being away for the corporate centers of the power are other sources of concern for managers while on overseas assignments. During assignment, support may involve a wide range of formal and informal activities. (Maali H. Ashamalla, 1998) On the other hands, the Brookfield’s Global Relocation Trends Survey 2010 indicated that, six percent of international assignments fail. Therefore, it is essential for expatriates to understand specific psychological traits of Malaysian that contributed to their business performance. Primarily, cultural competency support expatriates’ psychological well-being and socio cultural adaptabilities (Awang- Rozaimie, 2011) However, adapting to the new environment takes several months. A model developed by Oberg (1960) describes expatriate adaptation as a four-phases process. These phases are honeymoon, culture shock, recovery and adjustment. Going through these phases in the long run results into successful adaptation in the new environment (Teodora G. Nikolaeva, 2010) Table 1: Oberg’s phases of adaptation a) Honeymoon The first phase of this process is the so called honeymoon phase (Oberg, 1960). This stage usually lasts from several days to several weeks and is characterized by the positive attitude of the expatriates about the host country, its culture and everything new they are meeting. In this stage the employees feel more like tourists than expatriates. They are excited by the new and are really enthusiastic about their job. The expatriates are intrigued and curious about everything that is different from what they are used to and at the same time amazed by cultural similarities. All of this is a result of the pleasant conditions the expatriates are offered upon their arrival. They stay in luxurious hotels where they communicate with compatriots or natives who speak their language or perhaps they have even been appointed a translator; They are busy with being shown the sights of the town, finding an accommodation, school for the children if they are accompanied by their families, and depending on the significance of the international assignment they can even be giving press interviews (Oberg, 1960). b) Culture Shock As previously mentioned the “honeymoon” stage lasts from several days to several weeks. After this period is over, the expatriates get hit by the new culture and everything they have found amusing until now starts being irritating which results in culture shock (Oberg 1960). Oberg (1960) defines this phenomenon as the “occupational disease” the expatriates experience because of the constant interaction with the new environment and the different situations the host country offers: “Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. These signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situations of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to give orders to servants, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. Now these cues which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.” All expatriates can be affected by culture shock, but the degree to which they suffer depends from the host country and its specific cultural characteristics, the personality of the employees and how effective they are in doing their job, their attitude towards the people from the host country and vice versa, and the significance of the international assignment Depending on these factors, culture shock can result into confusion about one’s actions, anxiety, frustration, exhilaration, actions that do not suit the norms of behavior, inability to do one’s job and thus not being able to sign an important deal, isolation and depression (Teodora G. Nikolaeva, 2010). c) Recovery In the recovery stage the individuals start dealing with their emotions and create a positive attitude towards the surrounding people and environment of the host country (Oberg 1960). As previously mentioned, learning the language is a beneficial factor in understanding the foreign culture. If the expatriates have gained some knowledge of the language, they are able to communicate with their colleagues and instead of criticizing them they start making jokes of them and even start being sarcastic about their dire straits. In addition to that, the employees accept that they have some problems and start asking for help from their coworkers and gradually reaching the last phase of their adaptation (Oberg 1960). d) Adjustment The final phase of the adaptation model is adjustment. At this point all the six aspects of the culture shock are gone and the expatriates are able to perform their job in the most effective way. This is due to the fact that they start accepting and adapting to the new environment. The food, the drinks, the people and the customs that used to be perceived as “foreign” are now seen as delightful and enjoyable; The individuals become so accustomed to the country and the people so when the assignment is over and they return home, they start missing all that which at some point of their stay was irritating and even disgusting (Oberg, 1960). 2.1.3 Repatriation Luftans and Doh defined repatriation as the return to one’s home country from an overseas management assignment. The most common reason for expatriation is that the duty is over. However, other reasons might be expatriates want their children educated in a home-country school, they are not happy with their overseas assignment and failure to do a good job. Ashamalla argued that there is evidence that indicate repatriation is not simple and that a repatriate manager may experience professional as well as personal re-entry problems. 2.3 Factors contribute to challenges faced by expatriates There are many factors that could be the reason of the challenges faced by the expatriate. These factors are realized through the flow of expatriation cycle. 2.3.1 Selection does not based on IHRM guidelines. According to Bonache, Brewster and Suutari, decisions on expatriate selection are usually made in a less than organized and coherent manner, and often take by line managers who simply ignore the laid-down criteria espoused by the HR department. They prefer to draw from a restricted pool of candidates about whom they feel confident; often people like themselves or those among that group who are readily available or have shown some interest in an international element to their career. 2.3.2 Accepting international assignment for the wrong reasons. Some expatriates were thinking of moving abroad in an effort to leave behind the accumulation of frustration, misery or boredom in the current life. Others might accept the international assignment due to their own expectation and assumption based on the experience they had when visiting to that country for a holiday. Due to that, they will face difficulties when reality or the situation does not meet their expectation. 2.3.3 Inability to adapt Cultural surprises, shock, discomfort, difficulties, stress and incompetence occurred due to inconsistent expectation and inability to acquire appropriate cultural knowledge and skills of host culture. Incompetence or disability of expatriates to adapt and adjust their cultural mindset caused early return, incomplete assignment goal and put additional cost to organization for replacement of new personnel. 2.3.4 Family issues It is generally the trailing spouse who suffers the greatest culture shock in the new country. The result can be an unhappy spouse who does her best to impair the performance of the expatriate manager. Most expatriate managers are challenged and excited to be in their new postings. They need to spend a lot of time at work since they are under pressure to adapt to the new culture and their overall responsibilities are often larger than they have experienced before. As a result, the wives of expatriates spend a lot of time by themselves and are cut-off from their own family and friends. At the same time, the wife is usually dealing with problems for which she has no previous experience. Therefore, the challenges expatriates faced during expatriation could be precipitate from the pressure from home 2.3.5 The location of the assignment The location of the international assignment can determine the challenges faced by expatriate. Commonly, expatriates come from well developed countries; due to globalization and the demand of global market, developing countries, mostly from South East Asia, have a high demand for expatriate. The differences between the culture of the expatriates’ home country and expatriation location will present cross cultural challenges to expatriates. 2.4 Challenges Commonly Faced by Expatriates Pre Departure 2.4.1 Preparation for departure doesn’t seem enough. Due to the fact that management chose the candidate for expatriation based on their preference with disregard of IHRM guidelines, it does not only affect the staff but the family member as well. Firstly, the spouse usually questions whether the decision to move abroad is really the best decision for them. On Assignment 2.4.2 Communication and language barriers They are expected to master the local language and culture, especially because more and more local workers may have the competitive advantage of local knowledge and connections, as well as strong English skills acquired while studying abroad. Other than that, expatriate faced difficulty in communication within the first few weeks and to some, it took several months to adjust. 2.4.3 Adjusting to the local working culture Every country has different working culture. Therefore, expatriates might find it challenging to understand how things work in the office in a manner where they are trying to understand the administrative and bureaucratic arrangements. Most of the expatriates came from highly industrialized nations whereby people are used to living in the fast lane and having more established and efficient services. Since the previous working trend differs from the working style they are currently in, it posed as a challenge for most expatriates. 2.4.4 High level of bureaucracy People at the high management level of their hierarchical positions acquire strong control over the issues at the workplace. Therefore, it affects the flow of work among the locals and the expatriates. Decision making processes and duration of task completion took longer than expected. This was a challenge that expatriates encountered which required some skills of cross cultural negotiations to adjust and to overcome any related problems arise. Generally, the locals’ working habit seemed to collide with the expatriates’ working habits. Since most of expatriates were come from well-developed nation, their working pace is faster and planning becomes more efficient. Thus, when the new environment is working in much slower pace, it could become a conflict between the expatriates and locals. 2.4.5 Adaptability to new environment Expatriates and family often find it challenging to adjust with the routines. Trailing spouse might have problem in term of creating a home in rented accommodation with limited personal belongings and often find herself home alone whilst the partner departs on the business trip in as many weeks. This will cause the exhaustion the working partner as they try to balance work and home demands. The challenge of creating a meaningful life for the non-working partner which often involves overcoming a sense of having lost all personal identity which comes with losing the normal social, familial and work based cues. This will lead to homesickness and loneliness where they may long for the familiar and comfortable. Other than that, the children might have problem adjusting with school environment and new education system. Beside individual struggle, parental challenge such as providing a stable home environment for children, finding appropriate healthcare when it is needed and finding the appropriate and suitable school for children are occurring as well. Repatriation 2.4.6 Lack of value placed on their international experiences. It appears that many global firms do not assign much value to the international experience. Therefore, expatriates expectation to career advancement are not usually realized. Many Western countries are placing increasing emphasis on standards and qualifications, credentials, and professionalization of careers. Individuals who have been working abroad may find themselves left behind and no longer even qualified for the level of work they had done prior to departure. 2.4.7 Re-establishing a professional network can also be challenging. Due to inadequate communication during the overseas assignment, an expatriate loses touch with changes that take place in the corporation. An expatriate might return to find that the company has changed beyond recognition and this will lead to career disaster. Even those professional colleagues who stayed in touch through an expatriate’s years abroad, may not feel comfortable speaking to the repatriate’s level of qualifications, especially if they haven’t formed a clear picture of the day- to-day responsibilities handled in the international workplace. 2.4.8 The expatriate and family members may also experience reverse culture shock. Many repatriates are not prepared for the culture shock that they experience upon returning home. Although culture shock is a challenge anticipated by most immigrants and expatriates as they prepare to move abroad, it can catch repatriates off guard. Many have struggled with adjusting to the weather, food, lifestyle, and even basic domestic chores and driving; especially if returning from a country where the norm was to hire domestic help. Repatriates may also find local biases offensive, particularly if targeted at a culture or group with which they have become quite familiar and which they have grown to appreciate.
Reading Reflection 130g – EASY. I’m working on a Sociology exercise and need support.

Readings are Attached:
Must Read:
1.) Munck, “Culture”
2.) Duncan Green, Faces of Latin America, chapter 5, “Culture and Religion”
There are a total of 2 readings. 2 total paragraphs. This reflection will include a sub-heading for each reading. Minimum 1 page double spaced 12 point font.
For each reading you will write at least one paragraph, in which you will answer the following questions:
• What did you not understand or find new and challenging from the reading?
• What questions for class discussion did it raise?
• What did you find most useful in the reading?
• What new terms and concepts were contained in the reading?
Note that these reading questions/reflections should NOT be a summary of the readings.
The purpose is:
1) that you demonstrate you have done the reading and given thought to it;
2) to identify what you did not understand and what you think is important and why is it important, in relation to the course and to Development and Social Change in Latin America
Reading Reflection 130g – EASY

Effect of Social Pressures on Individuals. Abstract College Students tested the methods of how conformity influences individuals. The present tests the theory that social pressure influences individuals difficulty ranking. The hypothesis of the study is that there will be change in the individuals response because of the influence of the confederate and it would mostly likely change towards the direction of the confederate response. There were 40 participants in the study, 20 females and 20 males, with a mean age of 21.87 years with the addition of two male and two female confederates. Two participants were excluded from the study. In the present study, a surveyor approach the confederates and participants asking them to take a math survey. The participants were given one of the two response sheets in which one was of Easy difficulty ranking survey(Version B) or Hard difficulty ranking survey(Version A). The participants were then grouped into four groups, each in a different condition. In one condition, 10 times when the participants were male, the confederate was a male. In another condition, 10 times the participants were male, the confederate was a female. In another condition, 10 times the participants were female, the confederate was a male. In the last condition 10 times the participants were female, the confederate was a female. Each difficulty ranking survey were given to 10 participants grouped with the same-sex confederate and 10 participants grouped with the opposite-sex confederate. After the test the confederate will express oppositely how difficult the test was and the participant will state what they thought about it. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the relation between the direction of change (Towards the confederate) and condition (difficulty). The relation between these variables was insignificant, X2 = (2, N = 38) = 3.68, p = 0.16. College students were less likely to change towards the confederate. Conformity Conformity is the willing acceptance of group norms. Social pressure influence adolescent and young adult attitudes toward a certain topic, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. It is necessary to understand if one’s interest in a topic was based on active peer influence or if the assumption that passive (imitation) peer influence is more relevant. In the present study, we examine whether the participants will change difficulty ranking after their interaction with the confederate that has opposite ranking. In the present study, we focused on conformity with the independent variable being the condition (level of difficulty). The dependent variable is the direction of change (towards the confederate response). HarakehEffect of Social Pressures on Individuals

The Soil Formation Factors Engineering Essay

In this chapter the formation, types and engineering properties of soil are discussed based on literature review .The main emphasis is on laterite soils, the definition, its formation and distribution. The chapter also includes engineering properties of lateritic soils observed and tested previously in various parts of the world. The reason to carryout literature review is to get an idea about lateritic soils and behaviour. AN INTRODUCTION TO SOILS Definition of Soil The definition of soil depends upon the field in which it is studied. In Pedology, soil is defined as a material present on the surface, responsible for plant growth. The geologist takes the meaning of soil as the material formed due to past surface activities and actions and present in the thin zone of the Earth’s face in which roots are contained. In regard to civil engineering, the soil is assemblage of mineral particles which are product of rock weathering. These mineral particles are usually unbounded or weakly bounded. The void areas present between particles contains water or air or both. (Craig, 2004). Terzaghi and Peck (1948) defined soil as aggregation of mineral grains naturally, that can be detached by lightly mechanical methods as agitation in water. Hence the soil is mixture of mineral particles, containing void space which may be filled with air or water or both at same time. Types of soil The types of soils can be presented in different forms which are shown below:- Residual soils There is no specific or particular definition for residual soils, however all the definitions that are in literature do indicate that these soils are formed on site as a result of weathering of rocks and they remain at that same place.(Ahmed, et al. ,2006) Venkataramaiah(2006) defined residual soils as ‘soils which are formed by weathering of rocks may remain in position at the place of region’ he further stated that theses soils are found at large scale in area where the climate is hot and humid and cause the weathering of rocks easily. The sizes of grains of these soils are not specific and may break into smaller pieces by small amount of load. Transported soils Gopal(2000) defined transported soil as ‘Any soil that has been transported from its place of origin by wind, water or ice or any other agency and has been redeposit is called transported soil. He further explained that these soils are more common as compared to residual soils. The particles features such as size, shape, and texture of transported soils depends on source by which they were transported. These soils can further be categorized as alluvial, Lacustrine, Marine, Aeolian and Glacial deposits. So it can be conclude that soils which remain at the place where they were created from weathering of rocks are known as residual soils and the soils which are moved or blown from there original place of formation by different activities are transported soils. Types of soils based on texture Soil texture refers to the particle size of each mineral present in soil. It also includes the proportion of each particle size in soil. Based on soil texture, the soils can be divided into three types 1)sand 2)silt and 3) clay. Sand The particle size for sand is considered to be largest as compared to other types.Most classification systems considers the particle size of sand from 2mm to 0.05mm in diameter. The soils which consists of high proportion of sandy particles is known as sandy soils Clay Clay consists of particle size lesser then 0.002mm.The soil which contains higher proportion of clay particles is known as clayey. Silt The particle size for silt is considered to be from 0.05mm to 0.002mm or in some countries it also taken as 0.02mm.However in case of silt the soil containing higher proportion of silt are considered as loamy soils. The loamy soils are further divided into different types based on proportion of clay, sand and slit particles. Soils with sand and silt particles in higher proportion is called sandy loams or loamy sands. Clayey particles in majority result in sandy clay loam or sandy clay. The soil containing approximately the same quantity of clay, sand and silt particles is considered as clay loam. (Wiekco,2006). http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/images/biosphere/soils/texture_triangle_large_2.jpg Figure 2.1 Soil classification based on texture (Wiekco,2006). Soil Components The ideal soil consists of 50% solid particles, the solid part may consist of up to 5% of organic matters. The rest of 50% is shared equally among air and water contents which cover 25% each in soil composition. Water Water makes up 25% of soil composition in ideal situation. The amount of water can vary based on conditions. In fully dry condition the water content is less as compared to saturated conditions. Air Air is 25% of soil composition. Like water the air content also changes depending upon soil condition. For example as it rains the voids in soil filled with air are replaced by water thus reducing the quantity of air or when the soil becomes dry the void filled with water are occupied by air.( Reiley and Shry,2002) Organic matter The decaying process of living organisms such as plants and animals in soil results in formation of organic matter. (Bot and Benties,2005). The organs of dead animals, roots, leaves and wood of plants go through decaying process due to physical and chemical activities due to this decomposition the organic matter is formed. Fine textured soils such as clay contain higher content of organic matter as compared to coarse textured soil such as sandy soils.( Bot and Benties,2005 citied Prasad and Power, 1997). Studies on the effect of organic content on certain properties have been carried out. Malkawi, et al. (1999) observed increase in the plastic limit and the liquid limit , the optimum water content of the illitic soil with increase in organic content and decrease maximum dry density. Mineral particles. The solid components of soils consist of crystalline material called minerals. Mineral particles are categorized based on their structure and chemical composition. Oxygen and silicon minerals are most significant to geo- technical engineers. Fine grained soils consist of mineral particles which are platy in nature. (Budhu,2007). Figure 2.2 Soil composition (Reiley and Shry,2002) Phases of soil Soil is not a singled phase substance but a multi phase. Soil is a particulate material and not coherent like concrete and steel. Naturally soil, comprises of three main components that are solid particles along with water and air present in the voids which occur among the particles. The water and air proportion in soil depend on location and environmental and climatic conditions. (Singh,n.d.) Criag (2004) describing phase relations suggest that soil may have double or triple phase composition. Relating the degree of saturation and composition of soil he further explains that a fully dry or unsaturated soil composes of two phases that are solid particles and pore air. A completely saturated also like fully dry soil is two phase but has pore water instead of pore air. A third category he describes is the partially saturated soil which is three phase comprising solid soil particles, pore water and pore air. . http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT- Guwahati/soil_mech/web/chap2final/s2_clip_image002_0000.jpg Figure 2.3 Phases of soil (Singh,n.d.) Engineering Characteristics for soils Atterberg limits Atterberg was a Swedish soil physicist who in (1911) introduced a classification system and technique to establish the states of consistency of soil. The consistency states are liquid when the soil is wet, plastic state and ultimately the dry solid. The principle on which this method is based is to find the water content using the relation (mass of water/dry mass of soil) at particular transition point between different consistency states. The terms plastic limit, liquid limit and shrinkage limit which as a whole known as Atterberg limits were used to defined theses transitions points. Factors effecting Atterberg limits:- Particle size. Particular surface area of particles that can be occupied by water . Particle size distribution. (Lal,2005) Sawangsuriya and Fratta(2006) indicated that index soil properties generally used for classification, description and identification of fine grained soils are called atterberg limits. Actually these index properties refer to water content, it is an indication that at a certain amount of water content the soil will flow as fluid, it will be plastic in nature or semi solid. Dolinar, et al. (2007) stated that the consistency of a fine-grained soil varies from a semi-solid state to a plastic state and ultimately to a liquid state with an increase in water content. He defined plastic, liquid limits as follows:- Plastic limit The point at which the consistency, due to the soil water content, is altered from a semi-solid state to a plastic state is known as plastic limit. It is denoted by (PL). Liquid limit The point upon which the consistency is changed from a plastic state to a liquid state is called liquid limit. It is denoted by (LL). These limits are also known as consistency limit. Shrinkage limit The water content upon which the soil is transformed from the semi solid state to the solid state is called shrinkage limit. The soils no more is saturated below the shrinkage limit .The voids of soils are filled with air .Moreover the volume of the soil does not alter due to capillary tension. Hence the soils maintain constant volume and stops shrinking further for water content at shrinkage limit. The water content at shrinkage limit is the lowest at which soil can remain fully saturated. (Arora, 2008). Index of plasticity Water content between liquid and plastic limit is known as index of plasticity. It is denoted ( Ip). It is calculated by formula IP= (LL-PL) Where LL is liquid limit and PL is plastic limit. It shows the mechanical behaviour of soil towards changing amount of water (Lal, 2005). Arora(2009) defined index of plasticity as’ numerical difference between liquid limit and plastic limit’. It may also be denoted by (PI). Volume Plastic state Liquid state Solid state semi solid State SL PL LL Water Content Figure 2.4 Different states of soil. (Arora, 2008). Specific gravity Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of weight of soil solid composition to the weight of water with the same volume.(Yalcin,2007). The values of specific gravity of soil generally vary from 2.60 to 2.84.(Abdullahi,2006). It is denoted by symbol Gs. Unconfined compressive strength Reddy and Sastri(2002) state that ‘unconfined compressive strength is defined as the ratio of axial failure load to cross sectional area of the soil sample when it is not subjected to any lateral pressure’. Where qu = Unconfined compressive strength P= axial load at failure Ac= corrected area at failure =Ao/ (1 -) Ao= intial cross sectional area = axial strain in sample L / Lo L= change in length of sample Lo=initial length of sample Table 2.1 Unconfined compressive strength related to consistency Consistency Unconfined Compressive strenght kPa Very soft <25 Soft 25-50 Medium stiff 50-100 Stiff 100-200 Very stiff 200-400 Hard >400 Source (serajuddin and chowdhury,1996) Particle-size distribution Particle size distribution gives the amount of different particles size present in particular soil. It is usually determine by sieve analysis. The particle-size distribution of soil provides the mean particle size and fines content which help in soil classifications and establishing soil property relationships (Vipulanandan and Ozgurel, 2009) California bearing ratio As the name indicates California bearing ratio is bearing capacity of soil. California bearing ratio value is an important parameter when designing a sub grade or base for roads. The potential strength of sub grade material is indicated California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and is a vital index to assess its performance in expressway.( Guang-qing, et al. ,2006). Shear strength of soil For a soil mass a shear strength is a internal resistance per unit area that a soil mass can provide to oppose failure and sliding along the any plane within it . The Mohr-coulomb failure criteria is fundamental equation to represent the shear strength of soil. c Where C = cohesion =Angle of Internal friction. The basic approximation in above equation is that shear stress is linear function of normal stress at failure plane. For saturated soil the sum of effective stress and pore water pressure gives total normal at any particular point. ( Das,2008). The Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria equation in terms of effective strength parameters is given as τ=c′ (σ−u) tan φ’ τ=c′ σ’ tan φ’ ′where τ i= the shear strength, c′ = effective cohesion, σ = total stress, u = pore water pressure φ′ = effective angle of internal friction or shearing resistance. (Zhang, et al., 2001) http://www.ejge.com/2004/Ppr0478/Fig5.gif Figure 2.5 Typical shear strength diagram (yilmaz and Erzin,2004). Shear strength parameters There are two shear strength parameters Angle of internal friction. Cohesion Angle of internal fraction The angle of contact between the particles of soil or unconsolidated mass and the underlying surface is called angle of internal friction. It is also known as angle of shearing resistance. It is denoted by φ(phi).It is also regarded as slope angle Cohesion The level to which particles or grains of soil are bounded together is denoted by cohesion or the ability of soil particles to adhere with each other is known as cohesion. (Huggett,2007). Factors effecting shear strength parameters Dry density, particle size distribution, particle shape, texture of surface and water content are the factors on which angle of internal friction is dependent where as the size of clayey particles, clay minerals types, valence or chemical bonds among particles, water content, and percentage of the clay are the factors on which cohesion is based.( Jain, et al.,2010). Site investigation Site investigation is a significant element in construction industry and should be given due importance. One of the objectives of site investigation is to determine the ground conditions and type of soil lying on site of construction. The engineers should know the engineering properties of soil on basis on which they are going to design the foundations or any other structure. They can also suggest some solution for the properties of soils which do not meet requirements such as stabilization or addition of admixtures etc. Some of major objectives of site investigation as mentioned in BS-5930:1999 A2:2010 are as follows:- Design The site investigation can assist in creation of design which is economical and satisfying and safe, the results of investigation can help in planning the temporary works need for construction process. Site selection The civil engineers can propose more appropriate and up to standard site for construction if option is available. Moreover they can advise suitable area for construction a particular site. Construction To predict the preferred method of construction and to know the problems that may arise during construction such as delaying due to conditions of ground or water table etc. Effect of change The results obtained from site investigations can help in determining the changes that can take place due to natural factors or as result of construction works and their effect on environment. . Oloufa,et.al(1994) while highlighting the importance of site investigation stated that It is key feature to estimate and plan new construction projects. Site investigation gives indication about ground characteristics as well as underground conditions .These conditions in return allow engineers to make a choice of suitable construction methods and machinery. These factors affect the schedule and costing of projects. Hence the site characteristics should be observed carefully. Soil formation The soil formation process involves the weathering of rocks. The weathering causes decomposition and disintegration of rocks and minerals into smaller and smaller particles. This weathering is caused due to natural or mechanical and chemical agents. Mechanical weathering The mechanical weathering disintegrates the rock to soil, but soil retains most properties similar to rock material from which it was formed. The mechanical weathering agents include water, wind and glaciers etc. Chemical weathering The effect chemical weathering is intense as compared to mechanical weathering. The soils minerals are partially or completely vanish in relation to rock materials they are formed from. Chemical weathering occurs at higher rate in tropical and humid climatic conditions. (Venkatramaiah, 2006). Soil formation factors Soils are formed as result of five factors which are climate, organisms (biota) topography, parent material, and time. The soil formation is generally shown by Jenny’s state factor equation that is S=f(C, O, R, P, T.) here (R) stands for relief depicting topography factor. (Demas, et al., 2001). Climate refers the general climate conditions of the region where soil exists .The climate includes amount rainfall, moisture in air, temperature. The organism means the plants, animals and microorganisms that react with soil. Topography refers landscape, terrain or geological features of location of soil deposit. By parent material it means the original hard rock deposits where the soils are formed. For example, till is a parent material for soil created in glacial deposits similarly alluvium is a parent material for soil produced at the side of a river. Parent material influences the grain texture and mineral composition of soil, Time depicts the duration of soil forming process. It shows that for how long chemical or mechanical weathering has taken place on rock or age of existing soil deposit. (Brevik, 1999) Topographical characteristics such as curves, slope, steepness and other landforms affect the hydrological conditions of area where soil deposits are located and cause diverse soil moisture conditions and flow trends. Different types of slopes yield different conditions of drainage.( Seibert, et al.,2007). Climatic conditions effect soil formation. For instance in tropical, hot and humid conditions the high temperature and humidity speed up weathering of rock and soil profiles with large depth are formed.(Noguchi et al,2005). . ` General Classification Granular Materials (35% or less passing the 0.075 mm sieve) Silt-Clay Materials (>35% passing the 0.075 mm sieve) Group Classification A-1 A-3 A-2 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-1-a A-1-b A-2-4 A-2-5 A-2-6 A-2-7 A-7-5 A-7-6 Sieve Analysis, % passing 2.00 mm (No. 10) 50 max … … … … … … … … … … 0.425 (No. 40) 30 max 50 max 51 min … … … … … … … … 0.075 (No. 200) 15 max 25 max 10 max 35 max 35 max 35 max 35 max 36 min 36 min 36 min 36 min Characteristics of fraction passing 0.425 mm (No. 40) Liquid Limit … … 40 max 41 min 40 max 41 min 40 max 41 min 40 max 41 min Plasticity Index 6 max N.P. 10 max 10 max 11 min 11 min 10 max 10 max 11 min 11 min Usual types of significant constituent materials stone fragments, gravel and sand fine sand silty or clayey gravel and sand silty soils clayey soils General rating as a subgrade excellent to good fair to poor Source (Ranjan and Rao,2005).

CUNY Law Evidence to Substantiate Jurys Decision Outcome Legal Memorandum

essay writer free CUNY Law Evidence to Substantiate Jurys Decision Outcome Legal Memorandum.

DescriptionIn this final communication assignment, you will persuade and non-technical audience, a jury, that the statistical analysis that you have done provides adequate evidence on the case they must determine. You must explain to a jury from the general population the case, how probability and statistics can inform it and what you found by doing your analysis all organized in a way and using language they will understand. Part of this will be explaining why this approach can be used with confidence in addressing this question. You will also demonstrate your ability to edit a professional document to assure it is clear, complete, and concise, following the direction provided in the Legal Memorandum Guide. Proofread and edit your pre-writing document for grammar and spelling PRIOR TO TURNING IT IN (you may use an external grammar tool to help with this. The Legal Memorandum Template is provided to make formatting the document easier. This example provides some insight into the appearance of the document. The document with the appendix is no less than 2.5 pages. Assignment Preparation Read the Legal Memorandum GuideYou will be expected to discuss the elements of this assignment accurately. There are several areas in which students have had difficultly in the past that you may want to make sure you are familiar with Be sure to make any claims based on your findings in a way that is accurate to what the statistical method allows you to know. Be sure you understand what a class-action lawsuit is. Be sure you are clear on the difference between the data and your evaluation of it. Be sure to clearly outline what you know about the data AND why what is provided is important. Be sure you clearly understand the specific car part you are discussing. If this is not a familiar product take the time to look up some information on it before writing about it so you can speak precisely. Problem DescriptionA series of seemingly related recent automobile failures have resulted in a class-action lawsuit, Szabo v. Reliable Car Parts Corporation being filed. The ‘class’ in this case is claiming that Reliable Car Parts manufactured a part that does not comply with mandated performance standards in place to assure safe operation of vehicles. The class was established as this part has been used by many manufactures in many models of vehicles for a decade, and therefore, involves hundreds of thousands of vehicles. They are claiming the failure of this part has led to serious engine failures resulting in needed vehicle repair or replacement, for which Reliable Car Parts should be financially responsible.The part is question is a shaft with a copper-lead bearing surface that is manufactured for use in fuel pumps. The use of copper lead as a bearing surface was considered a revolution in the performance capability of this part when it was introduced. However, after a decade in operation, the ability of this design to meet performance standards established for the safe operation of vehicles is being questioned. The established standards require these parts may not wear more than 3.5 microns over a useful life of 250,000 miles of vehicle operation with the fuel pump using this shaft. This standard has been established, as wear of the shaft bear surface exceeding this amount can result in catastrophic fuel pump failure in extreme weather conditions. Due to the significance of this litigation, the Judge involved with the case, The Honorable Faeza Hai, has brought you in as an expert witness, independent of either side of the litigation, to provide the jury with the clarity that can be brought to the question by an engineering review. At your request, she is providing you with data from a random sampling of 45 shafts of this design from a recent manufacturing run, which have been put through a test simulating 250,000 miles of wear. The result of this test was and She is requiring that you complete your work with a high level of confidence, therefore you have suggested using a confidence interval of .01. You are to provide the jury with which side of the litigation you would support and why in a written document that makes the determination clear and believable to them. The document you are to provide is to follow the court’s template and their Legal memorandum guide. You will also copy the document to Miles Davis, Clerk of the Courts, Michah Bioano, Plaintiffs’ Counsel, and Jay Grabow, Defendant’s Counsel.Data from Sample Testing Assignment Grading (be sure to review the assignment rubric)You will be expected to use the Legal Memorandum Guide and example to include all the required elements in your memorandum. A particular challenge of the assignment is the explanation of the method used for calculations; why it is appropriate, and which option was selected and why. Before turning in the work you will review the document for flow at the sentence, paragraph, and document level. You will need to complete a statistical calculation using the correct approach, arrive at the correct answer, and use the findings in a professional way to develop a recommendation.Clarity, conciseness, and accuracy – While clarity and conciseness are a concern for the entire document, the memorandum subject line (RE), the question presented, and the brief answer will be closely evaluated on the accuracy of your statements, and the clarity and conciseness of your document elements. (Be sure you understand the difference between liability and negligence.)Addressing your audience – Your document must be worded in a way where your audience will understand, believe, and be persuaded by what you say. Each of the elements must be worded in a way that is complete and coherent to an outside reader who is likely not an engineer or statistician. (Finding someone like that to review your document and tell you where they are not following your writing can help you with editing. An outside reader may review your document for problem areas but MAY NOT do your writing for you.)Completeness – All the elements shown in the Legal Memorandum guide must be included in the correct sequence and format. This assignment is being submitted through the similarity review to trigger checks for plagiarism and at the same time will be reviewed for grammatical correctness. Assignment Submittal. This is an individual assignment for which each student must upload a document in one of the allowed formats listed on the assignment. Documents submitted in alternative formats that cannot be opened and graded will receive a zero.
CUNY Law Evidence to Substantiate Jurys Decision Outcome Legal Memorandum

Carlos Albizu University Wk 5 Participation as a Data Collection Challenge Discussion

Carlos Albizu University Wk 5 Participation as a Data Collection Challenge Discussion.

Week 5 Research Methods in Healthcare Management APA Style Question Part 1 Discussion Prompt 1-3 Paragraphs Complete your Week 5 discussion prompt. Describe a data collection challenge that needs to be addressed in any study. Provide a link or upload an attachment to a study as an example of this challenge and describe how it was addressed in the study. Part 2 (Please Separate this part to a different Word Document) Week 5 Assignment: Survey and Analysis Objective: Explore and reflect on the function and value of surveys as a data tool. Get started early—you will be gathering data for your assignment! Utilize paper, email, or an on-line survey platform (e.g., SurveyMonkey, Zoomerang) to survey people on this research question: What are the top three contributors to good time management? You may ask only five questions.You must send the survey to a minimum of ten people.You may survey friends, classmates, family, and strangers.You must send the survey to your instructor. (Use the course messaging tool.)Be especially careful that you do not violate ethical concerns or privacy. When you have collected the surveys, complete the following assignment: Which type(s) of survey questions did you use and why? How effective were they? Explain.How many surveys did you send out? How many completed surveys did you get back? How could you improve your return rate? What could you do to improve your survey and your results?List your survey questions.Did your survey questions provide you with the information you were expecting? Explain.What conclusions can you draw from the survey responses?What other kinds of data tools could you use to answer this research question?How valuable do you think surveys are as a tool for gathering data? Explain. Your total responses should be no longer than two pages. Your assignment must follow APA Style.
Carlos Albizu University Wk 5 Participation as a Data Collection Challenge Discussion

Security of Health care record discussion

Security of Health care record discussion.

Discussion: Security of Health Care RecordsWith the increase of health information technology used to store and access patient information, the likelihood of security breaches has also risen. In fact, according to the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ):In the United States, there was a whopping 97% increase in the number of health records breached from 2010 to 2011… The number of patient records accessed in each breach has also increased substantially, from 26,968 (in 2010) to 49,394 (in 2011). Since August 2009, when the US government regulated that any breach affecting more than 500 patients be publicly disclosed, a total of 385 breaches, involving more than 19 million records, have been reported to the Department of Health and Human Services. A large portion of those breaches, 39%, occurred because of a lost, stolen, or otherwise compromised portable electronic device—a problem that will likely only get worse as iPads, smartphones, and other gadgets become more common in hospitals. (CMAJ, 2012, p. E215). Consider your own experiences. Does your organization use portable electronic devices? What safeguards are in place to ensure the security of data and patient information? For this Discussion you consider ethical and security issues surrounding the protection of digital health information.To prepareReview the Learning Resources dealing with the security of digital health care information. Reflect on your own organization or one with which you are familiar, and think about how health information stored electronically is protected.Consider the nurse’s responsibility to ensure the protection of patient information. What strategies can you use?Reflect on ethical issues that are likely to arise with the increased access to newer, smaller, and more powerful technology tools.Consider strategies that can be implemented to ensure that the use of HIT contributes to an overall culture of safety.By Day 3Post an analysis of the nurse’s responsibility to protect patient information and the extent that HIT has made it easier or more difficult to protect patient privacy. Comment on any security or ethical issues related to the use of portable devices to store information. Assess the strategies your organization uses to safeguard patient information and how these promote a culture of safety. Describe an area where improvement is needed and one strategy that could address the situation
Security of Health care record discussion