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PSY 138 Cuyamaca College Factors that Influence Helping Scenarios Discussion

PSY 138 Cuyamaca College Factors that Influence Helping Scenarios Discussion.

The purpose of this assignment is to think a bit more about the factors that influence helping. Before you complete the assignment, make sure that you have read Chapter 9 (Links to an external site.) in the text. Then, review the instructions to see how to apply your knowledgeBelow are some scenarios in which someone needs help. Read each and indicate what you think the likelihood is that the person would get help, using a scale from 1 (unlikely that they would be helped) to 10 (very likely that they would be helped). Next, identify at one factor that could be changed about the scenario to increase the likelihood that help would be provided. Make sure to justify why this change would make a difference using ideas from the text.On a bitterly cold day, a young woman struggles to shovel her car out of its parking spot on a busy street. There are a number of pedestrians on the sidewalk and cars passing by who notice her.A teacher is walking across campus carrying a stack of papers between classes. Bending over to pick up her pen she accidentally drops a large stack of papers she was carrying. At that moment a gust of wind blows the papers all over the sidewalk. Students and passersby watch the papers flying around.At 1:00 a.m. outside a tavern several men are arguing. Two of the men are shouting loudly at a third man who appears to be backing away from them. The two men move toward the lone man and start waving their arms as he backs up against a wall. A group of people exiting the tavern notice the situation.In middle of the day a man climbs on the railing of a bridge high above a river. He sits on the railing muttering things to himself. A crowd begins to gather number and motorists stop on the bridge to watch him.A pedestrian walking along a deserted street notices a man stumbling and falling to the ground where he lies motionless.The key to a good response is to show that you know the material by providing good explanations. Responses should be roughly 2 typed pages, showing evidence of critical thinking and connection to course material. Make sure to explain your ideas clearly.
PSY 138 Cuyamaca College Factors that Influence Helping Scenarios Discussion

San Jose University Strategic Behavior and Price Discrimination Discussion.

This assignment is part of a larger news article assignment. The assignment’s goal is for students to apply lessons learned in class to firms and products they interact within their daily lives. The assignment will be broken into three parts:Part 1: Due on 11/15 Online Provide the article you intend to use for the assignment (i.e., upload a pdf copy of your article)Provide a brief description of how the article relates to the theory or observations discussed in class (i.e., a sentence or two)Part 2: Due on 11/22 OnlineUpload a one page typed summary of the article from part 1Part 3: Due on 11/29 OnlineUpload a half page typed discussion of strategic behavior discussed in the new article. The strategic behavior discuss needs to be based on material discussed in class
San Jose University Strategic Behavior and Price Discrimination Discussion

Geriatric Nursing

Introduction This paper will try to show different ways for geriatric care that are useful to a LPN who encounters aging people in daily life. Because they are complex, older people always deserve personal attention. Nurses address physical, psycho social, cultural and family concerns as well as promoting health and emphasizing successful aging. Life expectancy is rising at rates which call for the proper preparation of nurses to take good care of the rapidly increasing number of the aged. It is important to distinguish changes involved with normal aging from changes attributable to pathophysiology. Alterations in the structure and function of multiple body system may affect an older person appearance, mobility and ability to fight off infections. Geriatric medications need to be managed so as to avoid too much use of medicine since this group receives a lot of medication if poor care is taken. Multiple medications can cause a variety of drug interaction in older people. Primary drug reaction occurs when one drug causes one side effect, secondary drug reaction occurs when one medication reacts with another. This is brought about by polypharmacy. Old people should be treated in ways that are of benefit and do no harm or as little harm as possible Principle of assessment: data regarding biomedical, functional, psychological and social issues are obtained to help in planning and implementation of individual health care. A pressure ulcer is a lesion caused by unrelieved external pressure resulting from occlusion of the blood flow, tissue ischemia and cell death. Pressure ulcers are often viewed as a complication of an acute or chronic illness. The presence of ulcers may also be evidence of poor nursing care. Although pressure ulceration can be prevented, it may also occur despite optimal nursing care and advanced technologies. In order to provide effective nursing care for the older adult with pressure ulcers, the nurse must approach patient care within a holistic frame work. This framework should include an integration of good assessment, use of research-based intervention and methodical intervention of patience outcomes. Some specific issues of prevention, assessment and treatment of adult with pressure ulcers are, aging skin: The older people have an aged skin and due to exposure to the sun the skin wrinkles, epidermis thins, blood vessels recede, dermal- epidermal ridges flatten and the skin appears thin and fragile. The age related changes may lead to ulceration. The skin which is our largest organ can help in viewing the overall functioning of the entire body. All clinicians working with older people at risk for or suffering from pressure ulcers must be mindful of these varying relationship in using the cutaneous “window” of person to plan and implement individualized, comprehensive care. Summary Ulcers have different stages. Stage one ulcers are characterized by non-blancherble erythema of intact skin. It is important to note that stage one pressure ulcers are difficult to identify in darkly pigmented people and are usually indicated by discoloration, warmth, endyma, indurations and hardness. Stage two ulcers are partial lesions extending into the epidermis and the dermis. Stage three ulcers are defined as the full thickness skin loss. Stage four is characterized by extensive tissue damage which extends to the muscle, bone or the underlying structures. Through a holistic assessment and evaluation a nurse can build a plan of care for those patients who suffer from pressure injury. When treating an ulcer wound treatment should focus on wound healing. For a chronic, non healing ulcer, comfort should be a top priority. For pressure injury careful positioning padding to reduce the risk of pressure ulceration is important. Wound healing occurs only if the patience is physiologically able to provide needed substrate; wound cleanliness, moist and infection free and the cause of injury is removed. For older people it takes longer to heal and so extra care should be taken. When normal interventions fail to heal a pressure ulcer, surgical intervention may be the best option. If the paitent is not mobile you have to frequently turn the paitent to prevent the sore/ulcer getting any worse . Cardiovascular disease affects the heart and the blood vessels. The disease is caused by disruption in the blood circulation secondary to decreased vessel. Cardiovascular disease is common in 50% of the population over the age of 65, and accounts for 40% of deaths in this group. Because of the changes associated with normal aging and some of the unique aspects of reporting and presenting in old adults, underestimation of the seriousness, cardiac disease often occurs. This can lead to misdiagnosis, under treatment, and even death. There are different kind of heart disease: Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a disease of the arteries, characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of vessel walls, it also leads to atherosclerosis. Due to advance in age the disease easily finds its way to old people and so it should be carefully diagnosed and proper treatment given. When diagnosing look out for cases of fainting, continuous chest pain, nausea, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, rapid weight gain, pain in the abdomen, swelling of legs among others. Then address the issue of hypertension, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, obesity and overweight, smoking, and hereditary issues. Treatment includes medication and physical exercises. The following age related changes may occur in the respiratory system of an old person: diminished muscle strength in the diaphragm and thorax, stiffer chest wall, decreased elastic recoil, decreased elasticity in the alveoli reduced surface area, with diminished capacity for gas exchange, decreased vital capacity, and drier mucous membrane leading to more difficulty in mucous excretion. Tests should be carried out by doing x-ray coupled with physical examination. The following are possible diseases in old people; bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some of this disease leads to cardiovascular disease due to effect on the lungs by air pollution. Nurse should draw a plan for treatment which includes working with other specialties like heart experts. Diabetes melitus is a metabolic disorder with two major types, type one and type two. Their end result is hyperglycemia. Type one is caused by lack of insulin production by beta cells. Type two is the most common and is caused by deficiency or inadequacy of insulin receptors in cells. Treatment goals are to symptoms and maintain as normal blood glucose as possible without inducing hypoglycemia to decrease the risk of long term complications. Nurse should emphasize nutrition and exercise which are vital for victims. For older people monitoring for complications which can lead to lower extremity amputation, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, vision loss, or nephropathy should be carried out especially in type 2 diabetic patient. Conclusion Changes in structure and function of the nervous system occur with normal aging and can result in changes in mobility, balance, coordination, sensation, comprehension, cognitive performance or behaviour. These changes reflect a slowing of neurological response as fewer neurons are available to provide sensory and motor messages to and from the central nervous system. The common terms for dizziness include vertigo, pre- syncope and disequilibrium. Stroke is also known as brain attack It is created by interruption of blood supply to some areas of the brain. This interruption can occur as a result of an occlusion or hemorrhage. Occlusion leads to ischemic stroke, categorized as thrombic and embolic. Thrombic stroke occurs in vesicles when oxygenated blood fails to flow to the occlusion site. Embolic stroke occurs when clots form everywhere

Nutrition: Maximal Fat Oxidation Testing Essay

essay writing help Nutrition: Maximal Fat Oxidation Testing Essay. Introduction The human body requires energy to be used for various activities. Different amounts of energy are required by various activities in the body depending on their intensity, frequency and duration. For instance, the rates of metabolism in men and women are not similar because they have different physiological characteristics. Women produce and use more energy than men and this means that their metabolism rate must be faster and higher. This discussion examines fat oxidation rates and presents various approaches used to calculate energy requirement values. Background People developed obesity when there is a reduced exercise maximal fat oxidation. Their bodies produce a lot of energy that is unused; therefore, it is stored as fats under the skin and this causes abnormal increase in weight. Other people have energy oxidation problems and this causes an increase in body weight even if they exercise regularly. This lab report will examine the various processes involved in fat oxidation and use the gold standard test to determine the work rate at which a subject reaches the maximum rate. The report is informed by the fact that the optimization of fat metabolism is an important process that helps the body to perform its work properly and enables people to stay healthy. It is important to understand that fat oxidation rates vary depending on various factors. This rate increases and decreases depending on factors that affect metabolism and respiration. In addition, issues like high exercise intensity affect the rate of fat oxidation while carbohydrate oxidation rate has a direct proportional relation with increase in exercise intensity. This means that when a human body is involved in an active activity that requires a lot of energy the process of fat oxidation increases until a maximum optimal rate is achieved. Then it begins to slow down as exercise intensity increases beyond the fat oxidation levels. On the other hand, carbohydrate oxidation increases and maintains a positive trend with increase in exercise intensity. People should understand that fat oxidation rates are influenced by various factors. First, sick people have lower fat oxidation rates compared to healthy ones because they are inactive and do not do activities that require a lot of energy. Therefore, they use less energy and that is why their metabolism rates are lower. In addition, older people use less energy compared to young ones because they spend most of their time sleeping or sitting. Therefore, they do not need a lot of energy and that is why their rates of fat oxidation are lower. Metabolic disorders can also affect the rate of fat oxidation and increase or decrease it depending on the factors affected by a disease. It is necessary for people to understand their maximal fat oxidation to ensure they practice healthy and appropriate weight loss and endurance training programs. Experiment The report is obtained from a laboratory experiment that involves three classes. They are classified according to age, health condition and physical exercises involved. Each group is exposed to a set of similar experiments to test and record their fat oxidation rates. The individual is supposed to cycle for five minutes at each energy intensity level. This means that there are three intensity levels (slow, moderate and very fast) and all subjects are supposed to complete a full cycle of five minutes each. There will be a three minute break between cycles to ensure subjects drink water for rehydration. It was necessary to include this stage in the experiment to ensure individuals do not become dehydrated. Dehydration increases metabolism rate and this means that this will interfere with the fat oxidation results. The experiments subjects were selected randomly to ensure the population is represented by the sample selected. The recordings of the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded in the last minute of each stage to ensure the records represented the fat oxidation rate at its maximum level. Lastly, the number of revolutions of the cranks (cadence) was kept constant at between 70 and 80 times. Calculations Estimated Maximal power This figure is arrived at by subtracting the volume of carbon dioxide produced when an individual is not cycling (normal fat oxidation) from the amount of carbon dioxide produced when the body is exposed to high exercise intensity. The maximal power of a 20 year old can be calculated as follows. Work rate= (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-20=170 x 20= 3400 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 3400-672/10= 272.8=273 However, this value (273) should be increased by 20% because this is an oxidation rate for an energetic person. The figure would have remained the same if it were for old or sedentary people. It is necessary to explain that most people aged between 15 and 35 are very energetic. Therefore, their bodies are used to energy intensive activities and that is why their fat oxidation rates are usually higher and they reach the optimum level quickly. Calculations for 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% Powers Work rate= (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-20=170 x 20= 3400 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 3400-672/10= 272.8=273 Work rate at 30%= (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-30=160 x 20= 3200 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 3200-672/10= 252.8=253 Work rate at 40% = (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-40=150 x 20= 3000 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 3000-672/10= 232.8=233 Work rate at 50%= (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-50=140 x 20= 2800 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 2800-672/10= 212.8=213 Work rate at 60% = (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-60=130 x 20= 2600 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 2600-672/10= 192.8=193 Work rate at 70% = (Peak VO2 ml/min – VO2 unloaded ml/min)/10 Peak VO2= 190-70=120 x 20= 2400 VO2 Unloaded= 150 (6 x 87) =672 Maxpower= 2400-672/10= 172.8= 173 Calculations of Fat Oxidation Rates Fat oxidation (g/min) = 1.67 x VO2 (l/min) – 1.67 x VCO2 At 30%=1.67 x 1774.493 -1.67 x 28.31341 =2,963.40331-47.28344647 =2. 916 g/min At 40%=1.67 x 2012.801-1.67 x 112.5945 = 3361.37767- 188.032815 =3,173.34 g/min At 50%= 1.67 x 2398.1-1.67 x 124.8349 = 4,004.827- 208.474283 =3.796.36 g/m At 60%= 1.67 x 2780.633 – 1.67 x 131.647 =4,643.65711- 219.85049 =4,423.80662 g/min The load at 605 elicits maximal fat oxidation because it requires more energy to peddle the bicycle at this stage. An individual uses more energy at the third and fourth stages because the body is already used to strain. The subjects are psychologically prepared for the tasks ahead of them. Therefore, their bodies are already prepared for cycling and the fat oxidation process starts even before they start cycling. Maximal fat oxidation occurs at this stage because the subjects require extra energy to maintain a low body temperature. Gross Mechanical Efficiency at 30, 40, 50 And 60% Power At 30%= 0.01434034416/ 2, 916 x 100 =4. 18 x 5 =20.9% At 40%=0.01434034416/3,173.34 x 100 =4.52 x 5 = 22.5% At 50%=0.01434034416/3.796.36 x 100 =3.78 x 5 18.9% At 60%=0.01434034416/4,423.80662 x 100 =3.24 x 5 =16.21% Graph of Power Output versus Fat Oxidation Graph of Heart Rate versus Fat Oxidation Table Completion Power Power Heart rate V02 V02 VC02 Fat oxidation Gross mechanical efficiency % Max power Watts bpm l/min l/min/kg l/min g/min % 30 2.9 340 20.5 170 4.1 2, 916 20.9 40 3.2 389 22.5 160 4.52 3,173.34 22.8 50 3.8 323 18.9 150 3.78 3.796.36 18.9 60 4.4 301 16.21 140 3.24 4,423.8 16.21 The gross efficiency for the 70% maximal power segment was not calculated because of the following reasons. First, it is not easy to record the amount of energy used during an optimal level because the production of carbon dioxide affects the rate of respiration. In addition n, the human body works best under some conditions and their efficiency slows after reaching the maximal levels. The results obtained from the lab report show that the 60% maximal power segment was the optimum level at which there was maximum oxidation of fats. Therefore, further results obtained after this level is reached do not have significant impacts on the results of the lab report. Secondly, the optimal level of 70% indicates that the activity has reached its end. Therefore, there is no further activity to require additional energy. Therefore, the process of fat oxidation does not take place because respiration has hit its peak. People that participate in short races reach their optimal levels faster than those that run long distances. Therefore, cyclists in the 70-% optimal level reached their maximal percentile and this marked the lastly phase of the fat oxidation process. Thirdly, the energy required to propel a cyclist to reach the high level energy intensity level is maintained until the end of a journey. The subjects in this research struggled to achieve the optimal fat oxidation levels and this means that a lot of energy was use in the initial stages. It is necessary to understand that high level of energy is required during the first two minutes because the cyclist had to cycle their bicycles to ensure they gained speed. However, there was no need for more energy to propel the bicycle because there was no other distance to be covered. This means that the last stages of a high energy activity does not involve fat oxidation, the fat oxidized during the first stages is usually enough to give the body adequate energy to complete a task. Comparisons between Stiesen et al, 2006 Study and this Lab’s Report Oxidation Scores Stiesen et al, examined the fat oxidation rates of 17 women (eight trained and nine untrained on endurance). They observed that there was a similarity between the rates of fat oxidation among all women in low work rates. However, there were glaring disparities of between 80-200% (120-180 W) in endurance trained women. In addition, they found out that the rate of fat oxidation was higher in the endurance trained women that their counterparts. Therefore, their results shows that endurance levels are determined by the amount of energy that an individual’s body can produce to continue supplying the energy required to sustain an activity like muscle strength and respiration. In addition, their report reveals that there is a close relationship between the energy and volume of carbon dioxide that individuals produce during endurance exercises. They observed that women that were trained on endurance relied less on fat oxidation reliance at moderate and high intensity levels. Therefore, their heartbeats were less because they did not require a lot of oxidation for respiration. In addition, the volume of carbon dioxide they produced was less because there was low level of fat oxidation. This means that training on endurance helps people to use less energy because their bodies are used to low levels of energy even during activities that require a lot of it. However, the data obtained from untrained women was a complete opposite of their counterparts. There was a high level of fat oxidation among the untrained women. In addition, there was a high level of oxygen intake and carbon dioxide produced because these women did not practice enduring hardships. Their heartbeats were faster and more compared to those of their counterparts because they required more oxygen to oxidize fats. Therefore, their energy production rate was also faster and higher because they experienced difficulties enduring hardships. The similarities between these two reports shows that experience is an important factor in ensuring there is a low fat oxidation rate. Individuals that had experience in endurance =training required less energy to reach their optimal fat oxidation levels. In addition, they took a longer time before achieving this status. On the other hand, their counterparts including the old and sick reached their optimal fat oxidation levels faster because their bodies were not used to energy intensive activities. Rated Perceived Exertion This is measure used to determine the intensity of an activity. The lab report can be measures in the following ways. First the 30-50 scale can be estimated to be below five while the 60 scale is the optimum level that occurs at the 5th mark. The figures that above this level represent the inactivity state of fat oxidation. Therefore, the results prove that a lot of fat oxidation occurs just before the optimal level is achieved. The energy produced during this stage is used by the body to sustain its activity beyond the optimal level. Conclusion It is necessary for individuals to understand the process and role of fat oxidation to ensure they do not expose their bodies to risks. Training helps the body to endure physical hardships and ensures an individual does not overwork some parts of the body. Fat oxidation occurs when an individual requires a lot of energy to do a strenuous activity. However, this process has a limit beyond which it cannot function properly. In addition, the process of fat oxidation is complex and requires the assistance of other body processes like respiration and gaseous exchange. A healthy lifestyle is necessary for people that wish to live longer. It is necessary for individuals to understand that the process of fat oxidation has a limit and cannot go beyond an optimal level. Therefore, people should not expose themselves to over work because their bodies cannot endure physical exhaustion. Nutrition: Maximal Fat Oxidation Testing Essay

Community Building Community building can be particularly effective as a tool to prevent or mitigate conflict. For this discussion,

Community Building Community building can be particularly effective as a tool to prevent or mitigate conflict. For this discussion,. Community Building Community building can be particularly effective as a tool to prevent or mitigate conflict. For this discussion, assume the role of the health care or public health leader of a community health center in a high-need urban community. In your initial post, explain how you will include the voice of the patient or consumer. Why is this important? Relate this to the IHI Triple AIM or the six aims for health care improvement described in Crossing the Quality Chasm. Identify potential barriers and describe how these barriers might be overcome. Be sure to include at least one APA-formatted citation (in-text plus full reference). The citation may be from your course text, assigned readings, or an outside source. Refer to the helpful links in Resources and remember to follow the guidelines in the FEM as you prepare your post. IHI Triple AIM Community Building Community building can be particularly effective as a tool to prevent or mitigate conflict. For this discussion,

Influence Of The Bauhaus On Design Cultural Studies Essay

Many groups and individuals have influenced design in the world of Advertising, from William Morris and his Arts and Crafts style to Jules Cheret and Art Nouveau. However, arguably no entity has been as influential to modern design as the collective known as the Bauhaus. The Bauhaus was formed in 1919 by German architect Walter Gropius with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier in Weimar, Germany (Barringer, 2009). Although the Bauhaus was founded by an architect, it did not actually have architecture department during its early years. Instead, Gropius wanted to focus on a study of art that would eventually encompass many different aspects of design, tying them together in harmony (, 2010). Over the course of its time in Germany, the school had three phases/locations. They had a school Weimar, one in Dessau and one in Berlin. The schools were shut down by Hitler when he came into power in 1933 (Evans, 2004). The schools formation came during a time of revolution in Germany, after the fall of the German Monarchy which followed World War I. Prior to the fall of the monarchy the German people were subject to much stricter censorship rules which limited the creative freedom of German designers such as Walter Gropius (Evans, 2004). As a result, many designers began experimenting with what were considered very radical ideas at the time. One of the major contributions of the Bauhaus was to the modernist movement. They were influenced by the modernist movement which was developing in the West at the time. The modernism movement started in the late 19th century in the United States with the help of architect Frank Lloyd Wright (Gentry, 2010). The Bauhaus would later go on to become the most influential force of the era in modern design. Modernism moved away from the ornate and complex styles of Victorian art and other styles, to a simpler and cleaner look which is popular in the corporate world today. It rejected conservative ideals of realism which were dominant before. Creatively, before this time designers and artists focused on creating images which were accurate and realistic in nature, confined by the perceptions of reality. The Bauhaus name is often associated with the saying “less is more” (Time Magazine, 1954), which contrasts heavily with early print advertising style, as early print ads often featured little to no white space and with often too much information or imagery. Functionality is critical in Bauhaus design, and their school did not believe in including imagery without reason (, 2010). It is noted that prior to the introduction of the Bauhaus, there was really no real concept of graphic design, only layout. People did not necessarily view type as an element of design, and type was often viewed as secondary to the imagery. This is evident in many Victorian style adverts that feature vivid imagery, but small text often in scripted or old English fonts. The Bauhaus began to utilize type as an element of design, and not just an afterthought (, 2010). One of the major innovations the Bauhaus was responsible for was the utilization of sans serif fonts. Prior to the Bauhaus, san serif fonts were not widely used and type was usually only utilized as copy and not respected as a design element. A typographer who was part of the Bauhaus by the name of Herbert Bayers was one of the most important figures in the development of this new iconic style. He developed many of the famous san serif typefaces that came out of the era (, 2010). In 1927 he created the famous Universal typeface (seen to the right) which combines uppercase and lowercase letters without the use of serifs anywhere in the typeface. San serif fonts are often used today in advertising as they are visually appealing. San serif fonts are also considered easier to read by many experts (Gregory, 2009). This is just one of the innovations which the Bauhaus helped usher in. San serif fonts are also the standard for web design because of this fact. Herbert Bayer believed that serifs were unnecessary and also believed that there was no need for upper and lower case letters (, 2010). Laszlo Moholy Nagy who was a Hungarian painter and professor at the Bauhaus beginning in 1923. He stated that the goal of type was “clarity of the message in its most emphatic form (, 2010)”. This rings true in today’s advertising as the copy has moved far away from the style of the late 1800s and focuses on clarity, readability, and emphasizing the overall message of the ad. Early print advertisements often used hard to read scripts and did not pay as much attention to the placement of type and its function of design. The artwork in Bauhaus inspired Advertising was also much different than that of the Victorian or Arts and Crafts style, as Bauhaus pieces often featured more contemporary and simple art that used unique angles to create a different style. The artwork was more inspired by modern art and expressionism, with less regard for detail and more emphasis on emotion or message (Snider, 1996). The Bauhaus artists such as Josef Albers and Lyonel Feininger created pieces which are considered modern and experimental in nature. Their art shunned realism in favor of abstract shapes and compositions. The Bauhaus style of design often features strong visual communication which is through the use of harmony, color balance, balanced layout, and sharp geometric lines and shapes. The elements can be seen in many pieces from the era, as well as in many designs still today. One example of Bauhaus design being used today can be found in Obama’s campaign in 2008. He used a Bauhaus inspired design for a poster which advertised that he would be in Germany. The poster can be seen to the right. You may notice that it contains all of the elements mentioned above to create a composition which is reminiscent of Bauhaus design. In my opinion, the aspect of the Bauhaus that separates it from other movements and schools of thought in design is the longevity of their ideas. The Bauhaus style of design is still relevant today, and it also influenced other following movements that dominate the world of advertising today. The Bauhaus was a precursor to the later Swiss styles of design which also frequently uses san serif fonts, clean and simple designs and white space to create visually appealing compositions. The relationship between the German Bauhaus and the Swiss design movement is well documented in literature and on the web (, 2010). The sans serif fonts developed by the Bauhaus and specifically Herbert Bayers were part of the inspiration and idea for the geometric shapes found in later fonts such as Helvetica. These fonts are widely used in today’s society and are commonly found in corporate logos, street signs, buildings and more (Meggs, 1998). You don’t to go any further than the closest city to begin realizing the Bauhaus’s influence on today’s society from architecture to art. The Bauhaus’s approach to modern design is also evident in modern advertising, in the style of typography, art direction and overall approach. Very few design movements have had the lasting impact which the Bauhaus has had. In the modern world of advertising, the Bauhaus’s emphasis on copy and type and function of the overall design is still prevalent. Designers are constantly utilizing type creatively to keep their advertisements interesting. In a world where so many things are vying for our attention, creativity and functionality are key. Advertisers must strive to create media which is not only interesting but that is also clear and serves a purpose or function. An advertisement can feature fancy artwork, but if it is not serving some key function in the message that it is trying to deliver, it could be viewed as pointless. These ideas were key in the Bauhaus school of thought. The Bauhaus believed that they could create an almost universal design style that could be appreciated and understood based upon its functionality (Barringer, 2009), and this has been accomplished to some degree. The Bauhaus style is well appreciated in most parts of the world, and it also greatly influenced the modernism movement which is used widely used in the corporate world, for city signs, for logos, and in art. However, not everyone loves the Bauhaus style of design. Many have criticized it for being too impersonal, corporate and even lacking a sense of humanity as seen in the recent ad from Saab seen to the left. The ad takes a slight jab at the Bauhaus by saying: “A modernist maxim was that a house is a machine for living. While efficient, this strict form-follows-function approach can lack a degree of humanity. The Saab school of design considers the emotional needs of people as well.” The Bauhaus style of design is very calculated as intended by its founders, which accounts of this “lack of humanity”. The Bauhaus style does not utilize organic forms and style which many people perceive as humanistic elements. Regardless of these criticisms, the Bauhaus style of type is still very prevalent in much of today’s advertising, their art direction may not be as popular today, but the major principles on which the school was formed are still as important today. Walter Gropius reflected on design in 1962 when he stated “Our guiding principle was that design is neither an intellectual nor a material affair, but simply an integral part of the stuff of life, necessary for everyone in a civilized society. (Barringer, 2009)” To the right is another example of the Bauhaus design principles applied to a modern piece done for the new Google Android phone operating system. It further shows that the art style of the Bauhaus is still being used today. You can see vivid colors, strong lines, color balance, harmony and angles which are all characteristic of the Bauhaus style. Another example of Bauhaus design principles being applied on a modern design is the poster to the right, which is for a modernism exhibit at a museum. The ad is from 2009 so it is a fairly recent example these principles being applied. Many ads today use either elements of Bauhaus style or other styles that were in some way influenced by them. The Bauhaus has also had influence outside of print design as well. They also contributed to the field of architecture. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who was an architect by trade, designed the campus of the Illinois institute of technology after he and other Bauhaus members had immigrated to the United States (Evans, 2004). Many urban buildings seen in cities around North America have been influenced by Bauhaus design. Also, certain Bauhaus artists such as Anni and Josef Albers are considered hugely influential to the creative world. Anni Albers has often been considered the best known textile artist of the 20th century and her work is well known (Jewish Virtual Library, 2010). Josef is also considered to be hugely influential to the formation of modern design curriculums (Kelly, 2010). These are just a couple of the highly influential designers and creative minds that came out of the Bauhaus. In conclusion, it is evident that the Bauhaus has created a huge impact on the world of advertising and design. The revolutionary use of san serif typefaces, color and strong lines has greatly influenced the modernist movement and the world of modern advertising. It is almost impossible to come across a modern print ad in a magazine or newspaper which has not been influenced in some shape or form by the Bauhaus movement. The “less is more” approach introduced by the Bauhaus is still appreciated in today’s society which is indicative of its truth. The Bauhaus was composed of some of the most brilliant design minds of their time. The lasting legacy of the Bauhaus after ninety years is a testament to how ahead of its time it really was.

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