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Project Presentation

Project Presentation.

You are to create a power point presentation overviewing your assignments for the quarter. **Due to scheduling difficulties and overlaps, FOR SPRING QUARTER you are not actually orally presenting, but you have the option to include voice recording with your presentation. (Please disregard the directions of oral portion in the rubric and guidelines)Review Guidelines and Rubric:MRCH 2200 – Oral Presentation Guidelines.pdfMRCH 2200 – Oral Presentation Rubric.pdfUpload your PowerPoint to Canvas Assignments by JUNE 26th (again you are not actually presenting so make sure your presentation is strong). You have two weeks to complete your presentation. Nothing should be copy and pasted from your Excel workbook except for pie charts and bar graphs only.Review slides for spelling, punctuation, and bullet point errors.I updated the lecture this week with a few details regarding the final presentation. I felt with all of the remote and e-learning classes right now you may be a bit overwhelmed with oral zoom presentations at the end of the quarter. With this in mind I have revised your presentations to be just submitted via Canvas (with the option to add voice recording). If you choose not to do the voice recording with your presentation, just make sure you either include notes or make your slides strong enough to stand for themselves. There are two documents that have been uploaded: Guidelines and Rubric that will help with the details of how to construct your presentation and what to include. Keep in mind you presentation is an overview of your assignments… you should not be just copying and pasting your assignment templates! You will have two weeks to complete and upload your presentations- again since you aren’t physically presenting them please make sure they are strong with sufficient content, but also not too wordy. As always let me know if you have any questions! One last thing, you have until the end of this week to let me know if you would like to take part in the Pass/Fail option for this class. Please see announcement from last week for details. The files is the excel work I did this quarter
Project Presentation

Daron Chua Kiat Yi 1. Introduction In his reply to NMP Teo Siong Seng, Minister of State for Trade and Industry Teo Ser Luck said: “SMEs are an important part of Singapore’s economy as they make up 99 percent of our companies, employ 70 percent of our workforce and contribute 50 percent of our GDP.” Small and Medium Enterprise known as SME is a commonly used term. As stated by Law, (2014, no pagination): Although the term is widely used, there is no standard definition of an SME based on net worth, turnover, profits, or number of employees. For Singapore, a change of definition to SMEs was done recently (W.E.F, 1 April 2011). New parameters for SMEs are not to have an annual sales exceeding S$100 million OR over 200 workers. This ensures SMEs will have a greater ease of accessibility to government incentives (Spring Singapore, 2011). This paper aims to cover economic contributions, constraints faced by SMEs as well as steps taken to strengthen SMEs to ensure its sustainable contributions to Singapore economy. 2. Economical Contributions of SMEs 2.1 Employment SMEs in Singapore contributes to 70% of our workforce, hiring 7 out of 10 Singaporeans (Teo, 2014). As astonishing as the number may seem, it is actually not surprising to see SMEs in the job creation process. Jobs tend to range from manufacturing to retail to even hotel lines. Evidence has also shown that young firms tend to generate more jobs than their share of employment (OECD, No date). The key mechanism in SMEs in developing countries is to generate “decent” jobs. SMEs will absorb people whom are unemployed or is currently working in low productivity sectors (Palma and Gabriel, 2005). 2.2 Growth SMEs sector also plays an important part in generating growth within industries. Many of the SMEs are survivalist in nature while some have dynamic potential. Some companies began in the microenterprise scale and grew. In this case, it is where microenterprise wind up into SMEs as the survival of the fittest. However this process would be harder to come by if government policies do not support such activities. The health of SMEs will also determine the supply of large firms in the future. It is a growing process where SMEs may end up as large firms. Futhermore, large firms with a SME background would more likely collaborate with other SMEs contributing to additional benefit to the economic efficiency. (Palma and Gabriel, 2005). 2.3 Wealth SMEs are innovators and contributors to a country’s economic growth (through higher total factor productivity – TFP).A economy with a higher proportion of SMEs is more likely to be able to adjust smoothly to shocks or business cycles (TechINASIA, 2007). Since up to 99% of Singapore companies are made up of SMEs, Singapore would be more likely to survive a financial crisis if one is to happen. 3. Economical Constrains of SMEs SMEs regardless in any nation will face economical constrains. Constrains to be discussed are financial, labor, supply and policy. 3.1 Financial Constrains SMEs are being restricted strongly in accessing finance. A study by Scott (2006, p.1), “…previous research indicates constraints in accessing finance for females, ethnic minorities and the less well educated.” This gives insight on how entrepreneurs are being denied because of their characteristics. In a recent event of global financial crisis, there is a reduction in growth and demand. Falling in demand means declining profits or lower revenues which can lead to losses without reduction in expenses. With banks continuing with the deleveraging process, SMEs tend to be more vulnerable than larger companies as SMEs have high dependence on bank financing. Financial constrains of SMEs are worsen with the lack of internal funding (OECD,2014). 3.2 Labor Constrains SMEs may face manpower issues. In Singapore, this is caused by population shortage. According to SMBWorld Asia Editors (2014), “Nearly half of the respondents cited difficulty in hiring staff (49 per cent)”. The limitation of importation of foreign workers causes SMEs to be unable to find skilled workers at affordable wages. The government also expects two out of three Singaporeans to hold PMET job by 2030. This further reduces the ability for businesses to find manpower for a low paying/skilled job. (Wong,2013). 3.3 Supply Constrains Having a problem in the Supply chain is another constrain faced by SMEs. A supply chain is defined by fulfilling a customer’s request (direct or indirect). A supply chain consists of not only the manufacturers and suppliers, but also transporters, warehouse, retailers and customers (Chopra et al., 2004). Knowing that failure to communicate with any of the chain will result in huge losses. One example would be the Japan disaster on March 2011. Many businesses had placed all their orders on a best supplier at the lowest price. The disaster had resulted in delays in production, shortages and caused a spike in product prices. (Fisher, 2011). 3.4 Policy Constrains Changes in government policy may place additional burdens on SMEs. Such policies may be imposing tax or introducing a price floor. An example of a price floor given by Parkin (2014, p.131), “when a price floor is applied to a labor market, it is called a minimum wage.” Fig 2.4.1 Illustration of problems imposed by minimal wage Minimal wage creates inefficiency use of resources. It cause disturbance to the market system and a deadweight loss. The intervention by government forces SMEs to have a reduction in quantity of workers they wish to hire. SMEs would have to do a trade-off between profits and hiring more workers to get the job done. This also applies to tax imposed by the government. Like minimal wage, tax creates deadweight loss. The shift in market equilibrium will result in lesser goods sold hence generating less profits. SMEs may also have to absorb some of the tax imposed, further reducing profit earnings (Parkin, 2014). 4. Steps taken to strengthen SMEs in Singapore Singapore takes constant steps to strengthen SMEs. Factors are: 4.1 Manpower To curb with shortage of manpower faced in Singapore, the government provides more support in capability upgrading and innovation. A new SME talent program has been adopted to attract young talents from ITE and polytechnics to work upon graduation (MTI, 2013). To better sustain SMEs, the government can provide better health benefits. Healthcare benefits not only maintain a healthy workforce but also to give a positive impact to attract and retain employees (Singapore Business Federation(SBF), 2013). 4.2 Productivity To increase productivity, SMEs in Singapore are adopting productivity measures. First, companies can make use of technology (Internet, Social Media, etc) or send their workers for training. As stated by Chua, (2014): Amongst this, 53% have enrolled their workers in skills training courses, whilst 42% have either acquired automation equipment or are utilising infocomm technology in their business. Secondly, the Singapore government has provided SMEs with assistance schemes. Such schemes also help business to undergo improvements in productivity and innovation. An example of such scheme is the Productivity and Innovation Credit (PIC). PIC aims to help businesses defray rising operating cost with a 400% tax reduction (IRAS, 2014). Thirdly, Singapore’s SMEs productivity can be improved by allowing SMEs to have better access to public research institutes. With an upgrade in technology, SMEs can look forward to other tangible benefits such as time and manpower when co-developing new ideas with the research institutes (SBF,2013) Lastly, SMEs can seek collaboration with public-private partnerships for productivity improvements. The Singapore Government works with industries such as Trade Association and Chambers to identify sector wide issues as a whole. As such solution providers and users will be teamed up to come up with solutions to improve productivity, something that would be undoable previously due to lack of resources. (MTI,2013) 4.3 Financing With more banks moving towards being Basel III compliant, higher risk SMEs are unable to get loans due to higher capital requirements. At times like this, SMEs can turn to other sources of finance, such as crowd funding and trade receivables exchange. Both alternate sources of finance are on an online platform(SBF,2013). Crowd funding is done by individuals pool in their money such as kickstarter.com to fund personal projects. In the case of Singapore, crowd funding is at its minimal level for SMEs as crowdfunding is a fairly new concept. (Koh, 2013) The Government recognises that SMEs are an important part of the economy. To help such businesses grow, SMEs enjoy benefits such as a partial tax exemption scheme which lowers taxable profits of these companies. While the partial tax exemption scheme is available to all companies, the exemption thresholds are designed to target specifically at SMEs. (Ministry of Finance, 2014) 5. Conclusion In conclusion, unlike huge companies like MNCs, SMEs face much difficulties despite receiving much government benefits. In order to survive, SMEs must engage in improvements with usage of technology and training. Most SMEs are reluctant to spend in other to save cost, however they must look at the bigger picture. One future prospect is with the adaptation of internet technology. The use of technology in Singapore is still fairly new. With a new wave of savvy-tech young entrepreneurs, young entrepreneurs can make of social networking via facebook, etc to connect their businesses. Young entrepreneurs can also make use of kickstarter (crowdfunding) to finance their projects. In time to come, young entrepreneurs may be able to integrate internet technology into Singapore’s SMEs culture. Other examples of future prospects include promoting woman-owned business and adopting globalization. References http://www.oxfordreference.com.ucd.idm.oclc.org/view/10.1093/acref/9780199664931.001.0001/acref-9780199664931-e-7305 http://www.spring.gov.sg/NewsEvents/PR/2011/Pages/New-SME-Definition-and-Launch-of-New-Online-Tools-and-E-Services-20110322.aspx?skw=definition of http://www.irwingrayson.com/dloads/isbe06financeBarriers.pdf http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/industry-and-services/financing-smes-and-entrepreneurs-2014_fin_sme_ent-2014-en#page1 http://www.oecd.org/newsroom/small-businesses-continue-to-face-finance-constraints-despite-economic-recovery.htm http://www.oecd.org/cfe/smes/financing-smes-scoreboard-2014.htm http://www.asme.org.sg/index.php/news/new/smes-face-challenge-of-slower-growth-in-workforce http://enterpriseinnovation.net/article/rising-costs-manpower-constraints-force-singapore-smes-rethink-their-business-models http://smallbusiness.chron.com/constraints-placed-business-economy-33982.html http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/publications/supply_chain_management/pdf/01.pdf http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6684.html parkin text book http://www.rocketbomber.com/images/483.png http://www.mti.gov.sg/NewsRoom/Pages/GOVERNMENT-ENHANCES-SUPPORT-FOR-SMEs-TO-ACHIEVE-QUALITY-GROWTH.aspx http://www.sbf.org.sg/download/docs/eventsvc/trademission/AnnexA_SMEC_Budget_2014_Recommendations.pdf http://www.blueoceansys.com.sg/2014/04/11/the-7-steps-smes-need-to-take-to-leverage-the-2014-singapore-budget/ http://english.sccci.org.sg/index.cfm?GPID=2262 http://www.iras.gov.sg/irasHome/PICbonus.aspx#about_pic_bonus http://www.spring.gov.sg/AboutUs/AR/Documents/FV_AR12_13/web/flipviewerxpress.html http://www.businesstimes.com.sg/top-stories/crowdfunding-in-spore-catching-on-fast http://app.mof.gov.sg/corporate_income_tax.aspx http://www.itdweb.org/smeconference/documents/plenary/PI Berry ENG.pdf http://www.singhealthacademy.edu.sg/Documents/ProgrammesAndEvents/ASTAR – 22Jan2014-(0930-1000)-Role of SPRING Singapore.pdf http://www.oecd.org/industry/smes/2090740.pdf https://www.techinasia.com/significance-of-singapore-smes-to-the-economy/
Environmental studies. Paper details The species for this project is Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) The instructions are on the doc and the rubric. (Please look at them) Please do both summary and google slides. If you have any questions type it on the chat. This is due today! 🙂 ALSO, please don’t copy and paste. Thanks!Environmental studies
A matrix is given.A matrix is given.A matrix is given..

10−4017(a) Determine whether the matrix is in row-echelon form. YesNo    (b) Determine whether the matrix is in reduced row-echelon form. YesNo    
A matrix is given.A matrix is given.A matrix is given.

Florida National University Utilitarian Ethical Theory Question

Florida National University Utilitarian Ethical Theory Question.

Choose a contemporary moral issue in our society (course materials) and apply the ethical principle of Utilitarianism to approve this moral issue. You must pick a moral issue that you strongly support and apply the utilitarian claims (course materials) to back up your arguments. The paper must be done in MLA format with a minimum of 500 words (quotes are not included in the word count).*You must apply the Four major points of Utilitarianism, apply Bentham’s Felicific Calculus, and apply the utilitarian claims under course materials.Requirements: 500 wordsI I chose gun control
Florida National University Utilitarian Ethical Theory Question

C 493 WGU The Future of Nursing the Poor Quality of Healthcare Services Essay

custom writing service C 493 WGU The Future of Nursing the Poor Quality of Healthcare Services Essay.

You will develop a project within a practice setting that allows you to develop these leadership skills. You will
identify a problem area in a practice setting that you specifically want to address (e.g., practice, policy,
population, education) that aligns with organizational priorities. Example sources for the problem area may
include the following:
• Practice: joint commission standards, core measures as quality indicators, other data
• Policy: legislation, staffing ratio, regulations from state boards
• Population: children with diabetes, adult obesity
• Education: future of nursing, Benner’s recommendations about nursing education
You will focus on a real-life solution for the problem. You should choose a topic that is timely, manageable,
and realistic to the current healthcare environment. An external resource person (i.e., manager, clinical
leader, clinical educator, policy expert, or population expert) must confirm the relevance of the selected
project and your engagement in the setting as part of project completion. Think how you, as a nurse, function in the following roles: detective, scientist, and manager of the healing
environment
C 493 WGU The Future of Nursing the Poor Quality of Healthcare Services Essay

WRIT 206 RUNB Screening Tools Candidate Seeking Discussion

WRIT 206 RUNB Screening Tools Candidate Seeking Discussion.

Read The Wall Street Journal article (Links to an external site.) and compose a 250-word response:1. Shellenbarger describes a nifty assembly-line of job candidates thatbasically get weeded out for a number of reasons. Whereas some screeningtools can minimize bias, other tools might be considered intrusive:”Some tools serve as job-market matchmakers. ZipRecruiter matchescandidates and employers by scanning applicants’ qualifications andemployers’ postings, tracking users’ behavior on the site and employingalgorithms similar to those used by Amazon for suggesting products…” (para 8).What are your reactions and thoughts to the screening process and these tools?2. In what way(s) are job candidates like Amazon products for recruiters and/or employers?3. What, if any, are the implications of using tools to track user behavior? Do you feelreasonably safe and secure applying or being vetted by these algorithms?MLA8:When citing an article, please use quotation marks and paragraph numbering as in-text citation.Example: (para 5) or (paras 6-7)When citing digital content such as film/TV episodes/videos, please use timestamps as in-text citation.Example: (5:56) or (6:20-7:20)
WRIT 206 RUNB Screening Tools Candidate Seeking Discussion

Inflation and its Impact on Pakistan Economy

Inflation refers to a rise in prices that causes the purchasing power of a nation to fall. Inflation is a normal economic development as long as the annual percentage remains low; once the percentage rises over a pre-determined level, it is considered an inflation crisis. The term “inflation” once referred to increases in the money supply (monetary inflation); however, economic debates about the relationship between money supply and price levels have led to its primary use today in describing price inflation. Inflation can also be described as a decline in the real value of money-a loss of purchasing power in the medium of exchange which is also the monetary unit of account. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. A chief measure of general price-level inflation is the general inflation rate, which is the percentage change in a general price index, normally the Consumer Price Index, over time. Inflation can cause adverse effects on the economy. For example, uncertainty about future inflation may discourage investment and saving. High inflation may lead to shortages of goods if consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Low (as opposed to zero or negative) inflation may reduce the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more quickly in a downturn, and reducing the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy. The task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is usually given to monetary authorities. Generally, these monetary authorities are the central banks that control the size of the money supply through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, and through the setting of banking reserve requirements. Types of Inflation Demand-pull The most important inflation is called demand-pull or excess demand inflation. It occurs when the total demand for goods and services in an economy exceeds the supply available, so the prices for such goods and services rise in the economy. Cost-push inflation The name indicates the cause i.e. costs of production rise, for one reason or another, and forces up the prices of finished goods and services. Often a rise in wages in excess of any gains in labor productivity is what raises unit costs of production and thus raises prices. This is less common than demand-pull, but can occur independently as well as in conjunction with it. Pricing power inflation It occurs whenever businesses in general decide to boost their prices to increase their profit margins. This does not occur normally in recessions but when the economy is booming and sales are strong. Causes of Inflation There are many causes for inflation, depending on a number of factors. Excess money printing Inflation can happen when governments print an excess of money to deal with a crisis but don’t have resources at backed, usually governments are allowed to print only that amount of currency that is equal to gold available to that country. As a result, prices end up rising at an extremely high speed to keep up with the currency surplus. In which prices are forced upwards because of a high demand. High Production Costs Another common cause of inflation is a rise in production costs, which leads to an increase in the price of the final product. For example, if raw materials increase in price, this leads to the cost of production increasing which in turn leads to the company increasing prices to maintain steady profits. Rising labor costs can also lead to inflation. International lending and national debts Inflation can also be caused by international lending and national debts. As nations borrow money, they have to deal with interests, which in the end cause prices to rise as a way of keeping up with their debts. Federal taxes Inflation may be caused by federal taxes put on consumer products such as cigarettes or fuel. As the taxes rise, suppliers often pass on the burden to the consumer; however, once prices have increased, they rarely go back, even if the taxes are later reduced. For example a rise in the rate of excise duty on alcohol and cigarettes, an increase in fuel duties or perhaps a rise in the standard rate of Value Added Tax or an extension to the range of products to which VAT is applied. These taxes are levied on producers (suppliers) who, depending on the price elasticity of demand and supply for their products, can opt to pass on the burden of the tax onto consumers. For example, if the government was to choose to levy a new tax on aviation fuel, then this would contribute to a rise in cost-push inflation. Effects of Inflation Most effects of inflation are negative, and can hurt individuals and companies alike, below is a list of negative and “positive” effects of inflation. Negative Effects Hoarding People will try to get rid of cash before it is devalued, by hoarding food and other commodities creating shortages of the hoarded objects. Increased risk – Higher uncertainties: Uncertainties in business always exist, but with inflation risks are very high, because of the instability of prices. Fixed income recipients will be hurt: Because while inflation increases, their income doesn’t increase, and therefore their income will have less value over time. Lowers national saving: When there is a high inflation, saving money would mean watching your cash decrease in value day after day, so people tend to spend the cash on something else. Existing creditors will be hurt: Because the value of the money they will receive from their borrowers later will be lower than the money they gave before. Distortion of relative prices: Usually the prices of goods go higher, especially the prices of commodities. Causes an increase in tax bracket: People will be taxed a higher percentage if their income increases following an inflation increase. Causes business life cycles: Many companies will have to go out of business because of the losses they incurred from inflation and its effects). Positive Effects It can benefit the inflators (those responsible for the inflation) It can benefit early and first recipients of the inflated money (because the negative effects of inflation are not there yet). It can benefit the cartels (it benefits big cartels, destroys small sellers, and can cause price control set by the cartels for their own benefits). It might relatively benefit borrowers who will have to pay the same amount of money they borrowed ( fixed interests), but the inflation could be higher than the interests; therefore they will be paying less money back. (example, you borrowed $1000 in 2008 with a 5% fixed interest rate and you paid it back in full in 2010, let’s assume the inflation rate for 2005, 2006 and 2007 has been 13%, and borrower was charged 5% of interests, but in actual borrower earning 8% of interests, because 13% (inflation rate) – 5% (interests) = 8% profit, which means you have paid only around 65- 70% of the real value in the 3 years. The first three effects are only positive to a few elite, and therefore might not be considered positive by the general public. How to Survive Inflation? Be wise when holding cash, whether in your home or in your savings account, if you’re earning 5% interest on the money you have in your bank, and inflation rate is 10% then you’re in reality losing 5% and not earning anything. Be careful when buying bonds, high inflation rates completely destroy the value of long-term bonds. Invest in durable goods or commodities rather than in money. Check out our commodities list. Invest in things that you’re going to use anyway and will serve you for a long time. Invest for long-term capital gains, because short term investments tend to give deceptive results or sense of making profits while in reality you’re not making profits. Manage wisely your recurring monthly bills such as (phone bills, cable TV…), it would help to reduce them or eliminate some of them. Ask yourself, do I really need these things I’m spending my money on? Think how much and how often you will need something before buying it. Use the money saving tips such as: you need to reduce your consumption of things that are rising rapidly in price (e.g, gas) without having to reduce your consumption of goods that are rising less rapidly or even falling in price (eg, clothes). Buy only what is need, especially objects that have multi-tasks, and are considered durable goods. Inflationary Factors in Pakistan Several supply and demand factors could be responsible for this surge in inflation. Supply-side shocks If occurs can cause large fluctuations in food and oil prices, which impacts over all inflation, at times, can be so extreme that these cannot be countered through demand management, including monetary policy. Increased domestic demand First, increased domestic demand can create an output gap, putting upward pressure on prices. Growth in private consumption on the average remained over 10 per cent between FY04 and FY06, depicting signs of demand side pressures on price level. The relationship between growth and inflation depends on the state of the economy. High growth, without an increase in inflation, is possible if the productive capacity or potential output of the economy is growing enough to keep pace with demand. A prolonged phase of rising inflation in such a case can have severe consequences for the economy. Rising trade deficit The expectations effect is very important since there is a danger that the current high rate of inflation can get locked into expectations of inflation. People expect higher salaries to compensate for expected increase in prices, speculation in asset prices increases, credit meant for manufacturing sector diverts to real estate and stock markets, and hoarders, profit and rent seekers become active in expectation of high price in the future. All this can have devastating effect for the prices. Fiscal policy remained expansionary Fiscal policy has remained expansionary in the last few years. Expansionary fiscal policy fuels domestic demand and puts pressure on the current account deficit. It widens the investment-saving gap, which has to be financed externally. Financing of fiscal deficit through money creation adds to inflationary pressures. Increased government borrowing from central bank can have serious consequences for general price level. Expansionary monetary policy The expansionary monetary policy- high growth in money supply and loose credit policy- was believed to be contributing to high inflation. Although expansion of credit is usual in expanding economies, excessive credit growth can have adverse effects on real variables. Rising import prices Rising import prices are also considered an important factor for inflation. Exchange rate, if depreciating can also put upward pressure on price level. Increase in prices of goods, such as petrol, raw material etc makes our imports costlier, impacting on cost of production. Indirect taxes Similarly, indirect taxes are also blamed as the main cause of inflation. The indirect taxes, such as sales tax and excise duties raise the prices of consumer goods. This creates inflationary pressure. On the other hand, direct taxes reduce the take-home income and have anti-inflationary effect. A substantial increase in support price of wheat is estimated to have an inflationary effect on consumer prices, particularly food prices. This effect is due to the fact that wheat and wheat-related products account for 5.1 per cent of the CPI basket. Price Indices in Pakistan Four different price indices are used in Pakistan over the course of fiscal year, namely: the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the Wholesale Price Index (WPI), the Sensitive Price Index (SPI) and the GDP deflator. The CPI is the main measure of price changes at the retail level. It covers the retail prices of 374 items in 35 major cities and reflects roughly the changes in the cost of living of urban areas. The WPI is designed for those items which are mostly consumable in daily life on the primary and secondary level; these prices are collected from wholesale markets as well as from mills at organized wholesale market level. The WPI covers the wholesale price of 106 commodities prevailing in 18 major cities of Pakistan. The SPI shows the weekly change of price of 53 selected items of daily use consumed by those households The SPI is based on the prices prevailing in 17 major cities and is computed for the basket of commodities being consumed by the households belonging to all income groups combined. In Pakistan, the main focus is placed on the CPI as a measure of inflation as it represents more with a wider coverage of 374 items in 71 markets of 35 cities around the country. As such, the change in CPI becomes an indicator of the inflation that affects all of us. WPI indicates the change in wholesale prices which affects businesses and industries. And SPI that covers a limited number of essential items of daily use including food and fuel can be termed as the inflation for the poor. Graphical Analysis of Inflation from 2008 to 2012 Using CPI The inflation rate in Pakistan was last reported at 10.8 percent in March of 2012. From 2003 until 2010, the average inflation rate in Pakistan was 10.15 percent reaching an historical high of 25.33 percent in August of 2008 and a record low of 1.41 percent in July of 2003. Conclusion Inflation effects the different sectors of the economy (Effects on the distribution of income and wealth, Effects on production, Effects on the Government, Effects on the Balance of Payment, Effects on Monetary Policy, Effects on Social Sector, Effects on Political environment) and different classes of the people (Debtors

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