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The purpose of this workshop is to reinforce best practices as well as key concepts and skills that create a professional team and work environment. Objective At the end of this course, each participant will: 1. Have a clear understanding of the qualities of a professional person 2. Understand how to develop superior job performance 3. Have a thorough understanding of Organization standards for professionalism in the workplace 4. Have an increased skill level in the area of professional communication 5. Understand the importance of perception management Contents 1. Introduction and Overview 2. Superior Job Performance 3.

Skillful Communication 4. Successful Perception Management 5. Summary and Conclusion Speakers The following names are the speakers in the Professionalism in the Workplace Seminar. •Mr. Anthony Villarina •Mr. Arnulfo Almeniana •Ms. Avon Pearl Amores Emcee •Ms. Annalyn Manero •Mr. Erwin Sario Organizers •Arnulfo A. Almeniana •Pearl Avon S. Amores •Henmar C. Cardino •Joanne A. Garcia •Annalyn R. Manero •Sybil Q. Ortguesa •Erwin B. Sario •Veron Angeli R. Trinidad •Anthony G. Villarina “PROFFESIONALISM IN THE WORKPLACE” PROFESSIONALISM – “The conduct, aims, or qualities that characterize or mark a profession or a professional person.

” 1. SUPERIOR JOB PERFORMANCE – begins with seeing yourself and the services you provide as important •It is your job to exceed customer expectations! •Handling complaints is a skill that all professionals must develop into an art. Tips for effectively handling customer complaints: 1. Listen 2. Understand 3. Apologize 4. Take responsibility 5. Act 6. Follow up 2. SKILLFUL COMMUNICATION -one of the key attributes of all professionals A. Verbal -remain open -listen for content rather than style -look at the other clues to meaning -maintain eye contact B. Vocal -Choose your words carefully -Avoid slang and profanity

-Improve your vocabulary -Focus on positive statements C. Non-verbal -Get some feedback -Groom yourself carefully -Correct your posture -Be careful of offensive gestures 3. PERCEPTION MANAGEMENT – perception = reality Tips for effectively handling customer complaints: 1. Watch your words 2. Produce quality work Maintain a positive attitude “PERSONALITY DISORDERS” Sunday, 6th of May, 2012 8:00 am – 12:00 nn PUP-Graduate School, M. H. Del Pilar Campus, Valencia St. , Sta. Mesa, Manila The seminar is organized by Clinical Psychology Group. Target attendees for this Seminar are the Graduate School Students.

Purpose The purpose of this seminar is to enlighten and broaden the knowledge of the MP students about the Personality Disorders. To be familiarized with its signs and symptoms as well as its diagnosis and prognosis, treatment such as psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Objective At the end of this course, each participant will: 1. Have a clear understanding of the different kinds of personality disorders. 2. To distinguished one personality disorders from the other. 3. To understand and help people with personality disorders, so they can cope with their day to day living. 4.

To let them recognized and accept their personality disorders as well as the necessary treatment. 5. To know and realize all the pain and sufferings they went through in dealing with their personality disorders. Contents 1. Introduction and Overview 2. Classifications of Personality Disorders – Cluster A, B and C. 3. Etiology & Psychoanalytic Factors 4. Epidemiology Diagnosis & Differential Diagnosis, Course and Prognosis 5. Clinical Features and Treatments. Resource Persons The following names are the speakers in the “Personality Disorders” Seminar. •Ms. Ivy Marie B. Paulete •Mr. Joseph J.

Cando •Ms. Tschaine Cristine C. Cac •Mr. Juno C. Bautista Emcee •Ms. Cherry Mae Esios •Mr. Alexander Prudente Organizer •Josephine L. Abdon •Juno C. Bautista •Tschaine Cristine C. Cac •Joseph J. Cando •Cherry Mae D. Esios •Ivy Marie B. Paulete •Alexander B. Prudente Jr. PERSONALITY DISORDER An Introduction Ivy Marie B. Paulete What is Personality Disorder? According to Diagnostic Statistic Manual (4th Edition) Personality disorder (PD) is defined as an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of individual and culture. DSM-IV: Five Criteria

CRITERION A: this pattern must be manifested in at least two of the ff. areas: cognition, affectivity, interpersonal functioning, or impulse control. CRITERION B: the enduring pattern must be inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations. CRITERION C: the pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment functioning. CRITERION D: the pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be tracked back at least to adolescence or early adulthood. CRITERION E: the pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder

Categories of PD CLUSTER A: people with this disorder seem odd or eccentric, with unusual behavior ranging from distrust and suspiciousness to social detachment. Sub-categories: Paranoid Personality Disorder Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizotypal Personality Disorder CLUSTER B: individual with these disorder share tendency to be dramatic, emotional, and erratic Sub-categories: Histrionic PD Narcissistic PD Anti-Social PD Borderline PD CLUSTER C: anxiety and fearfulness are common to them Sub-categories: Avoidant PD Dependent PD Obsessive-Compulsive PD Etiology of PD? GENETIC FACTORS

•Cluster A are more common in the biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia than in control groups. •Cluster B are genetic based but usually accompanied with mood, alcohol use, somatization (Briquet’s Syndrome) disorders •Cluster C are more common to monozygotic twin than dizygotic twin. It is also accompanied with depression short rapid eye movement (REM) latency period and abnormal dexamethasone-suppression test (DST) reults. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS •Hormones. High levels of testosterone, 17-estradiol, and estrone exhibit impulsive traits. •Platelet Monoamine Oxidase.

Low (MOA) level exhibits having more time in social activities and accompanied with schizotypal disorder than the high (MOA). •Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement. Appears to person who are introverted, has low self-esteem, and withdrawn personality. •Electrophysiology. Slow wave in electrocephalogram exhibits anti-social and borderline disorders. •Neurotransmitters. a. High level of serotonin reduces depression, impulsiveness, and rumination, and a general good sense of well-being. b. low level of serotonin increases suicidal attempts, aggressive and impulsive behaviors. c. Increase Dopamine in the CNS can induce euphoria. d. High endogenous endorphin levels may be associated with persons who are phelgmatic (insensible and no arousal). e. Endorphins have effects to exogenous morphine, such as analgesia and suppression of arousal. PSYCHOANALYTIC FACTORS Sigmund Freud stated that personality disorder occurs when there is a fixation in the psychosexual stage of development. Wilhelm Reich claims the personality disorder is characterized by their defense mechanism such as Paranoid PD use projection while Schizoid PD use withdrawal.

When Defense Mechanism works effectively, persons with personality disorder masters the feeling of anxiety, depression, anger, shame, guilt, etc.. They intend to be reluctant to treatment process because their defense are important in controlling unpleasant affects, they are not interested in surrendering them. Common Types of Defense Mechanism •Fantasy. Satisfaction within themselves by creating imaginary lives. •Dissociation. Replacement of unpleasant affects within pleasant ones. •Isolation. Shows intensified self-reliant, overly formal social behavior, and obstinacy. •Projection.

Attribution of unacknowledged feelings to others. •Splitting. Feelings are ambivalent are divided into good and bad. •Passive Aggression. Turns their anger against themselves. •Acting Out. Expresses unconscious wishes or conflicts through action to avoid being conscious of either the accompanying idea or the affect. AVOIDANT PERSONALITY DISORDER Tschaine Cristine Cac, RND Famous Persons with Avoidant Personality Disorder •Emily Dickinson •Diana Willson Outline •Definition of Avoidant Personality Disorder •Epidemilogy •DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) •Clinical Features

•Differential Diagnosis •Course and Prognosis •Psychotherapy •Pharmacotherapy AVOIDANT PERSONALITY DISORDER •Avoidant personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling very shy, inadequate, and sensitive to rejection. EPIDEMIOLOGY •Avoidant personality disorder has been reported to have lifetime prevalence rates of 1. 1% (Maier et al. 1992) and 1. 3% (Zimmerman and Coryell 1990), considerably lower than the 13. 3% for the related social anxiety disorder reported by Kessler and colleagues (1994) in the National Comorbidity Study.

DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) •A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: •Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked. •Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection. •Shows restraint initiating intimate relationships because of the fear of being ashamed, ridiculed, or rejected due to severe low self-worth.

•Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations. •Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy. •Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others •Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing. Clinical Features •Hypersensitivity to rejection by others. •Patients main personality trait is timidity. •These persons desire warmth and security of human companionship, but justify their avoidance of relationships by their alleged fear of rejection.

•They are afraid to speak up in public or to make requests of others. •They are apt to misinterpret other persons’ comments as derogatory or ridiculing. •They rarely attain much personal advancement or exercise much authority, but seem shy and eager to please. •These persons are generally unwilling to enter relationships unless they are an unusually strong guarantee of uncritical acceptance. •They often have no close friends. Differential Diagnosis •Patients with APD desire social interaction, unlike with schizoid personality disorder, who want to be alone.

•Patients with APD are not as demanding, irritable or unpredictable as those with BPD and HPD. •APD and dependent personality disorder are similar. •Patients with DPD are presumed to have greater fear of being abandoned or unloved than those with APD, but the clinical picture may be indistinguishable. Course and Prognosis •A therapist must convey an accepting attitude toward the patient’s fears, especially the fear of rejection. •Therapist eventually encourages a patient to move out into the world to take what are perceived as great risks of humiliation, rejection and failure.

•Group therapy may help patients understand how their sensitivity to rejection affects them and others. •Assertiveness training is a form of behavior therapy that may teach patients to express their needs openly and to enlarge their self-esteem. Pharmacotherapy •Some patients are helped by ? -adrenergic receptor antagonists, such as atenolol (Tenormin), to manage autonomic nervous system hyperactivity, which tends to be high in patients with APD. •Serotonergic agents may help rejection sensitivity. •Dopaminergic drugs might engender novelty-seeking behavior. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

Tschaine Cristine C. Cac, RND Famous People with Borderline Personality Disorder Princess Diana Adolph Hitler Definition of Terms Affect- feeling or emotion, especially as manifested by facial expression or body language Dysphoria- an emotional state characterized by anxiety, depression, or unease Neurosis- a disorder in which anxiety, obsessional thoughts, compulsive acts, etc. dominate the personality Paranoid Ideation or Paranoia- having beliefs that you are being harassed or persecuted, or beliefs involving general suspiciousness about others’ motives or intent.

Psychosis- a severe mental disorder characterized by symptoms, as delusions or hallucinations, that indicate impaired contact with reality Rem latency- after a person falls asleep, the amount of time it takes for the first onset of REM sleep Thyrotropin-releasing hormone- a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates release of thyrotropin Thyrotropin-promotes the growth of the thyroid gland in the neck and stimulates it to produce more thyroid hormones MAOIs-Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) are medicines that relieve certain types of mental depression

Outline •Definition of Borderline Personality Disorder •Epidemiology •DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) •Clinical Features •Differential Diagnosis •Course and Prognosis •Psychotherapy •Pharmacotherapy Borderline Personality Disorder The patients stand on the border between neurosis and psychosis. Characterized by extraordinary unstable affect, mood, behavior, object relations and self-image. Also been called ambulatory schizophrenia, pseudoneurotic schizophrenia, psychotic character disorder and emotionally unstable personality disorder EPIDEMIOLOGY

•Thought to be present in about 1 to 2% of the population. •Twice as common in women as in men. •An increased prevalence of major depressive disorder, alcohol use disorders substance abuse is found in first-degree relatives of persons with borderline personality disorder. DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic Criteria For Borderline Personality Disorder 1. A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, and affects, and marked impulsitivity beginning by early adulthood and present in variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following: Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment 2.

A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation. 3. Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self 4. Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e. g. , spending, sex, sibstance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating). 5. Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats or self-mutilating behavior. 6. Affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e. g. , intense episodic dysporia, irritability or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days) 7.

Chronic feelings of emptiness 8. Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger ( e. g. , frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights) 9. Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms. DIAGNOSIS Biological studies may aid in the diagnosis; in some patients show shortened REM latency and sleep continuity disturbances, abnormal DST results and abnormal thyrotropin-releasing hormone test results. Clinical Features Micropsychotic episodes(short- lived) Psychotic symptoms are always circumscribed, fleeting or doubtful.

Unstable interpersonal relationships Affective distress Marked impulsivity Unstable self-image Repetitive self- destructive acts Manipulative suicide attempts Negative emotional states specific to BPD fall into four categories: •destructive or self-destructive feelings; •extreme feelings in general; •feelings of fragmentation or lack of identity; •feelings of victimization •Differential Diagnosis •Differentiated from schizophrenia on the basis that the patient with BPD lacks prolonged psychotic episodes, thought disorder and classic schizophrenic signs. •Patients with schizotypal personality disorder show marked peculiarities of thinking, strange ideation and recurrent ideas of reference. Those with paranoid personality disorder are marked by extreme suspiciousness. Patients with BPD generally have chronic feelings of emptiness and short-lived psychotic episodes; they act impulsively and demand extraordinary relationships; they may mutilate themselves and make manipulative suicide attempts. Course and Prognosis •BPD is fairly stable; patients change little overtime.

•The diagnosis is usually made before the age of 40, when patients are attempting to make occupational, marital and other choices and are unable to deal with the normal stages of the life cycle. •Common Features of Recommended Psychotherapy for BPD •Therapy is not expected to be brief. •A strong helping relationship develops between patient and therapist. •Clear roles and responsibilities of patient and therapist are established. •Therapist is active and directive, not a passive listener. •Patient and therapist mutually develop a hierarchy of priorities.

Therapist conveys empathic validation plus the need for patient to control his/her behavior. Flexibility is needed as new circumstances, including stresses, develop. Limit setting, preferably mutually agreed upon, is used. Concomitant individual and group approaches are used. PHARMACOTHERAPY Antipsychotics have been used to control anger, hostility and brief psychotic episodes. Antidepressants improve the depressed mood common in patients with BPD. The MAO inhibitors have successfully modulated impulsive behavior in some patients. Benzodiazepines, particularly alprazolam(Xanax) help anxiety and depression.

Anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine, may improve global functioning for some patients. Serotonergic agents such as selective serotoni reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) have been helpful in some cases. HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY DISORDER Tschaine Cristine C. Cac, RND Epidemiology •Prevalence of about 2 to 3 percent( DSM-IV-TR) •Rates of about 10 to 15% have been reported in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings when structured assessment is used. •Diagnosed more frequently in women than in men. •Some studies have found association with somatization disorder and alcoholic use disorders.

DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic Criteria for Histrionic Personality Disorder •A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following: •is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention •interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior •displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions •consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self •has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail •shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion •is suggestible, i. e. , easily influenced by others or circumstances •considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are. •Clinical Features •High degree of attention-seeking behavior •Exaggerate their thoughts and feelings

•Display temper tantrums, tears and accusations when they are not the center of attention or are not receiving praise or approval •Seductive behavior is common in both sexes. •Sexual fantasies about persons with whom patients are involved are common. •Patients may have a psychosexual dysfunction; women may be an orgasmic, and men may be impotent. Their need for reassurance is endless. •Relationships tend to be superficial and they can be vain, self-absorb and fickle. •Strong dependence needs make them overly trusting and gullible. •They are unaware of their true feelings and cannot explain their motivations. •Differential Diagnosis •Somatization disorder (Briquet’s syndrome) may occur in conjunction with HPD.

•Patients with brief psychotic disorder and dissociative disorders may warrant a coexisting diagnosis of HPD. •In BPD, suicide attempts, identity diffusion and brief psychotic episodes are more likely. Although both conditions may be diagnosed in the same patient, clinicians should separate the two. Course and Prognosis •With age, persons with HPD show fewer symptoms, but because they lack the energy of earlier years, the difference in number of symptoms may be more apparent than real. •Persons with this disorder are sensation seekers, and they may get into trouble with the law, abuse substances and act promiscuously. Psychotherapy •Clarification of their inner feelings are important because they are often unaware of their own real feelings.

•Psycho-analytically oriented psychotherapy, whether group or individual, is probably the treatment. Pharmacotherapy •Antidepressants for depression and somatic complaints •Anti-anxiety agents for anxiety •Antipsychotics for derealization and illusions. NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER Tschaine Cristine C. Cac, RND Famous Person with Narcissistic Personality Disorder •Elvis Presley •Barbara Streisand Outline •Definition of Narcissistic Personality Disorder •Epidemiology •DSM-IV-TR Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) •Clinical Features •Differential Diagnosis •Course and Prognosis •Psychotherapy •Pharmacotherapy Narcissistic Personality Disorder

•Characterized by a heightened sense of self-importance and grandiose feelings of uniqueness. •Epidemiology •DSM-IV-TR, estimates of the prevalence of NPD range from 2 to 16%in the clinical population. •Persons with the disorder may impart an unrealistic sense of omnipotence, grandiosity, beauty and talent to their children; thus offspring of such parents may have a higher than usual risk for developing the disorder themselves. •Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders •A pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning early adulthood and present in variety of context, as indicated by five( or more) of the following: •Has grandiose sense of self-importance

•Believes that he or she is special and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people( or institutions) •Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love •Requires excessive admiration •Has a sense of entitlement, i. e. , unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations •Is interpersonally exploitative, i. e. , takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends •Lacks empathy: unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings of others •Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her •Shows arrogant, haughty behavior or attitudes Clinical Features •Grandiose sense of self-importance

•Consider themselves special and expect special treatment •Handle criticism poorly •Frequently ambitious to achieve fame and fortune •Their relationships are fragile and they can make others furious y their refusal to obey conventional rules of behavior. •They cannot show empathy and hey feign sympathy only to achieve their own selfish ends. Susceptible to depression Interpersonal difficulties, occupational problems, rejection and loss are among the stresses that narcissists commonly produce by their behavior -stresses they are least able to handle. Differential Diagnosis •Borderline, histrionic and antisocial personality disorders often accompany NPD, so a differential diagnosis is difficult.

•Patients with NPD have less anxiety than those with BPD; their life tends to be less chaotic, and less likely to attempt suicide. •Patients with antisocial personality disorder have a history of impulsive behavior, often associated with alcohol or other substance abuse. •Patients with HPD show features of exhibitionism and interpersonal manipulativeness that resemble those of patients with NPD. Course and Prognosis NPD is chronic and difficult to treat. Aging is handled poorly; patients value beauty, strength and youthful attributes, to which they cling inappropriately. They may be more vulnerable, therefore, to midlife crises than are other groups. Psychotherapy

Psychiatrists such as Kernberg and Heinz have advocated using psychoanalytic approaches to effect change. Some clinicians advocate group therapy for the patients so they can learn how to share with others and, under ideal circumstances, can develop an empathic response to others. Pharmacotherapy •Lithium( Eskalith) has been used with mood swings. •Antidepressants and serotonergic drugs for depression “PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: YOUR PERSONALITY IS THE KEY FOR YOUR SUCCESS” Sunday, 13th of May, 2012 8:00 am – 12:00 nn PUP-Graduate School, M. H. Del Pilar Campus, Valencia St. , Sta. Mesa, Manila The seminar is organized by Clinical / Industrial Psychology Group. Target attendees for this Seminar are the Graduate School Students. Purpose

The purpose of this seminar is to encourage each and every one of us to enhance, develop and improve our personality to use it in our career development. Objective At the end of this course, each participant will: 1. Have a clearer view of their personality. 2. To adapt the positive mental attitude. 3. To eliminate those attitudes that is not needed for their developmental growth. 4. To know that they are always part of the team. 5. To bear in mind that success is not done immediately, it takes a lot of time, effort, patience and being optimistic in life. Contents 6. Introduction and Overview 7. Discussion 8. First part: Developing a Positive Work Attitude. 9. Second part: 10 Enemies of Greatness 10. Personality Development further Discussion. Resource Person

The name of the keynote speaker in “Personality Development: Your Personality is the Key for your Success” Seminar. •Mr. Darwin B. Rivers Organizers •Josephine L. Abdon •Arnulfo A. Almeniana •Pearl Avon S. Amores •Juno C. Bautista •Tschaine Cristine C. Cac •Joseph J. Cando •Henmar C. Cardino •Cherry Mae D. Esios •Joanne A. Garcia •Annalyn R. Manero •Sybil Q. Ortguesa •Erwin B. Sario •Veron Angeli R. Trinidad •Ivy Marie B. Paulete •Alexander B. Prudente Jr. •Anthony G. Villarina DEVELOPING A POSITIVE WORK ATTITUDE Darwin B. Rivers INTRODUCTION: Where negativity exists in a workplace, people are quick to blame each other and feel a sense of injustice.

With a negative attitude, you are less likely to be accountable and reliable. A positive attitude will enable you to take risks, innovate, communicate, have confidence and create a better workplace. This means you are more productive and achieve more. OBJECTIVES: • Define What is an Attitude? • Define What is a Work Attitude? • Define What does Positive Work Attitude means? • Learn the Different Positive Work Attitude Equations • Describe How to Develop a Positive Work Attitude • Know the Importance of having a Positive Work Attitude •Benefits of having a Positive Work Attitude • Achieving a Positive Work Attitude ATTITUDE •What is an Attitude?

•An attitude is a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of something. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event – this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. (Wikipedia) •Carl Gustav Jung – a well known psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology defines attitude as a “readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way“ (Chapter XI of Psychological Types) TYPES OF ATTITUDES Within Jung’s broad definition he defines several attitudes. 1.

Consciousness and the Unconscious – The “presence of two attitudes is extremely frequent, one conscious and the other unconscious. This means that consciousness has a constellation of contents different from that of the unconscious, a duality particularly evident in neurosis” (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 687). 2. Extraversion and introversion -This pair is so elementary to Jung’s theory of types that he labeled them the “attitude-types”. 3. Rational and Irrational attitudes. “I conceive reason as an attitude” (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 785). •ATTITUDE •The rational attitude subdivides into the thinking and feeling psychological functions, each with its attitude.

• The irrational attitude subdivides into the sensing and intuition psychological functions, each with its attitude. “There is thus a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude” (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 691). 4. Individual and social attitudes. Many of the latter are “isms“ 5. Abstract attitude – IT is a type of cognitive functioning that includes assuming a mental set voluntarily; shifting voluntarily from a specific aspect of a situation to the general; keeping in mind simultaneously various aspects of a situation; grasping the essentials of a whole, and breaking it into its parts and isolating them voluntarily; planning ahead ideationally; and/or thinking or performing symbolically. ATTITUDE

•A characteristic of many psychiatric disorders is the person’s inability to assume the abstract attitude or to shift readily from the concrete to the abstract and back again as demanded by circumstances. 6. Concretism – It means a peculiarity of thinking and feeling which is the antithesis of abstraction” (Jung, [1921] 1971: par. 696). •For example: “I hate his attitude for being Sarcastic. ” •WORK ATTITUDES: TWO TYPES 1. Work Attitude Behavior •WAB refers to the ‘feel’ part of your work. It relates to how you feel about your work and your approach towards work. Hence, work attitude behavior is intangible. You cannot see it. Your colleagues cannot see it. But people can feel it. People whom you work with can feel your work attitude behavior. •Your Colleagues “knows” it if you carry out your tasks with pride.

They can feel whether you belief in your work or not. They know if you have passion in your work. •WORK ATTITUDES: TWO TYPES 2. Work Behavior Attitude •WBA refers to the ‘do’ part of your work. It relates to how you do your work and how you get your work done. Work behavior attitude can be seen. It is the actual work. You can see the result of your work behavior attitude be it a report or a finished good. Your colleagues can see it. It is the action. •They can see if you worked hard. They can see if you do your work with skills and applied the knowledge you know into the work. They can see for themselves if you are the “all talk and no work” type. •WORK ATTITUDES

•Work attitudes are also the feelings we have toward different aspects of the work environment. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are two key attitudes that are the most relevant to important outcomes. •In addition to personality and fit with the organization, work attitudes are influenced by the characteristics of the job, perceptions of organizational justice and the psychological contract, relationships with coworkers and managers, and the stress levels experienced on the job. •FACT: •Institutions such as Gallup or the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) periodically conduct studies of job satisfaction to track how satisfied employees are at work.

•According to a recent Gallup survey, 90% of the employees surveyed said that they were at least somewhat satisfied with their jobs. A recent SHRM study revealed 40% who were very satisfied. •QUESTION: •Have you recently had a bad day? •How could that day been better? •Has another person’s bad day had a reflection on your day? •How would a person having a bad day effect the attitude of a work place? POSITIVE WORK ATTITUDE •What is a Positive Work Attitude? A “positive work attitude” is an attitude about working. It is often used to refer to someone who has positive outlook and behavior at work. It also refers to someone possessing good work values and ethics in the work place. •POSITIVE WORK ATT

Economic theory

Economic theory.

Choose one of the articles from the three I have posted. Pull out 5 major “themes” of the article. Group similar things together into one theme. The main themes are not the details of the article, but the major ideas or trends discussed. Each theme should be one Roman numeral. Be sure to BOLD your key terms. Back up each main theme with specifics from the article that illustrate the main theme. You can cite specifics, cite numbers, quote sparingly from the article, or paraphrase the article to illustrate the main theme. Separate your paper into 5 Roman numeral sections corresponding to each main theme. Discuss the first main theme. Back up the first theme by discussing the specifics in the article that relate to the main theme.

Now you need to apply the microeconomics we have studies this semester to the main theme. You can: Apply a microeconomic term(s) that is relevant. Be sure to define the term the first time you use it, and explain how it relates to the article. Explain why something is happening; a logical sequence of events Explain if a trend is good or bad for the economy and why Apply an economic theory: For example; “According to Adam Smith, the economy will selfadjust because…

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