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Product and market analysis of Ice Cream

Kulfi is a popular South Asian, ice cream made with boiled milk typically from water buffalo. It comes in many flavors, including pistachio, malai, mango, cardamom (elaichi), and saffron (kesar). Kulfi differs from western ice cream in that it is richer in taste and creamier in texture. As well, where western ice creams are whipped with air or overrun, kulfi contains no air; it is solid dense frozen milk. It is made by boiling milk until it is reduced to half. Then sugar is added and the mixture is boiled for another ten minutes. Then flavorings, dried fruits, cardamom, etc. are added. The mixture is then put in moulds and frozen. One can eat kulfi plain as is or it can be garnished with ground cardamom, saffron, or pistachio nuts. As well, Kulfi is also served with Falooda vermicelli noodles. But since the kulfi could not become world famous, with the concept of kulfi, ice-cream was started in 1981 in India. Then onwards it has been one big journey. on the road. Now, Ice Age – The Healthy Ice Cream Parlor brings to you the new generation of Ice Creams…. The Evolution of Ice Cream Ice cream’s origins are not known to reach back as far as the second century B.C., although no specific date of origin nor has inventor been undisputable credited with its discovery. We know that Alexander the Great enjoyed snow and ice flavored with honey and nectar. Biblical references also show that King Solomon was fond of iced drinks during harvesting. During the Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Caesar (A.D. 54-86) frequently sent runners into the mountains for snow, which was then flavored with fruits and juices. Over a thousand years later, Marco Polo returned to Italy from the Far East with a recipe that closely resembled what is now called sherbet. Historians estimate that this recipe evolved into ice cream sometime in the 16th century. England seems to have discovered ice cream at the same time, or perhaps even earlier than the Italians. “Cream Ice,” as it was called, appeared regularly at the table of Charles I during the 17th century. France was introduced to similar frozen desserts in 1553 by the Italian Catherine de Medici when she became the wife of Henry II of France. It wasn’t until 1660 that ice cream was made available to the general public. The Sicilian Procope introduced a recipe blending milk, cream, butter and eggs at Caf Procope, the first caf in Paris. Ice Cream for America The first official account of ice cream in the New World comes from a letter written in 1744 by a guest of Maryland Governor William Bladen. The first advertisement for ice cream in this country appeared in the New York Gazette on May 12, 1777, when confectioner Philip Lenzi announced that ice cream was available “almost every day.” Records kept by a Chatham Street, New York, merchant show that President George Washington spent approximately $200 for ice cream during the summer of 1790. Inventory records of Mount Vernon taken after Washington’s death revealed “two pewter ice cream pots.” President Thomas Jefferson was said to have a favorite 18-step recipe for an ice cream delicacy that resembled a modern-day Baked Alaska. In 1812, Dolley Madison served a magnificent strawberry ice cream creation at President Madison’s second inaugural banquet at the White House. Until 1800, ice cream remained a rare and exotic dessert enjoyed mostly by the elite. Around 1800, insulated ice houses were invented. Manufacturing ice cream soon became an industry in America, pioneered in 1851 by a Baltimore milk dealer named Jacob Fussell. Like other American industries, ice cream production increased because of technological innovations, including steam power, mechanical refrigeration, the homogenizer, electric power and motors, packing machines, and new freezing processes and equipment. In addition, motorized delivery vehicles dramatically changed the industry. Due to ongoing technological advances, today’s total frozen dairy annual production in the United States is more than 1.6 billion gallons. Wide availability of ice cream in the late 19th century led to new creations. In 1874, the American soda fountain shop and the profession of the “soda jerk” emerged with the invention of the ice cream soda. In response to religious criticism for eating “sinfully” rich ice cream sodas on Sundays, ice cream merchants left out the carbonated water and invented the ice cream “Sunday” in the late 1890’s. The name was eventually changed to “sundae” to remove any connection with the Sabbath. Ice cream became an edible morale symbol during World War II. Each branch of the military tried to outdo the others in serving ice cream to its troops. In 1945, the first “floating ice cream parlor” was built for sailors in the western Pacific. When the war ended, and dairy product rationing was lifted, America celebrated its victory with ice cream. Americans consumed over 20 quarts of ice cream per person in 1946. In the 1940’s through the 70s, ice cream production was relatively constant in the United States. As more prepackaged ice cream was sold through supermarkets, traditional ice cream parlors and soda fountains started to disappear. Now, specialty ice cream stores and unique restaurants that feature ice cream dishes have surged in popularity. These stores and restaurants are popular with those who remember the ice cream shops and soda fountains of days past, as well as with new generations of ice cream fans. According to legend, Marco Polo brought the secrets of ice cream with him from the Orient, together with other sundry savories. There is, however, no proof of that, although there is some evidence that the Chinese indulged in iced drinks and desserts, which gives some weight to the Marco Polo theory. The Chinese did, however, teach Arab traders how to combine syrups and snow, to make an early version of the sherbet. Arab traders proceeded to show Venetians, then Romans, how to make this frozen delight. The Emperor Nero was quite fond of pureed fruit, sweetened with honey, and then mixed with snow–so much so that he had special cold rooms built underneath the imperial residence in order to store snow. In the 1500s, Catherine de Medici brought the concept of the sorbet to the French, who were soon to make a great improvement on it. As you will have noted, the above are frozen desserts, not ice cream. That invention awaited the development of the custard, then the discovery that freezing it would create a delectable dessert. This notable event occurred in 1775 in France, and was shortly followed by the invention of an ice cream machine, which did a much better job of creating a light and fluffy frozen custard than beating by hand could do. Thomas Jefferson, who imitated Nero in having a special cold room for storing snow, provides us with the first recipe for ice cream found in the United States. Not to be outdone, George Washington invested in one of the ice cream machines. Until 1851, ice cream (or, more frequently, cream ice) was solely made at home. But an intrepid man from Baltimore, named Jacob Fussell changed all that by opening the first ice cream factory. Near the turn of the century, the ice cream soda was created, although by who seems to be in question–either James W. Tuff or Robert Green. It does seem to have been done by accident, however–a scoop of ice cream falling in a glass of flavored soda water. At any rate, the drink became a national craze, and many a girl and boy went courting over an ice cream soda. So many, in fact, that many municipalities passes laws forbidding the sale of soda water on Sunday. Quickly afterwards, the ‘sundae’ was invented–it contained the ice cream, syrup, and whipped cream of the soda, but without the evil influence of soda water. Numerous variations existed. The next ice cream craze with the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Saint Louis. Charles Menches was doing a lively business selling scoops of ice cream in dishes, all the way up to the point that he ran out of dishes. Frustrated, but determined to still find a way to make a profit, he lighted upon his friend Ernest Hamwi, who was selling a wafer-like cookie called zalabia (a Syrian treat). The combination proved irrestible. HISTORY OF THE ICE CREAM CONE For over a century, Americans have been enjoying ice cream on a cone. Whether it’s a waffle cone, a sugar cone or a wafer cone, what better way to enjoy a double scoop of your favorite flavor? Making Its Appearance The first ice cream cone was produced in 1896 by Italo Marchiony. Marchiony, who emigrated from Italy in the late 1800s, invented his ice cream cone in New York City. He was granted a patent in December 1903. Although Marchiony is credited with the invention of the cone, a similar creation was independently introduced at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair by Ernest A. Hamwi, a Syrian concessionaire. Hamwi was selling a crisp, waffle-like pastry — zalabis — in a booth right next to an ice cream vendor. Because of ice cream’s popularity, the vendor ran out of dishes. Hamwi saw an easy solution to the ice cream vendor’s problem: he quickly rolled one of his wafer-like waffles in the shape of a cone, or cornucopia, and gave it to the ice cream vendor. The cone cooled in a few seconds, the vendor put some ice cream in it, the customers were happy and the cone was on its way to becoming the great American institution that it is today. A Business Is Born St. Louis, a foundry town, quickly capitalized on the cone’s success. Enterprising people invented special baking equipment for making the World’s Fair cornucopia cones. Stephen Sullivan of Sullivan, Missouri, was one of the first known independent operators in the ice cream cone business. In 1906, Sullivan served ice cream cones (or cornucopias, as they were still called) at the Modern Woodmen of America Frisco Log Rolling in Sullivan, Missouri. At the same time, Hamwi was busy with the Cornucopia Waffle Company. In 1910, he founded the Missouri Cone Company, later known as the Western Cone Company. As the modern ice cream cone developed, two distinct types of cones emerged. The rolled cone was a waffle, baked in a round shape and rolled (first by hand, later mechanically) as soon as it came off the griddle. In a few seconds, it hardened in the form of a crisp cone. The second type of cone was molded either by pouring batter into a shell, inserting a core on which the cone was baked, and then removing the core; or pouring the batter into a mold, baking it and then splitting the mold so the cone could be removed with little difficulty. In the 1920s, the cone business expanded. Cone production in 1924 reached a record 245 million. Slight changes in automatic machinery have led to the ice cream cone we know today. Now, millions of rolled cones are turned out on machines that are capable of producing about 150,000 cones every 24 hours. FROM THE COW TO THE CONE How Ice Cream Is Made Everybody has a favorite flavor or brand of ice cream, and the debate over whose ice cream is the best rages on each year. While each manufacturer develops its own special recipes, ice cream production basics are basically the same everywhere. The most important ice cream ingredients come from milk. The dairy ingredients are crucial in determining the characteristics of the final frozen product. Federal regulations state that ice cream must have at least 10% milk fat, the single most critical ingredient. The use of varying percentages of milk fat affects the palatability, smoothness, color, texture and food value of the finished product. Gourmet or super premium ice creams contain at least 12% milk fat, usually more. Ice cream contains nonfat solids (the non-fat, protein part of the milk), which contribute nutritional value (protein, calcium, minerals and vitamins). Nonfat dry milk, skim milk and whole milk are the usual sources of nonfat solids. The sweeteners used in ice cream vary from cane or beet sugar to corn sweeteners or honey. Stabilizers, such as plant derivatives, are commonly used in small amounts to prevent the formation of large ice crystals and to make a smoother ice cream. Emulsifiers, such as lecithin and mono- and diglycerides, are also used in small amounts. They provide uniform whipping qualities to the ice cream during freezing, as well as a smoother and drier body and texture in the frozen form. These basic ingredients are agitated and blended in a mixing tank. The mixture is then pumped into a pasteurizer, where it is heated and held at a predetermined temperature. The hot mixture is then “shot” through a homogenizer, where pressure of 2,000 to 2,500 pounds per square inch breaks the milk fat down into smaller particles, allowing the mixture to stay smooth and creamy. The mix is then quick-cooled to about 40°F and frozen via the “continuous freezer” method (the “batch freezer” method) that uses a steady flow of mix that freezes a set quantity of ice cream one batch at a time. During freezing, the mix is aerated by “dashers,” revolving blades in the freezer. The small air cells that are incorporated by this whipping action prevent ice cream from becoming a solid mass of frozen ingredients. The amount of aeration is called “overrun,” and is limited by the federal standard that requires the finished product must not weigh less than 4.5 pounds per gallon. The next step is the addition of bulky flavorings, such as fruits, nuts and chocolate chips. The ingredients are either “dropped” or “shot” into the semi-solid ice cream after it leaves the freezer. After the flavoring additions are completed, the ice cream can be packaged in a variety of containers, cups or molds. It is moved quickly to a “hardening room,” where sub-zero temperatures freeze the product to its final state for storage and distribution. ICE CREAM LABELING – WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN? There are many choices in today’s ice cream case to suit a wide variety of consumer tastes. There is plenty of information on food labels, but what does it really mean? Here, the International Ice Cream Association sheds some light on how ice cream and related products are labeled. Labeling Definitions The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets standards of identity for many foods so that consumers will get a consistent product, no matter what brand or type they buy. For ice cream, FDA permits the use of nutrient descriptors such as “light,” “reduced fat” and “low fat” so that consumers know exactly what they’re selecting in terms of nutritional content. These FDA standards follow the federal Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA), which governs all food labeling. Here are some of the terms consumers are seeing in the supermarket, and exactly what those terms mean: Ice cream is a frozen food made from a mixture of dairy products, containing at least 10% milk fat. “Reduced fat” ice cream contains at least 25% less total fat than the referenced product (either an average of leading brands, or the company’s own brand.) “Light” ice cream contains at least 50% less total fat or 33% fewer calories than the referenced product (the average of leading regional or national brands.) “Low fat” ice cream contains a maximum of 3 grams of total fat per serving “Nonfat” ice cream contains less than 0.5 grams of total fat per serving. Quality Segments In addition, there are commonly used marketing phrases that describe ice cream products in terms of quality segments, such as “super premium,” “premium” and “economy.” Several factors can contribute to a product’s quality segment, such as price, brand positioning, product packaging, quality of ingredients and the amount of overrun (air) in the product. Overrun refers to the amount of aeration the ice cream undergoes during its manufacture that keeps the mixture from becoming an inedible frozen mass. Overrun is governed by federal standards in that the finished product must not weigh less than 4.5 pounds per gallon. “Super-premium ice cream tends to have very low overrun and high fat content, and the manufacturer uses the best quality ingredients. “Premium” ice cream tends to have low overrun and higher fat content than regular ice cream, and the manufacturer uses higher quality ingredients. “Regular” ice cream meets the overrun required for the federal ice cream standard. “Economy” ice cream meets required overrun and generally sells for a lower price than regular ice cream. Ice Age The Healthy Ice Cream Parlor Company profile: Name: Ice Age The Healthy Ice Cream Parlor Date of Launch: 20th September 2006 Promoters: Justin D’costa Phinsy Chirayath Rahul Mahapatra Shruti Saraf Aaron D’souza Fizzah S.J Product: Sugar free and Fat free healthy Ice Creams. Health conscious desert. Proposed Flavors: World famous Vanilla and 20 different mouth watering flavors. Project: Manufacturing and selling of healthy sugar free and fat free Ice Creams. Specially made for health conscious and sweet tooth people. Head of department/ management: Justin D’costa : Finance Phinsy Chirayath : Public Relation Rahul Mahapatra : Marketing Shruti Saraf : Product Testing Aaron D’souza : Human Resources Fizzah S.J : Outlet manager Investments: Total capital investment required: 7 crore Borrowed capital (loan from IDBI bank): 3 crore Total partners investment: 4 crore Each partners capital: 70 lakhs All the six promoters and administrators of Ice Age Ltd… will be equal partners and the profits sharing ratio between them will be equal. Introduction. Founded in Mumbai, Maharashtra, Ice Age Ltd.. company is setting up an Ice Cream manufacturing and selling parlor. The project will have great significance in the present day context of increasing weight and illness among the youth as well as adults due to increasing fat and sugar intake due to increasing content of sweetener in the Ice Creams and juices. The manufacturing of all types of ice creams will be done at its production site and then will be transported to its parlors established in the heart of the city. Ice Age Ltd.. is entering the Indian market with an aim of establishing its brand as a necessity of the Indian buyers. The company will follow a strategic positioning approach for the target market. Ice Age Ltd.. has kept into account the income and behavioral factor of the Indian buyers while designing the products. It is important for the company to understand the consumer behaviour before it goes into such a market. The Indian consumer for the first time will have a premium product which is eco-friendly, healthy and affordable. Business strategy Our business strategy will include the determination of the most beneficial product market in term of establishing itself in this new product segment. The most important factor for the success of Ice Age Ltd. brand is the perception of the consumer and to what extent it can build a positive image in the consumer’s mind. The intensity of the business environment, the sustainable competitive advantage of a quality product will give it a strong base to build the market. It is important for us to adopt a different strategy for the Indian market since it is composed of quality buyers as well as those who will buy for their family. Thus, we shall introduce some new strategies so as to establish our self in the Indian market and develop a strong customer base. The Model used for preparing the marketing strategy by Ice Age Ltd.. in the Indian Market Product Range External Analysis Competitors Analysis Internal Analysis Environment Analysis Marketing Strategies Future Plans Conclusion The first growth vector will involves gaining penetration with the existing product-market Ice Age Ltd. will attempt to attract customers from competitors through its strategic positioning and will establish strong brand equity. The second growth vector will involves product expansion while staying in the current market. Ice Age Ltd. will then offer a new product. It will be aimed not only for the existing market but also for the price conscious segment. The third growth vector will apply the same products to the new markets. The fourth growth vector will be to diversify into new product markets. We shall concentrate on the second growth vector and study the strategy with respect to the Ice Cream market. Internal Analysis According to the recent studies, most of the newly launched product or services fail due to improper analysis of their internal and external needs. A company should most effectively and efficiently take care of all the internal matters and needs. Since internal analysis is so use full and the life cycle as well as pricing is totally depended upon this analysis, Ice Age Ltd.. has taken proper and fully effective steps in analyzing all the need and requirements of the company. During internal analysis the promoter should take care of the following things: Raw material requirement Power supply Labour requirement Working force Capital Working capital Internal rules and regulations Proper management Proper material handling External Analysis Customer Analysis The Indian market with its vast size and demand base offers great opportunities to marketers. Two-thirds of countries consumers live in rural areas and almost half of the national income is generated here. It is only natural that rural markets form an important part of the total market of India though the urban market is increasing drastically. Our nation is classified in around 450 districts, and approximately 630000 villages, which can be sorted in different parameters such as literacy levels, accessibility, income levels, penetration, distances from nearest towns, etc. The rural bazaar is booming beyond everyone’s expectation. This has been primarily attributed to a spurt in the purchasing capacity of farmers now enjoying an increasing marketable surplus of farm produce. In addition, an estimated induction of Rs 140 billion in the rural sector through the government’s rural development schemes in the Seventh Plan and about Rs 300 billion in the Eighth Plan is also believed to have significantly contributed to the rapid growth in demand. The high incomes combined with low cost of living in the villages have meant more money to spend. And with the market providing those options, trends and tastes are also changing. Thus Ice Age Ltd.. has decided to enter this market with the basic idea of tapping the upper middle class which had established itself as a huge tapped market in the perception of a lot of national and multinational players who were then trying forages into the Indian market. Competitors Analysis NEED OF COMPARISION Consumer Mindset The consumers always have a different loyalty status for different brands. Sometimes they buy some brand due to the price or sometimes due to the features. Studying the consumer’s mindset is of vital importance as perception of individuals at the buying stage of various brands is unpredictable and ever changing. Market Share The market share of the players in the two wheeler auto market needs to be studied to know which company is in the booming stage and which company is in its closure stage. Also the advertisement and promotional share needs to be studied. Thus, market share helps us know the current market leader and market follower so that our company can develop an efficient marketing strategy for its product range after analyzing the current market player’s position. SWOT Analysis The SWOT Analysis i.e. the Analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the company products and its competitors at a glance. It needs to be compared to get an overall analysis of all the major companies and to know the company having better strengths, more opportunities and on the other hand the company having more of weaknesses and threats. The above diagram represents the sales of the famous Ice Cream parlors in Mumbai and their sales before Ice Age entered the market This diagram represents the sales pattern of all the Ice Cream parlors in Mumbai including Ice Age Ice Cream Parlor after one year from the launch of Ice Age Ltd… (Estimated) Environment Analysis High initial launch cost There is a large front-ended investment made in new products including cost of product development, market research, test marketing and most importantly its launch. To create awareness and develop franchise for a new brand requires enormous initial expenditure is required on launch advertisements, free samples and product promotions. Launch costs are as high as 50-100% of revenue in the first year and these costs progressively reduce as the brand matures, gains consumer acceptance and turnover rises. For established brands, advertisement expenditure varies from 5 – 12% depending on the categories. It is common to give occasional push by re-launches, which involves repositioning of brands with sizable marketing support. Market research Customers purchase decisions are based on perceptions about brands. They also keep on changing with fashion, income and changes in lifestyle. Unlike industrial products, it is difficult to differentiate products on technical or functional grounds. With increasing competition, companies spend enormous sums on product launches. Market research and test marketing become inevitable. The business rests on the two aspects that are brand equity and distribution network. Marketing driven In relative terms, marketing function has greater importance in the Ice Cream industry. The players have to reach out to mass population and compete with several other brands. The perceived differences are greater than the real differences in the product. Brand equity Brand equity refers to the intangible asset in the form of brand names. The consumer’s loyalty for a particular brand is due to the perception that the product has distinctively superior and consistent quality, satisfies his/ her specific needs and provides better value for money than other competing brands. A successful brand generates strong cash flow which enables the owner of the brand to reinvest a part of it in the form of aggressive advertisement/ promotion to reinforce the perceived superiority of the brand. The worth of a brand is manifested in the consumer’s insistence on a particular brand or willingness to pay a price premium for the preferred brand. Distribution network In this sector, one of the most critical success factors is the ability to build, develop, and maintain a robust distribution network. Availability near the customer is vital for wider penetration as most products are high value products. It takes enormous time and effort to build a chain of stockiest, retailers; dealers etc and establish their loyalties. There are entry barriers for a new entrant as a new product is typically slow moving and has lesser consumer demand. Therefore dealers/ retailers are reluctant to allocate resources and time. Established players use their clout to inhibit new entrants. However, when a product offers a strong breakthrough, equity build up rapidly and so does the distribution network. The major problems faced while marketing in the Indian market: Underdeveloped People and Underdeveloped Markets: The number of people below poverty line has not decreased in any appreciable manner. Thus underdeveloped people and consequently underdeveloped market by and large characterize the Indian markets. Many Languages and Dialects: The number of languages and dialects vary widely from state to state, region to region and probably from district to district. The messages have to be delivered in the local languages and dialects. Even though the numbers of recognized languages are only 16, the dialects are estimated to be around 850. Prevalence of spurious brands and seasonal demand: – For any branded product there are a multitude of ‘local variants’, which are cheaper, and, therefore, more desirable to mass. Different way of thinking: – There is a vast difference in the lifestyles of the people. The kind of choices of brands that an urban customer enjoys is different from the choices available to the rural customer. The rural customer usually has 2 or 3 brands to choose from whereas the urban one has multiple choices. The difference is also in the way of thinking. The rural customer has a fairly simple thinking as compared to the urban counterpart. Marketing Strategies Differentiation The concept is to make the product different from those of its competitor. When we look at the Indian Ice Cream market we see that the leader’s naturals have constantly maintained its market leadership by constantly differentiating on the basis of new flavors. And coming up with line extensions with regular frequency. The only alternative for Ice Age Ltd. to survive in this industry will be to differentiate itself. This differentiation could be on the basis of the marketing mix. (Product, Price, Promotion, Place) Thus, as per the different factors of marketing mix 4 Different strategies are made to market in the developing cities in India. Target Market “Ice Age” – the healthy ice cream parlor offers a wide range of sugar free and fat free ice creams. The ice creams are specially made keeping in mind all the health conscious people as well as youth and people who suffer from illness like diabetes. Ice Age is a healthy ice cream parlor which targets the higher middle class and rich class of the society. Due to the variety of flavors and the specialty of being sugar free and fat free makes the Ice Age Ice Creams more popular among the fitness and health conscious people. Ice Age targets the market where people are ready to buy healthy junk food due to their taste buds and the fact that Ice Age Ice Creams are totally fat free and sugar free with the same original taste. Hence Ice Age Ice Creams targets the market where people from age group 1 year to 80 years can enjoy their favorite ice cream keeping in mind health conscious people, diabetic people, young people, etc… Segmentation Segmentation variables Several variables differentiate consumers who prefer different kinds of Desserts, such as frequency of consumption, price sensitivity, relative importance of calories vs. taste, consumption occasion (at home, at work, at a social event, during recreation or at a restaurant), and desired serving size. The two most important variables are probably price sensitivity and the taste-calorie tradeoff. The reason that price sensitivity is especially important is that some consumers will pay high prices for a product of high q

Isolationism in China Essay

Isolationism in China Essay. The advent of technology has brought tremendous technological advancements and growth to the entire world. However, technology has also been a source of conflict as some governments seek to control the extremely pervasive and fluid medium. China is the home for the most notable controversy of this kind as it has an advanced system of internet censorship (Tai 186). This system has seen the government levy harsh punishment to those who violate the strict censorship rules that are in place to ensure the state’s capacity to maintain control of information on the internet. This system takes China back in the days of the dark ages of isolationism that characterized the Qing dynasty. However, the positive aspect of the story is that the Qing dynasty did not succeed, as time was ripe for change. Lyons (1) argues that just like Silicon Valley, the people of the world are divided into two, those who get, and those who do not. In the current globalized world, internet censorship is more of a modern way of isolationism that characterized the Qing dynasty, and in its every sense, it is bound to fail. The Qing dynasty lasted from 1644-1912, and it was the last prodigious imperial kingdom to rule the region. The early and middle years of influential and enduring rulers characterized Qing dynasty, and this marked a period of prosperity. However, when there began manifestations of natural disasters and invasions from foreigners towards the closing years of the dynastic period, everything was not as usual, and this signified the ending of the empire. China seemed not to have learned from the ineffectiveness of Qing dynasty’s resistance to foreigners that led to the failure of the dynasty. Today China has the largest documented number of journalists and cyber-dissidents in the world, serving a jail term (Bauml 704). Communist Party of China has governed China for more than 60 years, and it still reigns supreme as the country’s sole political party. The party has large grassroots penetration in China with over 70 million members, and this makes it the largest political party the world over (Bauml 705). As a result, the party’s presence in every aspect of China’s governance is evident, and because of this, it has been capable of imposing decisions without going through any representative deliberations and consultations. In the late 1990s, ever since the internet in China became commercially successful, the authorities have sought to restrict its ability to provide alternative sources of information to the public (Lagerkvist 171). The Chinese government has achieved this without much resistance from the authorities as internet executives easily attend summons by the central propaganda department of China’s ruling party. Given this, most internet firms pledge in government media to do their part in accomplishing the above objectives (Lagerkvist 172). Even though from a business perspective, attending such meetings is an unwise duty, failing to attend prints of the internet company as a weak party on the issue of social stability. China’s domestic entrepreneurs have come to adhere to this practice of a dictatorial development code and ultimately adopt it as a commitment to social and social stability, which stands as the collective benefit of all actors in the society as it reinforces sustained economic growth (Tai 191). In the Qing dynasty, the same happened as the dynasty sought to separate itself from the rest of the world by not allowing foreigners into the dynasty or forcefully evicting them. The Qing Empire emerged after a 270-year reign of the Ming Empire. In the early 17th century after the passing on of Monarch Qianlong, the Qing Empire began to fall. Just like the previous empires, Tang, and Ming, the Yuan Empire, the emergence of uprisings, natural calamities, and economic hitches signaled the fall of the empire. It started, in the 1800s, with an inept court system, which instead of dealing a rapidly changing world was involved in its own intrigues and pursuit of luxurious life (San 377). Moreover, before the death of Qianlong, he had set an isolationist policy towards foreigners and this was inadequate in the 19th and the early 20th century. The advancement of foreigners and foreign attacks that struck the Qing dynasty felt a major blow to the court system that was not designed to settle conflicts with foreigners, Europeans and Japanese. The natural disasters that plagued the dynasty after the wars with foreigners and rebellions, among themselves, left the survivors impoverished. These happenings led to the limited survival of the remaining Chinese. The stiff economic competition that came from the outside with Chinese limited knowledge of the external world complicated the situation even further. Literate people in the empire had their children study primordial philosophical and spiritual texts (San 392). The isolationist empire traded on the belief that if people gained modern education and learned the outside world, the emperor would lose control of them and he would not be capable of protecting them. Although there were late reforms in the Qing dynasty that started between 1900 and 1901, after they lost in the Sino-Japanese war, they only acted to weaken the empire further and help overthrow the dynasty. The setback in the war served to influence the young Chinese population and reformists towards making formal changes. Moreover, it convinced Empress Dowager that instead of resisting foreigners, the empire should imitate the foreigners through reform rather than evicting them from their land (San 398). The reforms culminated in the production of intellects with modern education and resident scholars, but the empire did not live to benefit from the positive outcome. By the fall of 1911, all these products had grown untrustworthy of the dynasty. The result was a dynasty separated from all support. The desire to institute a democratic government saw Sun Yatsen consolidate an uprising against the Qing Empire, which he succeeded to form the Republic of China. Even though the Republic of China started as an effort to institute democratic government, the present day practices go against this call. China seems to go back to the isolationist policies of the past empires that cost them a great deal. Today, internet censorship in China has separated the country from the rest of the world in the name of championing economic development. However, these practices stand to fail, as globalization that comes with technological developments is an inevitable agent of change. Apart from the fervent disagreement that exists between China and the US on internet censorship, internal discontent of to the ruling political party’s power abuses has fueled more government’s determination to fight any form of internet-generated opposition (San 451). Even though this silencing has worked to a certain extent, swelling of microblogs is a rising challenge for the government in its efforts to control the flow of information. Weibo, a microblog in China has continued to register a considerable number of users as the figure swelled from just fifty million in October 2010 to 140 million in April 2011 (173). This rise of microblogs has enabled the Chinese people to get around the great firewall, whereby users can use anonymizers such as Tor, to create virtual channels that can sidestep filters (Lyons 1). This is an indication of how internet censorship can never reign in the globalized world. The change that comes with internet technology is inevitable, and rather than China fighting with it, it should learn from the mistakes of empires and embrace modern life for the development of its society. The effects are evident, as an increasing number of Chinese graduates leave the country to perform research in affluent countries due to the isolationist policies that come with an authoritative government (Marketline 30). Internet censorship in the current globalized world is like creating an island of compatriots, separated from the rest of the world and soon China will have to yield to the desire of freedom of the people and the globalization wave. Annotated bibliography San, Tan. “Dynastic China: An elementary history.” Canada: The Other Press, 2014. The book provides the history of China through detailed coverage of its dynasties from the fairy-tale period of Pangu to the end of Qing dynasty, the last dynasty ever to exist in China that paved the way for the current Republic of China. The book intertwines through the vicious political maneuvers and schemes of the royal way of life of China. Some of the things that form a large portion of the narrative include the determined bequeathing of child emperors with thrones for the benefits of tyrannical eunuchs, dowagers, royal clan members, generals, and warlords. The author incorporates this weaving with outstanding elements of Chinese rational principles, society values, and political principles. In the process, he goes to extra lengths to explain the core concepts that mold the idea of “All under heaven” and “Mandate of Heaven,” two beliefs that guided Chinese perception of the world. The chapter of interest in my paper covers the Qing dynasty because it has a sample of information I need to use in order to strike a relationship between the isolationist principles of the time to the current policies on China’s internet censorship. Isolationist policies of ancient China were meant to stop foreigners from entering the country and eliminate the possibility for the Chinese people to learn from the outside world as an effort to protect them and have them under control. However, these isolationist policies had to be done away with and the result was a revolution that bore the resent day China. I intend to use this information in order to highlight how internet censorship in China borrows from the imperial past of ancient China. As a result, this builds on my argument that it is only time before the Chinese government realizes the effectiveness of their efforts in continuing an authoritative government under the disguise of fighting dissent among its people or the sake of continued economic development. Tai, Qiuqing. “China’s media censorship: A dynamic and diversified regime.” Journal of East Asian Studies. 14.2 (2014): 185-209. The article explores the internet censorship in China and the schemes that have allowed the country to remain in power amidst the wake of the Arab spring. The article explores the argument, that even though internet censorship characterizes most authoritarian regimes, increasing flows of information as the world globalizes and ushers in new technologies, such governments become overpowered and act to seal themselves or wait for their demise. The article finds that the situation is not real with China, because of the fragmented regulation of the media, internet included. China is adapting to these issues by changing the way in which it applies its censorship practices. Other than restricting unfavorable reports, China is resorting to a strategy that guides conditioning of public opinion. It is evident, even though the government has banned fewer reports; it has guided even more reports. This is a softer approach of censorship, and while censorship authorities ban unfavorable reports on the internet, the party bans any information that tends to threaten the legitimacy of the regime directly. As a result, the government has proved to be an expert in controlling information for the benefit of the ruling party. The information, herein, is extremely important in arguing out my case against internet censorship. This is because, the government is not likely to be an expert all through, in the end, it will have to oblige, and this is because the internet wave that characterizes the globalization to explode and it is soon. This is because apart from the internet wave that is boundless, the internet censorship has increased people’s attention to the censored information out of curiosity, and people continue learning more and more as they invent novel ways to go around the great firewall. I intend to use the information to reconcile internet censorship to isolationism, which is a ticking bomb. As people innovate ways to go around the censorship, the government expertise will soon grow weary of its concerted efforts of controlling information and is more likely to yield to the pressure, and this will be the beginning of democratic China. Works cited Bauml, Jessica. “It’s a mad, mad internet: Globalization and the challenges presented by internet censorship.” Federal Communications Law Journal. 63. 3 (2011) : 697-730. Print. Lagerkvist, Johan. “New media entrepreneurs in China: Allies of the party-state or civil society?” Journal of International Affairs. 65. 1(2011) : 169-182. Print. Lyons, Daniel. “You can’t fight the future.” Newsweek. 155.1 (2010): 1. Print China in-depth PESTLE insights: Marketline, 2014, 1-74. Print. San, Tan. “Dynastic China: An elementary history.” Canada: The Other Press. 2014. Print. Tai, Qiuqing. “China’s media censorship: A dynamic and diversified regime.” Journal of East Asian Studies. 14. 2 (2014) : 185-209. Print. Isolationism in China Essay

Rasmussen College Role of Nurses in The Health Care Essay

assignment writer Rasmussen College Role of Nurses in The Health Care Essay.

I’m working on a nursing question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Your discussion post is to answer this question: What do you think nursing contributes to health care? How can a robotic system incorporate the clinical judgment that nurses use? Be as creative as you wish!If you can, listen to the following audio clip from National Nurses United’s “Insist on a Registered Nurse” campaign: this is an attempt at humor about a serious situation, it drives a fundamental question: What would health care be without nurses?
Rasmussen College Role of Nurses in The Health Care Essay

Black Boy By Richard Wright [Text Analysis]

Table of Contents Introduction Plot Summary Characters in the Book Themes in “Black Boy” Objects and Places of Significance in Black Boy Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The novel Black Boy by Richard Wright is his autobiographical story from childhood through his teenage and was published in 1945. Wright was born in 1908 and lived until 1960 and has been exclaimed as a great novelist, non-fiction writer, poet, and short-stories writer. His works of art are widely read and still relevant to modern-day society. This essay shall perform Black Boy text analysis and explore its main themes. Wright writes more about his life from early childhood dealing with racial relations and unsettlement to social isolation, clashes with religion, problems with employers of the white race as well as political issues. The book forms part of American non-fiction works in modern-day literature. Wright’s work of Black Boy is the novel of study in this paper. The paper analyzes the book’s plot summary, characters, themes, quotes, objects, and places mentioned and their significance to the author. Plot Summary The story opens with one of the earliest memories of the author in a rural Natchez, Mississippi plantation as a child of four years, standing near the fireplace. Since he had been warned to stay quiet, he plays with fire and accidentally burns down the family house. This causes his mother to beat him up almost to the point of death (Jones and Wright 4). They later move to Memphis, where his father abandons them, and his mother Ella struggles to provide for the family while the family falls into perpetual hunger and poverty (Andrews and Taylor 15). As is clear from the summary of Richard Wright’s “Black Boy,” Ella’s hard work causes her to develop health problems leaving Richard with the option of looking for odd jobs to provide for the family. At this point, education is not a priority for Wright and his brother. The family then moves to Elaine, Arkansas, to live with Maggie, Ella’s sister, and her husband Hoskin, where life is much better due to the success of the saloon business run by Hoskin. Hoskin is later murdered out of sheer white jealousy, and the two women run away with the two children to West Helena, Arkansas, where life is excellent due to their combined financial efforts. Maggie leaves for Detroit, forcing Ella and the children to experience hard economic times. They later travel to Jackson, Mississippi, to live with Richard’s grandmother. Alan, Richard’s brother, goes to Maggie’s place in Detroit, Ella lives with her mother in Jackson, while Richard chooses to live with Uncle Clark in Greenwood, Mississippi. Richard later goes back to his granny’s place, despite the problem of hunger but faces another challenge of strict religion from his granny and Aunt Addie, who force him to attend religious classes. His Uncle Tom comes to live with the family in Jackson. Richard joins the school with an interest in writing upon graduation. He joins the work-life at an optical shop in the post office and other jobs and keeps his struggle with racism. The story comes to a close as he leaves the Communist party and also the south region still determined to continue his writing work (Felgar 37). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Characters in the Book Wright is the central character of the novel, with the story revolving around him. He is presented as a four-year-old child who progresses with the story in his childhood to early adulthood (Briones 4). As a young child, he refuses to accept the notion about his color, lack of religion, and develops intellectual curiosity. Wright is presented as not only believing in his own worth and capabilities, but also as a stubborn, willful, independent and a rebellious youth who challenges parental authority, refuses to adapt to strict religion, stands up to his aunts and uncles even challenging them to physical violence, refuses to read the script required by his school principal and stands up to the whites at his workplace (Wright 156-167). Wright is willing to express himself, and this makes him experience emotional isolation and physical violence, which fuel in him an urge of creativity and love for reading and writing (Felgar 700). He is a non-conformer with a strong-willed character despite his background, social status, and racism. He is willing to stand to his principles but has negative traits when he lies, steals, and engages in physical violence and shows some weakness and inferiority towards some whites. He is not closely connected with people, especially his family though he loves humanity (Bell-Russel 115). Due to his age, his character traits are dynamic, depending on the circumstances. Ella Wright is Richard’s mother. The story captures most of the moments when she is sick and suffering. However, she presents parental authority when she disciplines Richard and is compassionate and independent due to her ability to take care of the family when her husband abandons them. She is tolerant and affectionate, especially in her support of Richard’s writings (Gallantz 88). The author uses her suffering nature to present the issues of family relationships, poverty, racism, hunger, and injustice. Nathaniel, Richard’s father, is introduced briefly as a selfish man who abandons his family and later on as a sharecropper who represents slavery (Felgar 39). Granny, with her white hair, is compassionate as she takes Richard and his family to live with her. Her strict religion and hot temper stand out as she acts as a dictator who forces Richard to religion, uses it as an excuse for her anger, and stands in the way of Richard’s curiosity (Felgar 700). Addie and Tom are presented as dependent living with their mother, but Addie is strictly religious, fearful, and a conformist. Maggie is a hardworking lady, married to Hoskin, and on his death remarries, thus representing her dependence while still compassionate and affectionate as she takes Alan to live with her. Reynolds and Pease, who are whites, and Nealson and Ed Green, who are black communists, are racist, rigid, and intimidating (Dinnerstein 81). The female relatives stand out in the life of Richard from his mother, who disciplines and supports him, his Aunt Maggie with whom Richard gets well along, his granny who is hot-tempered and religious, and his aunt Addie who teaches Richard the religious classes. Richard’s brother does not seem significant in Richard’s life. He does not share in Richard’s rebellion and later goes to live with their aunt Maggie in Detroit. The school principal is a conformist and dictatorial who tries to force Richard to change his speech. Themes in “Black Boy” Black Boy outlines several issues, most of which are connected to Richard. Racism forms the central theme, which Richard associates with discrimination and injustice (Young 695). While growing up, he witnesses a black boy beaten by a white man. Hoskin is killed out of jealousy of the whites. His principal wants him to give a speech to please the whites. We will write a custom Research Paper on Black Boy By Richard Wright [Text Analysis] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He encounters Reynolds and Pease and eventually leaves the Southern region due to racism (Felgar 701). Family life serves as a one of the themes in “Black Boy” by Richard Wright presenting it as living a deprived life with no support, especially emotionally and financially, when the father leaves them and the criticisms experienced from the relatives who want Richard to conform to their expectations (Briones 5). During his childhood days, Richard experiences miserable living conditions, poverty, hunger, constant resettling of the family, lack of emotional support, and hunger, among others, which make him more hardworking and determined ( The family, however, proves supportive through the willingness of the relatives to help Richard’s family during his mother’s illness and her support for his writing work. Religion is presented in Black Boy. Richard is of the opinion that religion is oppressive and meaningless though there are some images and stories of the same he finds attractive. Richard perceives religion as a way of silencing curiosity and a questioning attitude to maintain the status quo of racism (Wright 100). Isolation is presented in the book through the life of Richard, most of which he spends alone. These times provide him with strength and happiness, out of which his love for writing, reading, and creativity is developed. Black Boy also presents the theme of rebellion based on the behavior and attitude of Richard from his childhood to his early adulthood. Richard rebels against and challenges both parental and other forms of authority (Wright 2). Despite Richard Wright’s parents’ demands toward him, he refuses to fit in their racial expectations and rebels against religion from his granny, he attempts physical violence against his aunt Addie and uncle Tom, refuses to read the speech as directed by the principal and goes against the party expectations and those of his fellow employees. Objects and Places of Significance in Black Boy As is evident from the theme essay on “Black Boy,” the novel Black Boy places emphasis and significance in certain places and objects in society. The places start at home, the church, Beale Street, the school, the church, and the communist party (Felgar 699). Richard portrays the home as a place of high emotional conflict with him being criticized for his rebellion, his father leaving them, and having to work at an early age (Wright 7). However, the home is also presented as a place of support where Ella can get help from the family during her poor health condition while she also supports the writing of Richard. Richard’s family perceives Beale Street as evil, yet contrary to this, Richard meets Moss his landlady and daughter who welcome and show interest in him by suggesting that he marries Bess since to them he is a nice person. Black Boy presents the place of the hospital, whereas a custodian dealing with animal tests, his black friends are not able to handle the experiment since the white doctors had not taught them, causing them to cover up for their mistake. Not sure if you can write a paper on Black Boy By Richard Wright [Text Analysis] by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is presented in the working life of Richard since whites do not mind blacks stealing or lying as long as they maintain their places in authority (Andrews and Taylor 77). The church plays a significant role in the book that granny and Addie use to discipline Richard. The church has transformed them into faith and belief that causes them to believe that the church is the one that can change Richard, who to granny is sinful and rebellious. Granny perceives the word of God as law and hence cannot be questioned while Richard is not interested in it. Black Boy presents the church as one way of increasing racism (Dinnerstein 82). The school presents as a significant place that enables Richard to get away from his family and reveals his desire for reading and writing. It presents a platform for Richard to be able to express himself, for example, through being able to give a speech and write “The Voodoo of Hell’s Half-acre” published in the local daily. However, the aspect of racism is also presented where the principal demands that Richard presents a different speech than the one he wanted to create a good impression and appease the white audience to maintain his job. Later on, in his professional life, Richard joins the communist party, which gives him a platform for his writing career (Bell-Russel 116). The party helps him realize that racism is not common to everyone, with some people just able to help others with human perspectives and have the zeal for realizing their full potential as usual human beings. Richard realizes that these kinds of people try to transform not only themselves but also the world through the use of politics. He finds like-minded people, but they are suspicious, ignorant, with human fears and insecurity, and they criticize him based on intellectualism. Richard experiences another moment of isolation, and he later leaves the party to maintain his values (Wright 389). Conclusion As the Black Boy text analysis shows, the novel by Richard Wright comprehensively presents the story of the author in his childhood through to his teenagehood. The relevance of the book has been enhanced through the use of first-person narration. This paper provides a review and analysis of the novel based on the plot summary, characters, themes, objects, and places mentioned in the story, thus revealing its creative and orderly manner. Works Cited Andrews, William, and Douglas Taylor. Richard Wright’s Black Boy (American hunger): a casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Bell-Russel, Danna. “Richard Wright: Black Boy.” Library Journal, 1 (1997): 115-116. Briones, Matthew. “Call and Response: Tracing the ideological shifts of Richard Wright through his correspondence with friends and fellow literati.” African American Review, 37.1 (2003): 53-64. Dinnerstein, Leonard. “The Viciousness of Racism.” Labor History, 40.1 (1999): 81-82. Felgar, Robert. Understanding Richard Wright’s Black boy: A Student casebook to issues, sources and historical documents. Westport: Greenwood Publishers, 1998. Gallantz, Michael. Richard Wright’s Native Son

Civilization Writing Assignment 3

Civilization Writing Assignment 3. I’m working on a History exercise and need support.

Compare the 17th-century development of absolutism in France with the development of constitutionalism in England. Why did each succeed in their respective political situations?
250 words minimum
APA formatting
Address at least two of the readings from the Perry reader in your response.
Perry, M. (2018). Sources of the Western tradition: From the Renaissance to the present (10th ed., Vol. 2). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Civilization Writing Assignment 3

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