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Problems with Neoclassical Economics A Case Study in China

1. Introduction Economics is the study of exchange between goods and services. However, many people do not know about the development of modern economics and what neoclassical economics is. This article will discuss the evolution of neoclassical economics, the three axioms, the problems associated with the three axioms of neoclassical economics, and finally, how a case study about educational fairness in China shows that there are many problems with neoclassical economics. 2. A Brief History of Neoclassical Economics Neoclassical economics was born out of classical economics. The term “classical” was first termed by Karl Marx, who was referring to David Ricardo’s theories on economics, such as the theory of value. The British economy collapsed in the 1870’s due to the classical economic approach that value was based on the affiliation between costs of production and the supply and demand. The Marginalist Revolution was founded by three economists; Jevons, Walras, and Mengar, which led to neoclassical economics. These economic scholars found that Marginalism and utilitarianism became more significant in dealing with the modern economics of the time. They also realized that there needed to be a new economic category to define these new approaches in economics and to be able to differentiate between classical economics from this new qualitative approach to economics. This new category of economics, neoclassic economics, was first used by Thorstein Veblen in his published a book called “Preconceptions of Economic Science.” His only intention in using this term was to characterize the theories of classical economists, while being critical to their theories (Colander, 131). 3. Definition of Neoclassical Economics: The Three Axioms According to Christian Arnsperger and Yanis Varoufakis, in order to define neoclassical economics, there are three axioms; methodological individualism, methodological instrumentalism, and the axiomatic imposition of equilibrium. Methodological individualism is the “body” of neoclassical economics, stating that everyone is well informed and rational. Methodological instrumentalism describes how preference is used to maximize the demand of goods, services, and/or profit. The axiomatic imposition of equilibrium is described as when a … “agent’s instrumental behavior is coordinated in a manner that aggregate behavior becomes sufficiently regular to give rise to solid predictions” (Arnsperger and Varoufakis, 5). The neoclassical approach can be better explained by using an example from E. Roy Weintraub . “Buyers try to maximize their gains from getting goods, and they do this by increasing their purchases of a good until what they gain from an extra unit is just balanced by what they have to give up to obtain it. In this way they maximize “utility.” The satisfaction associated with the consumption of goods and services. Likewise, individuals provide labor to firms that wish to employ them; by balancing the gains from offering the marginal unit of their services (the wage they would receive) with the disutility of labor itself the loss of leisure. Individuals make choices at the margin. This results in a theory of demand for goods, and supply of productive factors” – E. Roy Weintraub. 4. Problems with Neoclassical Economics: The Three Axioms There are many problems with the neoclassical economic theory. First, methodological individualism assumes that everyone has a rational way of thinking and is thoroughly informed, but this axiom is dubious. Humans are vulnerable in situations they are put in, which causes them to be irrational. Second, according to methodological instrumentalism, humans usually use their first choices of action in order to maximize the situation, such as in acquiring goods, services, and products. If taken into consideration that humans can be irrational, then how will they know if their preferences will maximize their situation? Third, the axiomatic imposition of equilibrium focuses on the fact that when the key behavior works with the collective behavior in a consistent manner predications will be stable. Nonetheless, it does not consider that if humans are vulnerable in a given situation, then they can react in an unpredictable way that can imbalance the collective’s behavior. 4.1 Educational Fairness in China: A Case Study Educational fairness has become a bigger issue over the years in China. The meaning of educational fairness considers equality in education, whether it be regarding finances or the access to education. Because this article is only focusing on an economic aspect, it will concentrate on the financial aspect concerning the equality of regional educational funding. Concerning the fairness of the Chinese educational system, there are four major problems; educational funding in rural areas, the allocation of funds, inequality of funds between private and public schools and the uneven acceptance of examination scores (Peng, 2009). Rural areas of China have been less developed in their education system compared to the metropolitan areas because of inadequate resources available for the local governments to give to the mandatory, nine year education system. This falling behind is also due the economic and social changes in the last half millennium. Pertaining to the distribution of funds, most of the funds of education go to universities (Peng, 2009). According to Wang Shanmai, a pedagogical economist, “…the money input in higher education accounts for 20% and middle and junior education 80%. For higher education, 80% of the expenditure comes from the government funding. However, only 60% is allocated for compulsory education” (Ping, 200). Another problem with China’s educational fairness is that public schools receive more funds than private schools. Private schools do not have any rights to compete fairly in development, such as awarding certified diplomas independently, students receiving discounts, and receiving student loans (Peng, 2009). The last problem concerning educational fairness in China comes from admitting students with different college entrance examination scores. The main concern is that many students cheat on their college entrance exams in order to be accepted at a university, and there is hardly any supervision when giving out the entrance examinations. The reason why many students get away with it is because the laws related to cheating are not strict enough and the consequence received is only at the minimal level (Peng, 2009). In order to prove that the neoclassical approach in economics is not reliable, Peng used two separate sets of data; one concerning educational spending and the other about public attitude in China concerning educational fairness. In the educational spending data, there are two parts. The first part was about the yearly educational spending from 1978-2007 and the second part was about the yearly educational spending in 2006 for different provinces in China (Peng 2009) Concerning the public interest, Peng created two indexes. The first index was about how many academic articles there were with the term “educational fairness” in their title and the other index was about how many public posts that had educational fairness as their subject. Figure 1 and 2 showed that the more money spent on education, the more likely people consider educational fairness as a more important issue in China. Even though the spending increased every year, the public’s reaction about educational fairness became more indignant. In Figures 3 and 4, they show that the more money the region receives for education, the more public would discuss about education fairness in that region (Peng, 2009). FIG. 1. Annual Education Spending (in billions) (Peng, 2009) FIG. 2. Annual Publications on Educational Fairness (Peng, 2009) FIG. 3. Educational Spending in 2006 by Provinces (Peng, 2009) FIG. 4. Number of Posts on Educational Fairness Online by Provinces (Peng, 2009) In order to show that the neoclassical theory is unreliable, the case study concerning educational fairness in China and the three axioms will be used to prove that the theory has many pitfalls. According to methodological individualism, everyone is rational in thinking and is well informed. However, according to the study, although the educational spending increased every year, public sentiment about educational fairness became more resentful. This is irrational because more people should be content with receiving more money from the government. One reason why the people might be unsatisfied might be because they were not well informed about which area it will go to in the education program, but this is just a theory. According to methodological instrumentalism, the first choice is used to get the most out of the demand of goods and services. So if the Chinese government prefers to give more money to urban areas and public schools to maximize the profit in investing into the young generation for a stronger economy in the future, then why not invest in rural areas as well? For the Chinese government to give more money to urban areas and public schools than rural areas is irrational and hurts the neoclassical theoretical way of thinking. The last axiom, the axiomatic imposition of equilibrium, believes that when an individual person works with a group without fail, predications will be steady. China is a collectivist nation, meaning that they do not take into account of their own interests but think of only of the interest of the collective, whether it may be for family, community and/or government. So according to the axiomatic imposition of equilibrium, an individual in China working with the collective should bring a stable predication that the more money a region receives for education, the collective should be more content. Predications should have been stable but were not. The people became disgruntled when they received more money so this predication was not constant. 5. Conclusion In conclusion, neoclassical economics can be defined by merging the three axioms; it is the supply and demand to an individual’s rationality and preference by means of their ability to maximize utility and/or profit. However, using Peng’s study about the educational fairness in China, the neoclassical theory in economics has many pitfalls. People should be rational, informed, work with the collective, and use their preferences to gain the most profit; however, this is not the case with China. The Chinese people should be more content with receiving more money for their education, but Chinese citizens gave the opposite reaction than expected. Even though regions are getting more money for education, there is still inequality where cities and public schools are receiving more money. If the government wants to invest in the future, they should also invest in the education in rural areas so that the country will benefit economically in the future. In conclusion, neoclassical economics can be very disputable because of the fact that this theory does not take into consideration that humans can be irrational and unpredictable.

SPD200 Special Education

SPD200 Special Education. I’m working on a English exercise and need support.

Imagine you have a fifth grade student, Joel, in an inclusive class. Joel is 11-years-old and has autism, and he is struggling with working in groups, getting along with other students, and interacting at age-appropriate levels within groups. Group work is used regularly for assignments. You find that Joel has meltdowns during every group work session. Sometimes he even has these meltdowns before students are put in groups, as he anticipates the overstimulation before it even occurs. Other students have expressed concerns and have asked to not be in his group. When meltdowns occur, they affect the entire classroom for several minutes. The outbursts range from mild to moderate, from tantrums to crying or shutting down.
Create a plan, in a 500-750 word narrative, to share with the co-teacher. Explain the following in your plan:
Intervention:

How you would intervene and de-escalate Joel when he has an outburst.
How you would collaborate with the co-teacher to intervene and debrief the other students in the class after one of Joel’s episodes.
Proactive ways to soothe Joel and prevent such episodes in the future.

Collaboration:

How you would collaborate with the co-teacher to continue support for Joel and his peers in the classroom.
What you and the co-teacher could do to support peer interactions for Joel.

SPD200 Special Education

When a New Manager Stumbles, Whos at Fault? Individual Case Analysis

essay writing help When a New Manager Stumbles, Whos at Fault? Individual Case Analysis.

Individual Case Analysis Paper CASE: When a New Manager Stumbles, Who’s at Fault? ( Please see the Individual Case Analysis attached below) This assignment is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your understanding of the class material and your ability to effectively apply that material by providing a high quality analysis of the motivation problems in the case.You can effectively accomplish this assignment using only the materials we discussed in the class sessions on motivation and learning as well as the material in your textbook (most likely Chapters 5, 6 and 7). You should not use outside resources (e.g., the internet, other books) to complete this assignment.Note, this is an individual analysis, so you should not discuss the case, the concepts you plan to apply to the case, or any other aspects of your answers to the questions with others. Questions to be addressed for the analysis: In the case, three of Goldstone’s employees (i.e., Skrow, Puckett, and Durkee) are discussed.You will analyze the problems that two of these three employees are experiencing (i.e., you may choose whichever two employees you wish to analyze; do not analyze all three). Using a unique motivation theory/concept for each employee (e.g., if you use the expectancy model of motivation for one employee, use a different motivation concept/theory for the other employee) analyze the motivation problem the employee is experiencing.Clearly explain each concept you are using as well as how it helps to explain what is going wrong with the employee. Then, indicate what motivation strategies you would recommend the manager use for each person and why (i.e., explain what the manager should do to correct the problem(s) for each individual you identify and why your strategy would be effective). Note that the solutions should relate to the concept/theory you used to diagnose the problem.Your analysis of the problem and solution for each employee will likely differ. Thus, you should present a unique diagnosis when relevant, and provide a tailored strategy for each person you select. Length and Format: The maximum word limit for the paper is 750 words (there is no minimum).You must be concise. Papers should be formatted as follows: Double-spaced, 1-inch margins, 12 point Times New Roman font. You may find structuring the paper in the following manner to be helpful (you may discuss the employees in whichever order you choose): Employee 1 – concept of your choosing Employee 1 – solution Employee 2 – concept Employee 2 – solution Please use headings and subheadings to organize your analysis.You do not need an introduction or concluding paragraph; save the word count for the analysis of the employees’ motivation problems and proposed solutions.Imagine the audience for your case analysis is another SJSU student who has not yet taken BUS 160 but who has read the case.Thus, you need to clearly explain the concepts you are using (i.e., you should be able to teach the construct to someone else in your own words), how the concepts apply, and why your solutions would work according to the theory you used.You should devote more page space to analyzing the motivation problems and describing solutions than to merely summarizing the details of the case. References: You will need to cite any material you include from the case and class readings. I’m not particular about which style guide you use (e.g., MLA, APA) as long as it is clear whom and what you are citing. If you would like to cite material you paraphrase from class lectures, you may do so by including the following information (Mullen lecture notes, lecture date). If you would like to cite material from the textbook, you may do so by citing (George & Jones, year and page number if relevant).Page numbers are only required for direct quotations.If you would like to directly quote material from the case, you may do by citing (Adler, pg. xx).Note, that direct quotations from the case are probably not necessary. Evaluation: You will be evaluated on: The accuracy with which you explain and apply the conceptual material from class discussions or the readings (e.g., does your application demonstrate understanding of the material, did you choose the most relevant conceptual material in your analysis).The persuasiveness of your arguments (are your arguments compelling, did you sufficiently explain your reasoning?).The effectiveness of your proposed remedies to address the problems identified in the analysis. Be sure to explain clearly why these remedies would be effective. The extent to which your analysis is organized and written in a clear and concise manner.Professionalism: Proper use of grammar, spelling, etc.Please proof your papers.Please consult the rubric on Canvas before beginning your assignment. How to turn it in: Upload the paper to Canvas by the deadline. The paper needs to be saved as LastName_FirstName_ICA.Please give yourself “buffer” time in case you encounter difficulties uploading the assignment.Papers should be submitted as word documents. Late assignments. Late assignments – no matter how soon after the deadline they are uploaded – will be marked as late and will receive a 20% grade reduction for the assignment. Each subsequent 24 hours that passes after the assignment is due will result in an additional 20% reduction. Thus, after five days no late assignments will be accepted. Academic integrity. This is an individual analysis, so you should not discuss the case, the concepts you plan to apply to the case, or any other aspects of your answers to the questions with others.The one exception is that you may get help from the staff at the writing center to improve your writing.Collaborating or discussing the case with others is a violation of academic integrity. I trust that each student will author her or his own work. Papers that closely resemble each other will be cause for suspicion. If a student has any concern about whether a certain action might violate the Academic Integrity Policy, ask Professor. It is better to ask than to assume. Papers will be run though TurnItIn which is integrated in Canvas. This software will compare each assignment to all other assignments from this class and previous classes as well as with any other online content. Please also review SJSU’s plagiarism guidelines: http://info.sjsu.edu/static/catalog/integrity.html
When a New Manager Stumbles, Whos at Fault? Individual Case Analysis

Discussion post minimum 400 words and please include references in APA format

Discussion post minimum 400 words and please include references in APA format.

Judge James Shoreman is up for reelection in 2 months. He has a full docket on Monday morning. Two of the individuals on this docket are Thomas J. Catalano and Abdul Hussein Jabari. Mr. Catalano has been charged with involuntary manslaughter. His prior record consists of breaking and entering, assault on a police officer, and possession of narcotics. Mr. Catalano has a “high-priced” lawyer with the discretionary funds for an additional investigation. Mr. Catalano has a wife and two children. He has been employed for 5 years for the local banking institution. Mr. Catalano has received a 10-year probation sentence with the stipulation that if he violates this probation, he will serve the remainder of the sentence in the state prison. Mr. Jabari has been charged with the distribution of a controlled substance (prescription drugs). His prior record consists of possession of narcotics and falsification of identity. Mr. Jabari has a court-appointed lawyer who is on the pro bono list maintained by the judge. His funds are limited but the Muslim community has rallied to his financial aid, and there have been demonstrations at the courthouse. Mr. Jabari has a wife and three children. He has been employed for 8 years as the chief chef at a local restaurant. Mr. Jabari has received 7 years in the state prison, without the possibility of good time. Looking at the family situations, the employment situations, and community support, give a reason why you think the judge would render such decisions.How could the judge support his decisions?Do you think he showed any type of bias? Why or why not?If he did, what form of bias?Could the demonstration have had an adverse effect upon the sentencing? How? Why?Search the Web, and find 2 examples in which minorities were sentenced unfairly.Explain the reasoning behind this sentencing, and determine if the sentences were fair or biased.
Discussion post minimum 400 words and please include references in APA format

adaptation

adaptation. Paper details How would you go about making our culture more hospitable for the human body? In your answer be sure to summarize relevant Hominin evolutionary history as outlined in the “Story of the Human Body” and in lectures that established what our bodies/minds are evolved to do plan, and account for the stresses imposed upon us due to the development of different forms of culture (e.g., complex agricultural, and industrialized societies) . Lastly, construct a tenable plan; that is, items that could be done to promote the type of change that will make your life and/or our modern society more hospitable for our evolved bodies and minds. Be sure to include methods of bringing about change that you can do in your own life. Rubric: Top quality responses should be designed to educate the reader on the major transitions in human evolution and how early adaptations still are part of the modern living experience. Like you have seen in the Your Inner Fish video series, you should create a brief “Your Inner Hominin”. Your response should be considered to be both educational and persuasive. Ideally, your response should be a piece that can be read out loud in about 10 minutes, which is the average time a typical person will stay engaged in an argument. Additionally, your response should be written towards the average person and not a professor, so you should define discipline specific terms in your response so as not to lose the reader. When you cite resources in your response make sure to do so for the purpose of building confidence in your reader and not just to show where an idea came from. Too many references will slow the flow and too few will make it seem unbelievable. Again, your goal is to educate and persuade the average reader. You are free to bring in personal experiences and things which you are planning to do or have already done in regards to the question.adaptation

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