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Problematic Social Security and Ways of Solution Term Paper

Introduction Social security is an insurance program where workers pay when they are employed. Moreover, the employers pay a matching contribution to the programs. Therefore, social security’s guaranteed benefits are available to support workers and their families after retirement or after they lose their career due to disabilities or death of a breadwinner. The social security program is one of the most successful insurance programs. However, lawyers, politicians, and even professionals who try to analyze the issue have misunderstood it. Therefore, this paper tries to explain and differentiate social security from a pension that is paid to support the income of retired employees because it is also designed to ensure and protect the families of the deceased workers. Social Security issues Social Security issues address a number of groups of people who include people with disabilities, retired employees, as well as the survivors. To start with, disability is a big issue of social security. There has been a challenge while trying to reach disabled people with the message of the benefits that they can get from social security (Seipel 69). Disability insurance is a social security program that was introduced to provide cash benefits to people with disabilities. That is, it makes monthly reimbursement to individuals who are no longer able to do any job due to impairments, which are expected to continue for a year or which are likely to bring about the passing away of the individual. However, the benefits are based on a person’s preceding earnings. Even after lowering the amount that a person needs to pay to be eligible for the cover, the issue of poverty has been a limiting factor since many individuals find it hard to get extra coins to cater for that program. Payments are made to the handicapped person together with the dependent family members. For an individual to be eligible for these benefits, one must have worked in jobs that are covered by social security schemes. This requirement is another issue that filters individuals who can benefit from the program. It means that many other disabled people cannot access it if they have not been in the job market to enroll for the scheme. After successfully getting Disability Insurance (DI) for a period of two years, individuals then qualify for Medicare. The majority of people who benefit from this program have multiple disabling conditions. In fact, out of about ten million individuals who got disabled employee benefits at the beginning of 2012, 31 percent had cerebral impairments as the major disabling condition or principal diagnosis. Despite the many complications that people encounter, in addition to their efforts to join the program, there is no follow-up to find out whether they have had satisfaction with it or not. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second issue concerns the retired employees. Social security introduced the retirement insurance plan to take care of the retirees. It offers retirement application forms that an individual can fill through the internet. These forms can be accessed and filed online at the convenience of an individual. However, there is much delay when one waits for feedback on approval after providing the required details. The program provides a basis of the giving-up-work income that ex-workers complement with retirement funds and investments. Benefits alone cannot provide a sufficient and comfortable level of living despite them being adjusted to about 1.7 percent to keep up with the cost of living (Lavery and Reno 43). Social security benefits are comparatively modest both in dollar amounts and in relation to retirees’ previous income. However, the benefits are significantly imperative for the households receiving them. About 90 percent of both married and unmarried persons of age 65 and above receive social security benefits as their main source of income. However, reaching these people in a timely manner has been an issue. As such, they are ensuring consistency has been a burning challenge to social security since a one-time failure to cover the eligible individuals can be such a significant hitch to them. The reason why social security is such a large portion of income is that most Americans above the age of 65 do not receive income from pensions, private employment, or from jobs in state or local government (Lavery and Reno 54). Besides, for the individuals who receive pension income, the amount is too minute to keep up with the price growth after retirement despite the presence of automatic cost of living adjustments. The majority of individuals think that social security is only for retirement programs. It has been a challenge while trying to communicate the scope of services that one can get from social security. Very few people from rural areas lack even a hint about the existence of social security. There is a need to create awareness that social security also takes care of survivors who include people who are left by their parents when they die or are retrenched. Social security helps by providing income to the children where their parents lose a career through death or incapacitation. Therefore, 98 percent of children can get benefits when their parents die. When an individual dies or loses a job, members of the victim qualify for survivor benefits. These members include the divorced, the deceased siblings, and the dependent parents. As an individual does the job and caters for social security levies, he or she gets acknowledgment towards social security reimbursement. Therefore, the amount of time that individuals require to do the job on behalf of their households to qualify for social security survivor reimbursements is determined by their age during the death of the person. However, no individual is required to do the job for more than ten years to be appropriate for the program reimbursements (Dattalo 240). We will write a custom Term Paper on Problematic Social Security and Ways of Solution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under an exemption decree, if an individual passes on after having done the job for only almost two years just before he or she is bereaved, reimbursements can be made to one’s kids and the party that takes the burden of raising them. In the case of separated couples, if a male partner passes on, the previous companion who has more than 60 years can enjoy the payback if the matrimony had been working for a decade or more. One’s accumulated wages determine the total amount that relatives can receive from the program. This implies that the more an individual makes, the more the reimbursement. The maximum value an individual can get in terms of benefits per month is about 170 percent of the deceased’s benefit amount. Wrong Decisions made by the US Government towards Social Security Social Security is a complicated system that has forced many retirees to consider many options in order to establish the option that will maximize their lifetime benefits. However, the US government policymakers have made it difficult for individuals who try to appeal for various benefits. For instance, if a person is claiming for social security disability plan, various unnecessary aspects are applied. For example, the probability of getting benefits increases with age. In fact, an individual with age of 55 is more likely to be listed for impairment in relation to a younger person. The other aspect is the level of education of an individual. If an individual is more educated, the chances of getting benefits radically decrease. The assumption is that the higher the individual’s education, the more probable the person is able to work. However, if an individual is not more experienced in a certain field of specialization, education is not a factor. This decision criterion is wrong because disability can arise to any individual regardless of whether he or she is skilled or unskilled, or educated or uneducated, thus making the victim unable to execute his or her duties (Lavery and Reno 56). Another wrong decision made by the US policymakers is complicating social security, particularly among the married couples. It has been difficult for an individual to estimate clearly the benefits that one is eligible to receive. For instance, in case of divorced couples, where one spouse remarries the second or third, with all marriages ending up in divorce, the law is not clear on how much each ex-spouse will get from the deceased benefit. However, only the ex-spouses who meet the 10-year threshold will benefit from the deceased survivor benefits. This criterion is wrong because the spouses may have children who need help. If their parents did not hold their marriage for the ten years, this decision works to the children’s disadvantage. Not sure if you can write a paper on Problematic Social Security and Ways of Solution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A taxon social security is another wrong decision made by the US policymakers. Depending on the social security level, an individual has to pay tax on the portion of one’s social security. The limit of individual benefits that are assessed for taxation is only 85 percent. This limit implies a loss of the revenues of the government. Therefore, it should ensure that this rate is adjusted to 100 percent. Delaying the benefits for the retirees is a wrong decision. Many individuals are low-income earners. As a result, they may not have the patience to wait from the age of 62 to 70 to get their benefits adjusted to 76 percent for inflation. Therefore, it is approximately 2 percent of the individuals who have the patience to wait this long. The retirement benefits should be provided to individuals immediately after retirement because a person may not be having other sources of revenues. At the age of 62, one may not be having the energy to work properly. However, taking the social security retirement benefits, this early is viewed as ignoring the fiduciary accountability to be concerned with the future. Good Policies on Social Security A social security Insurance program is the largest federal plan that pays more than $750 billion in total benefits to more than 56 million persons. Therefore, the program boosts both the economy of the country as well as the individual states where the benefits are enjoyed. When individuals buy goods and services using their social security benefits, they raise business sales, which eventually help both the firm and the companies supplying the products. Social security has enormous impacts on the economy than even the dollar in its benefit payments. When the beneficiaries expend their monthly benefits, the effects always flow to the economy. Therefore, when these outcomes were analyzed, the economists came up with a model known as ‘the multiplier,’ which represents the rising effects of payments as they flow through the economy. To understand how the plan works, one should first understand the role of social security to beneficiaries in addition to knowing how it supports personal consumption (Lavery and Reno 56). Social security benefits are a source of income for many households. Particularly, the inflation-protected social security benefits constitute a guaranteed income for retirees and their families. Therefore, a good share of the unmarried people relies largely on social security benefits as compared to any other source of income. It is also a significant source of income for disabled employees, particularly those who enjoy disability benefits. The benefits of social security are always paid regardless of the overall economy. In many cases, they end uprising during a recession. This event is significant for both the beneficiaries and the stabilizing influence of gradual economic recovery. During the recession, payments of benefits support consumption for the beneficiaries. The fact that most of the beneficiaries spend all or most of their income is a great advantage to the economy through acquiring goods and services such as food, clothing, and health care. However, the tendency to spend from source income is known as the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) from income. Therefore, the higher expenditure of the benefits among the beneficiaries causes a high impact on the economy because more dollars circulating in the economy. Age also affects the marginal propensity to consume. In fact, older people tend to have reached that stage in life where they spend down their assets as opposed to saving. They are generally assumed to have a greater propensity to consume in relation to the younger generation. In the case of a multiplier, the process starts when beneficiaries use their social security benefits to acquire goods and services. For instance, a retiree uses part of one’s income to acquire goods from local merchants such as the hardware stores. These local merchants spend the revenue in paying their workers as well as buying more from their suppliers to stock their stores for future clients. Therefore, these consecutive spending rounds make up a very successful social security in the economy. Tax revenues from social security are a major source of revenue to the centralized, state, and local regimes. The levies may take the form of revenue tax, trade duties, and asset taxes, which increase the income for the government. Bad Policies on Social Security A social security program faces bad policies that include running short of money. The program is also affected by so many variables that make it problematic for long-term projections. Data shows that social security is not in crisis by any chance. However, there is no law that requires it to contribute to the federal deficit. Social security cannot borrow. Therefore, it cannot pay benefits if it lacks the revenue to make up for them. This situation reveals the reason why social security cannot be used in the deficit reduction arrangement (Dattalo 238). There are better returns through private investment. Various lawyers of personal retirement account options are advocating for employees to invest in private capital markets because they yield higher returns as compared to the current social security. Of late, this view has gained enormous acceptance among workers. The social security program operates at a rate of return in theory. Taxes that are paid to the program by the present employees are not saved to cater for their future benefits. Instead, these sums are instantly paid for the benefits of the present retirees. Therefore, the future retirement benefits for the present employees will depend on the taxes paid by the following generation of employees. The economic growth projections that were suggested by Mueller about social securities are inconsistent with the projections of the economy. The fact is that future returns can vary. They can be high or low since there is no basis of assuming that the results will be different by any chance (Skidmore 303). Generally, employees in the social security program lack assets or property rights to support their benefits. They end up relying heavily on the interplay of national politics for their benefits. Therefore, some groups of beneficiaries might become politically unpopular, thus ending up suffering benefits cut-offs (Millar 67). There is the introduction of the transition tax to finance the new system. During the period when employees start paying to the personal accounts instead of social security benefits, one will successfully fund any deficit in social security benefits through increased taxes on employees and their retirement accounts. The Reasons behind the Social Security Problems and their Causes Lately, the social security program is running into problems since people currently have fewer children. Since the early 1960s, the birth rate has declined by about 30 percent. It had dropped from about three children per woman to two or three kids. This situation has caused a major change to the population and distribution of a country. Consequently, it has led to fewer people who can work and/or produce goods and services while at the same time paying taxes to the social security in comparison with the majority of the retired workers who consume the benefits (Dattalo 242). Age-dependency is another cause of problems in the social security program. The number of people in the social security of age 65 and above is relatively high in relation to the number of individuals in the social security between ages 20 to 64 who have the potential to work. The present level is about 20 percent. It is expected to increase to 35 percent by 2030. The main causes of these disparities are due to the changing values, lifestyle, and/or the introduction of birth control pills. The future funding of the social security’s program lies in the revolutionary improvement of women’s ways of life. Another cause is that several people rely heavily on social security finances for their retirement revenue. However, the intention of creating a social security scheme is to prevent older individuals from falling into poverty after employment. Therefore, it was not meant to provide a comfortable life for people. Conversely, 70 percent of retirees who rely heavily on social security is too high to be sustained (Dattalo 242). Besides, the regressive social security tax is 14 percent, regardless of the benefits of an individual. An employee who makes $200,000 a year pays 7 percent while the one earning $500,000 only pays 3 percent. This type of tax system only makes poor people poorer while at the same time creating high disparities between the poor and the rich. Solutions to improve the Issues of Social Security It is apparent that the program keeps on losing significance to persons as time goes on. However, it is wise to take note that gets rid of the program while not sparing the levies that finance it will even make the situation unbearable to people. Since the government understands this fact, it has availed the program to provide a uniform income to older retirees. Therefore, few solutions have been postulated to allow the program to remain in place. Increasing the Payroll Tax For more than 70 years, increasing the payroll tax has been tried with no success. The fact is that it only postpones the problem while costing the government a lot of money in the short-term. Moreover, raising taxes cannot be a permanent resolution because deficiency of levy dollars is not the source of the problem. Worse, this concept does not amuse employees (Lavery and Reno 58). Adjusting the Retirement Age Rising the retirement age for the individuals has yielded economic hardships. For instance, increasing the age from the previous 65 years to 66 years has led to a reduction of benefits by about 6.5 percent. However, for individuals who have the patience to wait until 67, the loss is only about 14 percent. In addition, adjusting the retirement age intensifies income equality among the income groups (Skidmore 305). The understanding is that life expectancy has increased, thus heightening the retirement age. It is also criticized in that it is biased with reference to individuals who fairly sacrificed to remit their money, but have to do the job for extra time to get the reimbursement. Cutting down some Federal Spending Programs Changing some centralized expenditures will assist in resolving the social security troubles through increasing its financial support. However, politicians have disagreed with this aspect mainly because altering a single department of government can make it unbearable for workers in that department. This situation only requires the social security fund to be self-independent. Privatization of Social Security Program Privatization of social security is still an idea that is being debated. However, it is yet to be put in place. This strategy remains the best idea to solve the problem of social security because individuals are given the options to decide how their money should be invested. However, while private investments seem advantageous, these returns are normally overstated in most of the cases (Skidmore 306). Conclusion For about 80 years ago, the social security program has paid financial benefits to qualified individuals and families in full and in a timely manner. Therefore, the social security plan has not only contributed to federal deficits but also the growth of the economy through the provision of benefits to retirees, disabled, as well as survivors. However, after having benefited from social security funds in terms of surplus, the government must ensure that it honors its promise of paying back the money so that the program can meet its target. Therefore, the government must come up with a strategy to get the revenue that is required by either levying additional taxes or cutting from other programs. By making a few modest adjustments, social security can be on a solid footing for many years. Works Cited Dattalo, Patrick. “Borrowing to save: A critique of recent proposals to partially privatize social security.” Social work 52.3(2007): 233-242. Print. Lavery, Joni, and Virginia P. Reno. Children’s stake in social security. London: National Academy of Social Insurance, 2008. Print. Millar, Jane. Understanding social security: issues for policy and practice. New York, NY: The Policy Press, 2009. Print. Seipel, Michael. “Social Security: Strengthen Not Dismantle.” Journal of Sociology
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Table of Contents (Jump to) Introduction Q1. In health and social care organizations: review systems, policies and procedures used in communicating and maintain health and safety at work in accordance to legislative requirements. Q2. From this case study 1 above; analyse health and safety priorities that are important to Mr W’s health and wellbeing. In relation, analyse the impact of one aspect of health and safety policy on MR.W and health and safety practice. Q3. Draw your organizational chart using this as a guide, assess the responsibilities in a specific health and social care workplace for management of health and safety in relation to organizational structures Q4. Using the case study 1 above, Produce a risk assessment based on your work and analyze how information from these are used in identifying service-user’s needs and organizational decision-making. CASE STUDY 2 Q5. Using the above case study, Discuss how you would address this situation (i.e. the dilemma) in line with implementing systems and policies for health and safety issues and evaluate your own contribution to promote Health

The Reverse Product Cycle Model Of Service

In this essay, I will be evaluate the effectiveness of reverse product life cycle as a theory of innovations in service and to find out if there is alternative model that does a better job in this. To answer the question, I will first look at some of the major characteristics of services and how they compare to that of manufactured goods; I will then look at the three different approaches of service innovation theories. Next, I will look at what a normal product life cycle looks like, how it can be used to explain innovations in manufactured goods. After that, I will look at the different stages of reverse product cycle and evaluate it effectiveness with the help of examples. I will also look at some of its limitations and questions raised by other authors. Finally I will look at the four dimension model of service innovation to find out if it is a better alternative than that of the reverse product cycle. Goods and services are often mentioned in the same sentence, while there are many similarities between the two, they are actually very different. Services are something that is intangible offered or sold to customers; it is not something that can be contact physically. When people purchase a good, they actually own the product after paying for it. But this is not the case in services. Good examples of services are public transports, mail deliveries, insurances, retail banking, and broadband internet. Here we can see, these are products that cannot be owned even if you pay for it. The differences between goods and services are so huge and obvious; it is not surprised to see the innovation processes of the two are hugely different too. Innovations in manufactured goods are often related to innovations in technologies. When it comes to research and development, manufacturing companies focus on improving the technologies and performances of their products. However innovation in services mainly focuses on improving the design of the services instead of the technological aspects. Tekes, a Finnish website defined service innovation as the following : “Service innovation is a new or significantly improved service concept that is taken into practice. It can be for example a new customer interaction channel, a distribution system or a technological concept or a combination of them. A service innovation always includes replicable elements that can be identified and systematically reproduced in other cases or environments. The replicable element can be the service outcome or the service process as such or a part of them. A service innovation benefits both the service producer and customers and it improves its developer’s competitive edge” (Tekes) Although innovation in manufactured are much more well known than innovations in services, there were a number of models, theories or frameworks which was produced over the years in order to help and explain the nature of services innovations. These theories and models can be fitted into three different approaches. They are service-orientated approaches, integrative approaches and technologist approaches. In this essay, we will focus on Richard Barra’s reverse product cycle which falls into the technologist category, it is important to note that the technologist approach is the most common approach out of the three, it focuses mainly on bringing in new equipments and technical systems into service firms and industries. Reverse product cycle was introduced in one of Barra’s articles named ‘ towards a theory of innovation in services which was published in the Research Policy journal in April 1986. Barra realized at the time the importance of services industries in the economies and that most of the economic theories of innovation focuses exclusively on manufacturing goods. Because of this, Barra decided to develop a theoretical model that explain innovation process in services industries. (Gallouj. F 1998) Before we explain how the reverse product life cycle can be used to explain innovation in services, we need to first understand how the normal product life cycle operates. Product life cycle can be separated into four different stages: they are 1) the take-off or introduction stage, 2) the growth stage, 3) the maturity stage and finally 4) the decline stage. (QuickMBA) During the introduction stage, the company’s main objective is to promote the product therefore potential customers become aware of the existence of the new products. The product at this stage is new to the public, and its performance is often superior compare to alternatives. The price at this stage is usually high in order to cover the production costs, and the volume of output is often low. The competitive edge at this stage lies in the performances of the product. The nature of the innovation process here is product innovation (QuickMBA) The growth stage, during this stage, customers are well aware of the existence of the product and a number of competitors has emerged, these competitors will offer products with similar performances and merits. the main goals for firm at this phase is to increases or maintain market shares. The price at this stage is often lower than that of previous stage and the volume of output increases also. In order to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals, a firm will focuses on improving the quality of the product which can be done by adding additional features. The nature of the innovation process here is radical. (QuickMBA) Maturity stage, during this stage even more competitors has emerged. The market starting to become saturated. The price of the product will further decrease as there are more competitions around, and the level of output greatly increases. The nature of the innovation process at this stage is incremental. The competitive focus here is to reduce production costs which leads to lower price and increasing output as much as possible therefore selling more units which leads to higher profits. (QuickMBA) Decline stage, this stage is reached when the market is totally saturated and the product’s technology become established. There are always the threats from newer and more advanced technologies here. When a new technology emerged, the whole cycle begins all over again, with the old technology declined and new technology introduced. (QuickMBA) In his article, Barras argued that the product life cycle as a whole is not driven by one single force. He suggested that early on in the cycle, technology push driving force is predominant where as later on in the cycles where the nature of the innovations are incremental, the predominant force is usually demand pull force generated by users. (Barras. R 1986) Now we understand how product life cycle can be used to explain the process of innovation in manufactured goods, we will now look at the reverse product life cycle which is concerned with innovations in services. Reverse product life cycle works in a complete opposite direction compared to the normal product cycle. The first stage of the cycle involves incremental innovations which aim to increase the efficiency of existing services. The second stage of the cycle is concerned with radical innovations where innovations are focused on improving the quality of existing services. The third and final stage of the reverse product cycle is focus on developing a totally brand new service that is significantly different compared to other services in the industries. (Barras. R 1986) To have a better understanding of the reverse product cycle, we will look at a few examples that were illustrated in Barra’s articles. The examples we will look at are local governments, insurance companies and accounting companies which are all in the services industries. During the first stage of the cycle in the 1970, companies were applying mainframe computer technology in services organisations. The purpose of the application is to improve efficiency as well as cutting down the demand for labour in services sector. The application of computer technology was employed by insurance company to computerised records of policies. It also provides computer audit techniques as well as internal time recording for accounting companies. Finally it was used by local governments to computerise personnel records and payroll. The applications of mainframes computers had greatly increase the efficiency in these three sectors, it has cut down the demand for labour by a considerable amount. The nature of innovation is incremental and the type of investment is considered to be in the capital deepening nature. The full effects of the mainframes computer became fully conscious to companies by 1979 which lead to the reverse cycle entering the next stage. (Barras. R 1986) In the second stage which was round the 1980s, companies began applying mini and micro computer technology in the services industries. Local government used the technology to computerize house waiting list. Insurance companies began to provide online quotations in branch offices. And accountancy used the technology to computerized accounting management and book-keeping services. The mini and micro computer technology is radical rather than incremental; it improves the effectiveness of the services instead of just the efficiency. Unlike the previous stage, the type of investment is considered to be capital widening investment and it has no impact on the demand of labour. (Barras. R 1986) In the third stage of the reverse product cycle, the focus is not on improving the quality of the services anymore; instead it is about creating totally new services. At this stage, companies concentrates on developing a new service that is different and better to other services in the industries. By doing this, companies can create a completely new market. Back to our examples, networking technology was developed in the 1990s and was employed by insurance companies, accounting companies and local governments. This networking technology provides users a full online insurance and investment services. For accounting companies, the networking technology allows companies to offer a completely automatic audit and accounts services. For the local governments, viewdata system became available to the local residents to get public information services. Like previous stage, the investement type here is again considered to be capital widening, however the nature of the innovation is no longer just a process, instead it focuses on product. It is important to point out that this stage has a positive impact on labour, increasing the demand of labour and level of employments. (Barras. R 1986) Once the new technology is established and adopted by public, just like the normal product life cycle, the reverse cycle will start all over again and start at stage one again where innovation nature would be incremental and focuses on improving the efficiency of the new product. (Barras. R 1986) Now that we understand how the reverse product cycle operates, it is important for us to examine its validity in explaining innovation is services. In an article named Innovation in reverse: services and the reverse product cycle which was published in the European Journal of Innovation Management in 1998, the author, Professor Faiz Gallouj pointed out the limitations of the model in the third stage. Gallouj argued that the model sees innovations as products. But in services, the product is in fact a process, therefore it is difficult for a process to be explained in a model that was originally designed to explain a product. (Gallouj. F 1998) Gallouj pointed out that Barra’s model are drawn from case studies that focus only on information and telecommunications technologies in vanguard services sector. And because of this, Gallouj raised two questions in his article. The first being if the model is valid for all vanguard services? And the second question is if the model is valid in explaining technologies other than information and telecommunications? (Gallouj. F 1998) There are evidences to show that the reverse product cycle does not apply to all vanguard services. The first example is legal consultancy in France which is clearly a type of services. An empirical study carried out by Gallouj suggested that legal consultancy in France does not appeared to show a reverse product life cycle. This is because consultancy is not open to technological information and it doesn’t handle codified information. Having said that, there are signs of innovations in this activity, but the nature of innovations doesn’t fall into the ones in the reverse product cycle. (Gallouj. F 1998) The second example is notary, microcomputers and fax machines were introduced to these services but these innovations are only incremental, there are no signs of radical and product innovations. (Gallouj. F 1998) These two examples have shown that the reverse product cycle isn’t really valid for all vanguard services. Barras’ model is only valid in explaining vanguard services that are greatly influenced by technological evolution. (Gallouj. F 1998) We will now look at the second question raised by Gallouj, whether the reverse product cycle model can be applied to technologies other than information and telecommunications? (Gallouj. F 1998) Again to answer this question, we will look at two examples that were discussed in Gallouj’s paper. The first example is containerized transport, it was an incremental innovations in the beginning improving efficiency of transports which falls nicely into the first stage of the cycle. In the second stage, the sizes of the containers are made identical and unloading cranes was introduced. These changes greatly improves the effectiveness of the services, the service’s quality was greatly enhanced. In recent years, the tracking technology has been introduced to this service making it possible to know the exact details of the container at all time, these details includes its ownership, its origins and its destinations. This technology improves the services so much that it can considered being a brand new service. Therefore we can see the innovations in containerized transports over the years fit the reverse product cycle quite nicely. (Gallouj. F 1998) The second example Gallouj discussed is the fast food services in America. He suggested that cooking and refrigeration technologies are incremental innovations whereas computerized menu ordering is radical innovations process as it increases the quality of the services by a considerable amount. (Gallouj. F 1998) From these two examples, we can see the reverse product cycle can be applied on other services other than information and telecommunication. So is the reverse product cycle a good model to explain innovations in services? Should we continue to use it in the future? The model is useful in explaining innovation process when the innovation is technological related, however not all innovations are technological; therefore the model is only useful in explaining some areas of services innovation. Having said that, the model still provides tremendous amounts of insights on how some innovations process are carried out, therefore it should still be used in the future. So are there any other models that are more promising than the reverse product cycle by Barras? As mentioned earlier, one of the shortcomings of Barras’ model is that it only focuses on innovations that are considered to be technological. Therefore it would be useful to look at Den Hertog’s four dimensional model of service innovations which explain four different areas of innovations. The four dimensions are 1) service concept 2) client interface 3) service delivery system and 4) technological options. The above diagram is taken from the international journal of innovation management page 495 New service concept is when a new idea is introduced in a particular market. The new idea only has to be new in the market in question; it can be an existing in other markets. Call centre service is a good example of this dimension. (Hertog. D 2000) New client interface is the interface design between the service provider and the customers. The communication channels between service providers and customers can be innovation itself. A good example of this dimension is electronic data interchange (EDI) (Hertog. D 2000) Service delivery system is similar to dimension two, but it is actual arrangement that is planned internally by the service provider in order to make sure their employees to do their job correctly. A good example of this dimension would be how amazon delivery ebooks using 3g technology onto consumers’ kindle reader (Hertog. D 2000) Technological option is the final dimension, although innovation doesn’t have to be technological, many innovations have technological elements. IT is the most common form of innovations, a good example would be parcel tracking services provided by royal mail. (Hertog. D 2000) Hertog suggested that any given service innovations will have a combinations of the dimensions mentioned above. In fact, quite frequently they become interdependent with each other. Often times when a new service product is introduced in the market, it will need a new client interface design so communication between service provider is clear, also new delivery system should be planned too in order for the staff to delivery the service properly. (Hertog. D 2000) For example Royal mail introducing the tracking technologies of parcels will need a brand new interface (website) for consumers to be able to use the services; they will also need staff to deal with issues with the tracking system that might occur (delivery system) The four dimension model is an excellent framework illustrating how services innovation can be operated; looking at more than one dimension of innovations at a time allows the model to be applied to most services innovation. And because of this, the four dimension model should be superior to the reverse product cycle when explaining innovations in services. Having said that the Barras’ model still offered considerable amount of insights, therefore it should not be discarded. In this report, we have learnt how the normal product life cycle can be used to explain innovation in manufacturing goods, what are the key features in each stage. We have also learnt how innovation in services worked in an opposite manner by looking at the reverse product cycle, and understood the model’s limitations by applying it to different examples of services. We also seen what the four dimensions of innovations are and how they can be used as an alternative theory to explain innovation in services and finally we have understood the effectiveness of this model and how it compares to the reverse product cycle.

Personal Skills Development in the Teamwork Report (Assessment)

help me with my homework Introduction In the modern world, organizations are increasingly becoming active and uneven (Barthe 2010, p. 94). Instabilities force organizations to form groups and teams that are expected to work together in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives. An organization relies on teams and groups in delivering services to clients. There is increased complexity regarding the composition of teams, skill requirement, and risk management. In high reliability organizations such as the telecommunication company, teamwork plays a critical role in enhancing service delivery. A small mistake would result in serious losses, as well as complaints from customers. Working in a team enabled me to learn various coping skills (Horlick-Jones 1995, p. 310). I realized that teamwork is a tool that can be utilized to achieve high results. In the Nigerian network industry, competition is stiff implying that organizations must develop some strategies in order to outsmart their competitors. MRN employs teamwork in order to conquer its rivals. Working with other experts in the organization assisted me in understanding that teamwork entails three strategies. One of the strategies employed in enhancing teamwork is grouping individuals according to capabilities. This is upon realization that people differ in terms of talent. For instance, I was placed under the supervision of a network professional, with adequate skills on matters related to networking. This was to ensure that I learn the basics of networking in detail. In the team, there were individuals with task-oriented skills while others were team-oriented. It was the role of the manager to balance the two groups (Geschwind 2001, p. 69). In the team, the management ensured that organizational goals are achieved by modifying the tasks of individuals and the organization structure. This was to ensure workflow in the organization. Team competency was guaranteed in the organization through continuous training. The management at MRN capitalized on team training in enhancing team performance. Scholars define team training as the application of set of instructions that depend on well-tested apparatus. This apparatus includes simulator, lectures, and videos. In the organization, the management ensured that employees are provided with relevant training lessons each week. The main aim of management was to ensure that team training replicates the general values of learning theory. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, training was meant to present information regarding basic group behaviors. Training provided team members with a chance to practice the skills they learned on a weekly basis. Working under the supervision of an expert was vital to my career because I could get feedback as regards to my performance (Dressel 2001, p. 39). Drawing on relevant theory and concepts, would this be described as a group or a team? Usually, there is a difference between a group and a team. However, many people fail to note the difference. A team is internally structured while the group is externally structured. A team has objectives, with tasks for each team member. On the other hand, a group is a collection of individuals who share the same objective. It may include people with similar interests. In the organization, all employees belong to a group because their major interest is to earn a salary. A number of scholars have designed theories to explain the behavior of individuals in a team. However, Tuckman’s theory is the only outstanding theory that explains the activities of individuals in a team precisely (Drake, Wong

Ethics and global logistics

Ethics and global logistics.

You have decided to operate internationally; as such, you understand the importance of designing a global supply chain network. As CEO, you understand the tremendous opportunity that globalization offers, as well as the increased risk in the development of supply chains. It is important that you define the benefits and risks in your design plan, as well as discuss ethics as it relates to global sourcing.For your project, in a minimum of 3 pages, please do the following:Discuss some of the benefits and opportunities that globalization provides.What are some of the disadvantages and risks involved with globalization? What are some of the potential issues or considerations that you and your leadership team will have to be mindful of?Third-party logistics services (3PLs) can be effective supply chain partners and they have been proven to be effective in moving items into foreign locations effectively. Will your company use 3PLs? Why or why not?Why is ethical sourcing so important, especially when sourcing globally (think about some of the risks involved to humans, safety and the environment)?Discuss how you will incorporate diversity into your ethical sourcing practices.*Make sure to use credible sources for your research. Make sure to write your paper utilizing proper APA formatting guidelines, and to include an APA formatted title page. Include an APA formatted reference page and in-text citations within your paper to document paraphrased or quoted material.
Ethics and global logistics

Liberty University Exercise Science The Concept of Autoregulation Questions

Liberty University Exercise Science The Concept of Autoregulation Questions.

Question1. Explain what the concept of “autoregulation” is. Discuss the 3 aspects of autoregulation and discuss how Cam Oats will physiologically improve his aerobic capacity after several months of cardiovascular training – Choose 1 of the case study questions and answer the question thoroughly in 3-4 pages. (Font) 12 Times New Roman – Must be in paragraph form with 12-point, Times New Roman Font- Information clearly relates to the main topic. It includes several supporting details and/or examples.- Well-written with correct grammar, spelling and formatting. Length requirement is met.- You can reference the Bible to support a statements – You can reference “Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance” 10th Edition
Liberty University Exercise Science The Concept of Autoregulation Questions

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