Problem solving is a skill. Managers and leaders spend much of their time solving problems and making decisions. The nature of the problems can be small, large, complex or simple and it’s the role of the manager to establish an approach to resolving the problem. Being faced with problems often results in people becoming uncomfortable and afraid, trying to find a solution immediately without analyzing the problem and looking for someone to blame. Problems occur every day and cannot be escaped. It should be viewed as opportunities to improve systems and relationships within organizations. The tendency to try and find a solution immediately is one of the fundamental mistakes in problem solving as the solution should be founded at the end of the process rather than at the beginning. Using an approach that worked previously can leave you solving the same problem over and over again. We are born problem solvers and build our confidence when we solve problems. Having a good process and approach to problems can solve them quickly and effectively. 2. Problem Solving and Decision Making Framework Organisations struggle with inherently the same problems year after year. The lack of a comprehensive and structured process is the reason for this failure. An organized approach using simple principles and a clear defined approach can facilitate permanent solutions. The 7 step problem solving process is an effective problem solving process that consists of a sequence of sections that fit together. Within each section, there are various tools that can be used to work through the problem and find out what is really going on. It is useful to have such a structure to ensure that nothing is overlooked. Figure : 7 Step Problem Solving Process 2.1 Define/Identify the Problem At this point, people react to what they think the problem is. Instead, we should seek to understand more about why we think there is a problem. It is imperative to deal with the real problem and not the symptoms. With input from yourself and others, a serious of questions on the problem should be addressed. Use the 5 Ws and an H to collect statistics on the problem: a) What can you see that causes the problem b) Where does it occur c) When is it happening d) Why is it happening e) With whom is it happening f) How is it happening At this stage, a problem statement should be developed and written down. This will ensure that you are tackling the actual problem and not a side issue or part of the problem. “A problem clearly stated is a problem half solved”. (Dorothea Brande). Writing the statement will ensure that everyone can quickly understand what the problem is. The problem can be re-phrased as a goal objective. This provides a focus and direction for the problem-solvers that is measurable. The problem statement should also attempt to have a target date identified and scoped so that it can be realistically tackled. 2.2 Analyse the Problem In this stage of the problem solving, critical input from people who have noticed the problem and who are effected by the problem should be gathered and sifted. The problem needs to viewed from a variety of viewpoints. Several questions should be asked to gather the required information : What is the history of the problem? How long has it existed? How serious is the problem? What are the causes of the problem? What are the effects of the problem? What are the symptoms of the problem? What methods does the team already have for dealing with the problem? What are the limitations of those methods? How much freedom does the team have in gathering information and attempting to solve the problem? What obstacles keep the team from achieving the goal? Can the problem be divided into sub problems for definition and analysis? Understanding where the problem is arising from, its fit in the current development and what the current environments are, is critical when working out if a solution will work or not. The problem definitions validity can be checked here by stepping back and assessing the current situation and what needs to be changed. The cause of the problem should be written down in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why. 2.3 Generate Possible Solutions At this stage, the team and yourself should generate a number of possible solutions. No evaluation of the solutions should occur but rather the effort should be concentrated on generating as many solutions as possible. Various techniques can be used to solve problems. 2.3.1 Brainstorming This is a technique designed to help a group generate several creative solutions to a problem. It is focussed on developing imaginative and innovative solutions. It is a simple means of generating a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short space of time. Steps: A group’s members are presented with a problem and all its details. Members are encouraged to come up with as many solutions as possible, putting aside all personal judgments and evaluations. “Piggy-backing” off another person’s idea is useful. All ideas are recorded so the whole group can see them. Ideas are evaluated at another session. 2.3.2 Reverse Brainstorming Reverse brainstorming uses a combination of the reversal technique and brainstorming. This technique involves starting with two “reverse” questions: a) How could I possibly cause the problem rather than How do I solve or prevent this problem? b) How could I possibly achieve the opposite effect rather than How do I achieve these results? Brainstorm the reverse problem to generate reverse solution ideas. The ideas should be allowed to flow. No idea should be rejected. The ideas from the reverse problem should now be reversed for the original problem. 2.4 Analyse the Solutions This stage is where you investigate the various factors about each of the potential solutions. The good, the bad points and other relevant items to each solution is noted. There are several ways to evaluate the chosen solutions, and writing them all down will help the group to choose the best solution to the problem. a) Making a T-Chart to Weigh the Pros and Cons of Each Idea The T-chart can be used where team members write down the advantages and disadvantages for each solution. This method will illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of each solution. b) Develop and Assign Weights to Criteria All the criteria people are thinking about should be listed and weighted. This way, all group members are clear as to what criteria others are using. c) Prioritize the Criteria The next step is for the group to agree on how important these criteria are in relation to each other. For example, is cost the most important criterion, or low resistance by others, etc. The criteria should then be rated in terms of importance. Assign a number to each criterion so that all criteria together total 100. d) Rate Proposed Solutions Using Criteria Using the four to six possible solutions, score (on a scale of 1 to 10) each solution against each criteria. Repeat this for each criterion. Multiply this score to the weighting, then add the weighted scores for each solution. This exercise will help compare alternatives objectively. 2.5 Select the best Solution The various influencing factors for each possible solution is reviewed and solutions are kept or eliminated. The group should be concerned with whether or not the solution chosen solves the problem or just minimizes it. The solution must be workable in relation to the problem. During this step, decisions need to be made. Weighting of the previous step can be used to select the best solutions.??? The T-chart can be reviewed for advantages and disadvantages. The facts and information gathered must be consistent with the proposed solution. Solutions can be voted for and then those can be shortlisted. Shortlisted items can be analysed and further refined and voted on. There is a possibility that no solutions may work. The problem may need to be re-evaluated or generation of solutions may need to be re-visited. This maybe the result of a problem definition that is not well defined. 2.6 Develop an Action Plan An action plan involves writing down what is going to??? next now that a potential solution is available.. This plan will realise that the solution happens???. The plan can consist of sequential tasks identifying who is doing what, when and the timeline for completion. The following questions should be answered for the action plan : What is the overall objective and ideal situation? What is needed in order to get there from here? What actions need to be done? Who will be responsible for each action? How long will each step take and when should it be done? What is the best sequence of actions? What training is required to ensure that each person knows how to execute each step in the plan? What standards do we want to set? What resources are needed and how will we get them? How will we measure results? How will we follow up each step and who will do it? What checkpoints and milestones should be established? What are the make/break vital steps and how can we ensure they succeed? What could go wrong and how will we get around it? Who will this plan affect ???and how will it affect them? How can the plan be adjusted without jeopardizing its results to ensure the best response and impact? How will we communicate the plan to ensure support? What responses to change and other human factors are anticipated and how will they be overcome? 2.7. Implement the Solution The solution can be implemented as a “project” using the action plan as the baseline. Tasks should be monitored and reported on. The Gantt chart could be used to monitor this progress. Regular meetings should be held with relevant stakeholders to communicate progress on the solution and advise if any slippages or blockers exist on the “project”. Contingency plans can be devised and implemented to recover from slippages. 2.8. Verify the Solution Once the solution is implemented, it can be tested be reviewing the normal operation of the organisation. Adjustments may be required to improve the effectiveness of the solution. A lessons learnt document/memo should be created highlighting what changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future, considering changes in policies and procedures, and training. 3. Creative Thinking Effective problem solving requires creativity. Creativity in problem solving process?? sparks new solutions and concepts in changing environments. There are various tools that can be used: 3.1 Six Thinking Hats This is a tool for group discussion and individual thinking. The technique allows you to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. In meetings it has the benefit of blocking the confrontations that happen when people with different thinking styles discuss the same problem. Each ‘Thinking Hat’ is a different style of thinking. These are explained below: â€¢White Hat: This hat requires you to focus on the facts and data available. Review the information you have, and determine what you can learn from it. Look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them. This is where you analyse past trends, and try to extrapolate from historical data. â€¢Red Hat: Team members state problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. This is a method of harvesting ideas. Also try to think how other people will react emotionally. This method can use post-it notes to allow a quick system of voting, and creates a clear visual cue that creates rapid if incomplete agreement around an issue. â€¢Black Hat: Using black hat thinking, looks at all the bad points of the decision. Team members identify risks and hazards. Decision are looked at to see why it might not work. This is important because it highlights the weak points in a plan. It allows you to eliminate them, alter them, or prepare contingency plans to counter them. Plans can become ‘tougher’ and more resilient. It can also help you to spot fatal flaws and risks before you embark on a course of action. â€¢Yellow Hat: The yellow hat helps you to think positively and identify with an idea or decision. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. â€¢Green Hat: The Green Hat allows you to develop creative and new ideas solutions to a problem. It is a freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas. â€¢Blue Hat: The Blue Hat stands for process control and discusses the thinking process. This is the hat worn by people chairing meetings. Having a facilitator maintain this role throughout helps ensure that the group remains focused on task and improves their chances of achieving their objectives. 3.2 Mind Mapping This is a technique that encourages creative thinking as it holds information that the mind finds easy to identify with and review. Mind mapping allows you to quickly find and understand the structure of complex problems. Mind maps are often used during brainstorming. The technique requires that a model such as a tree with branches be used. The main parts of the problem are draw on the bigger branches and smaller issues on the secondary branches. Creativity is applied to each part of the issue rather than the whole. 3.3 Unfreezing This technique is used where you cannot think of any more ideas. Helps you when your thinking process is blocked or shut down and you cannot find any solutions. 3.4 The 5 Whys This is useful for dealing with problems that have hidden agendas. The technique drills into situations to find the real problem and clarify issues and forming creative solutions. 4. Problem Solving of Functional problem Altech UEC specialises in the design, development, supply and support of integrated hardware and software solutions for the world-wide digital Multimedia industry. In the project management field that I function within, the key focus is to deliver product on time, within budget and at the acceptable quality standards. The one area in 60% of all projects that fails to deliver successfully is the mechanical design of the enclosure. I will use the framework developed in 2 to realise the solution to this problem. 4.1 Define/Identify the problem a) The mechanical design for each product is only a concept rendering that is unique to each product offering. b) It occurs in the engineering and product management departments. c) During project development of a new product. d) Each offering to the customer is unique with no-reuse of existing mechanical enclosures. e) With mechanical engineer, product manager, customer f) An expected 12 weeks delivery of mechanical enclosure is taking 24 wks to complete Problem definition “Why does the mechanical enclosure take 24 weeks to complete instead of the planned 12 weeks” As a goal objective : What must be done to reduce the mechanical enclosure development to 12 weeks. 4.2 Analyse the Problem This problem has existed approximately 5 years, since the customer was allowed to decide on the aesthetic look of the set-to-box. This is a critical issue to the delivery cycle of product to the customer. The average delivery cycle of a complete unit in production and to the customer should be 6 months. Causes of the problem maybe Unknown technologies being used, Concept rendered drawings rather than mechanical design models, and Customer requiring changes after design was approved. The effect is that there is longer design cycles and longer to market delivery cycles. The mechanical team have tried to model various options but due to unknown electronic affects such as thermal testing and electrical grounding may affect the design. 4.3 Generate Possible Solutions Brainstorming was used to work out possible solutions. Ideas generated were as follows: 1) Altech UEC generates a set number of enclosures to match the various offerings available. The only change will be on the fascia view of the product. 2) The mechanical engineering team designs the model and develops the mechanical model before the product is released to the customer for approval. No acceptance to be done or released to customer on unrealised designs. 3) Tooling manufacturers external to UEC are contracted to be involved in the modelling stages to reduce occurrences of designs that will not work 4) Review existing procedures and signoff against international standards and make necessary changes where applicable 5) Outsource the mechanical design to a 3rd party and performs this as its core business 4.4 Analyse the Solutions The solution were rated against practicality and cost. The highest rated idea was (1), (5), (2), (4) and (3). It was also thought that a combination of (2), (3) and (4) could be considered as a combination idea. 4.5 Select the best Solution The best solution selected by voting was (1). The vote was decided by key stakeholders in the organisation such as the product development team, mechanical team and manufacturing team. 4.6 Develop an action plan The action plan answered the questions as follows: a) The mechanical enclosure is available at the start of the project. There is no major development to the design of the STB. Only changes will be to the fascia aesthetics. b) A listing of the full product road map is required to determine the categories of enclosures to be supported. All mechanical design such as clipping of parts together and thermal cooling to be completed in each category. c) The Engineering Manager will be responsible for driving this through the organisations as a Product Design unit initiative. The Product managers will be the custodians of the product categories. d) This is a 6 month initiative with the first step being the product categories. The next step will be the actual design of enclosures to these categories bedding down the mechanical design and product. e) Regular meetings are being held to discuss progress and determine if the plan is in action f) The realisation will be the use of the first mechanical design on zapper low cost products. g) The Engineering manager will be the sponsor of this “project” to ensure all stakeholder’s keep their “eyes on the prize” 4.7 Implement the solution A Gantt was created to allocate tasks and monitor progress. 4.8 Verify the solution The product line is being developed according to specific category mechanical model implementations. Effectiveness of the solution will be seen on new products that will go from design into mass production. The cycle time of mechanics can then be measured. 5. Conclusion In times were there is a constant change in technology and product development, it is essential to have effective problem solving frameworks. The lack of such framework will lead to problems recurring when they should have been solved. Organisations cannot afford such costly mistakes if they are to be globally competitive. A successful problem solving organization will be a successful organization.
B1: Describe how the teacher assesses student learning in one identified video. Title: Practicing Presentation and Audience Skills through Science Presentations Case #9 The teacher in the observed video assessed her students through conversation. She asked for students to explain proper etiquette when engaging in presentations. Her goal was to use the responses to analyze the students’ understanding of effective speaking, listening, and viewing skills. She presented them with a chart that listed appropriate skills and the students were to use previous knowledge to explain these skills. For example, she questioned the students as a group and some individually what the chart meant. Specifically, around the twenty third second of the video she asks, “our eyes need to be…?” and the class responds “watching”. Then asked Christopher, “what do our hands need to be doing?” and he responds “still”. She does all this while pointing and referring to the chart. Evaluate the appropriateness of this assessment method for the learning environment observed in part B1. This way of assessment was appropriate. By assessing through conversation, the teacher was able to grasp students understanding on the correct presentation behaviors. In a class this young it is hard to implement assessment. By assessing through conversation, she was able to engage students and reiterate the effective speaking, listening, and viewing skills. After explaining and demonstrating the appropriate behaviors the students had to put it in to practice. They were given a series of questions that aligned with a video that was presented. If they listened and viewed correctly they would be able to answer these questions following the video presentation. After the video was played the teacher asked the students the questions again and they were able to provide correct answers. For example, since they implemented the appropriate presentation behaviors the students were able to identify the weather as windy. Explain one way you would adapt or modify this assessment method to ensure all students in the observed classroom setting are successful. I would modify this assessment method by requiring each student to list or explain the proper behaviors when engaging in a presentation aloud. This would allow me to analyze each individual student’s knowledge through conversation, rather than analyzing the student body’s understanding as a whole. Although she asks all students these questions not all students are answering. This does not give an accurate representation of individual knowledge. Here she is only able to grasp a general analysis of students understanding. B2: Describe and instructional strategy that met the needs of students observed in a second identified video. Title: Comprehending and summarizing text about solar system Case #956 Instructional strategies observed: sheltered English, scaffolding, modifications, peer work, modeling and demonstration, writing, speaking, discussion. Sheltered English- an instructional approach used in content area teaching that makes instructions in English understandable and includes strategies for English language development. Scaffolding- Vygotsky. Modeling and demonstration done by the teacher then mimicked by students with help from the teacher as needed. Modifications- presenting instructions in multiple ways and giving different text books based on the language barrier or intellectual level. Peer work- collaborating with classmates on the same intellectual level. Modeling and demonstration- teacher instruction and demonstration for the activity of the day. Writing and speaking- practice in order to reach the objectives. Discussion- come together as a class with the teacher and reflect on what was done. Decide what is important and make any final connections. Bringing this all together we can conclude that she implements the direct instruction style of learning. Evaluate how well this instructional strategy met the needs of the students observed in part B2. What were the objectives at hand? Integrate science and English using the sun. What did the students do? Listen to instructions and demonstration given by the teacher. Read the daily objectives aloud. Read a book with their given partner. Write and copy the first and last sentence of the book. Look for words that were repeated throughout the book. Sort out the words. Write a summary. Come back together as a class to discuss. By presenting the instructions and demonstrating what was to be done the teacher fulfilled the modeling and demonstration strategy. Making students read objectives aloud helps them work on their language barrier and informs them of what they should accomplish by the end of the lesson. Reading with a peer forces interaction between students. By requiring students to write and copy sentences out of the book they are practicing those skills and making clear connections with vital information. Identifying repeating words enhances student’s vocabulary and gives them clear sight as to what is important throughout the text. Once they reach the summary they are equipped with all necessary information. After students collaborated with their partner the teacher brought them back together as a class. During the discussion the class completed the same guided organizer they had previously done with their partner. Here they were able to learn new things, elaborate on their findings, and then reach the intended conclusion. Explain how you would implement the instructional strategy from part B2 into your own teaching. Of the strategies observed I would implement the following; scaffolding, modeling and demonstration as well as peer work. I believe that all students learn in different ways. By incorporating different activity environments, I will aim to meet the needs of all students. Visually by modeling and demonstrating what is to be done. I would encourage collaboration by allowing students to pair up and build off of others’ knowledge as well as their own. I would also implement independent time where students are to gather the information and put it into practice on their own as well as group discussions. Of course, I would be there for guidance when needed. That would include the scaffolding strategy. For example, in the video observed we see the teacher implement all three strategies I would include in my teaching. She included visualization by presenting objects on the smart board and by explaining the guided chart she gave each student. She then paired students up and allowed them to complete the chart by collaborating. Once she released the students she floated around and helped students as needed. Afterwards we see the teacher gather the students and lead them through a class discussion of the work they completed. B3: Describe how a learning theory is evident in a third identified video. Title: Developing Drug Awareness and Resistance Skills Case #163 Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, Stage 4, Formal operational stage is evident within the beginning of this video. Here we see students use symbols related to abstract concepts, formulate hypothesis, and consider possibilities to reach a conclusion. This is evident as the students are looking at different images, putting them together, and identifying the desired conclusion. For example, the second group of students to present inform the class how they see a firefighter, tobacco, and the words a bit braver. They are able to put these three things together abstractly and reach the conclusion that the intended message is tobacco makes you braver. Identify one theorist whose position aligns to the learning theory described in part B3. Then explain why the theorist’s position aligns to that learning theory. Jean Piaget aligns with the previous theory described. He believed that students in the formal operational stage were of the ages eleven and older. Students within this video were ages 11-13. He also explained how these students could make connections to abstract objects, use symbols, use deductive reasoning, formulate hypothesis, and reach specific conclusions. We see all of this take place within the lesson, mainly Abstract Thinking. The students in this video were able to infer about hypothetical scenarios that they have yet to experience. Building off the example above, about tobacco making you braver, if you continue watching you see the students reaching the conclusion that tobacco doesn’t give you firefighting abilities. They even go on to understand that firefighters are not directly related to the use of tobacco and using tobacco causes yellowing of the teeth which is not firefighter macho. Describe how you would apply the theory from part B3 to your own teaching practice using a different technique within the same learning theory. Although abstract thinking is vital in Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, there is also another side. On top of thinking abstractly students in the Formal Operational Stage also have the ability to use hypothetical deductive reasoning. This means that students can approach problems in a systematic way that demonstrates organization rather than through trial and error. Hypothetical deductive reasoning can also be viewed as scientific thinking. I will apply this approach into my own classroom by creating examples that force students to use these deductive approaches. Rather than giving the students images to piece together like we observed in the video, I would give them real world scenarios that result in them using their deductive reasoning skills to determine direct causes. The difference in the two classroom activities would be; In the video we observed, students looked at symbols and used their abstract thinking skills to infer that crown royal, a helmet, a car/motorcycle would represent drinking and driving. In my classroom I would present students with a drinking and driving scenario with an in-depth back story and ask them to read through, systemize and organize the information presented to them and watch them use their hypothetical deductive reasoning skills to conclude that drinking and driving was the cause. B4: Describe how a teacher in a fourth identified video incorporates technology in the classroom to enhance student learning. Title: Using Technology in Creative Writing Case #14 Throughout the video the teacher used technology in her demonstrations to the entire class. Once demonstrations were over the students had to use technology to complete an assignment. With a partner they were to construct and create a short story using PowerPoint. Explain how this use of technology does or does not align with best practices for the appropriate use of technology. The use of technology throughout this video is effective and appropriate. Students are engaged and attentive. By allowing students to use technology to create their story she is giving them freedom to be creative. Although they do have specific criteria, using technology allowed them to understand all aspects of the lesson. Not only were they writing, they were using technological skills, avoiding plagiarism, and being ethical and responsible. With that being said, the use of technology in this lesson does align with best practices and appropriateness. Evaluate how the technology observed in B4 enhances student learning. The use of technology in the observed video enhances the fun and creativity of learning. Students tended to be more engaged and actively involved in the assignment. Using PowerPoint to write has the ability to make the students feel less like they are doing work. What they don’t know is that by using the tools on PowerPoint, such as; word display, clip art, and other tools they are enhancing their writing for better understanding. B5: Describe an instructional resource used for the lesson in a fifth identified video. Topic: Observing and Measuring the Weather Case #53 Throughout the observed video there were multiple learning resources used. These resources were; thermometer, windsock, anemometer, and ruler. The teacher also supplied a data chart where the students would write the data collected. The classroom was divided into multiple groups where a member of each group had a different job. One student used a thermometer to measure the temperature, another the windsock to identify the direction of the wind, some used the anemometer to determine the speed of wind, and lastly someone determined the amount of precipitation with the ruler. Evaluate the effectiveness if this resource, including whether or not it is developmentally appropriate for the learners in the classroom observed in part B5. Learning resources are used to support and enhance student engagement while learning. The resources observed in the video helped engage and motivate students to complete the task at hand. Students were to observe different aspects of the weather daily and record their findings to later identify the discrepancies between each day. By providing these resources the teacher allowed for all students to participate in the weather observation as well as identify the purpose of each tool. The thermometer, windsock, anemometer, ruler, and data chart each played a significant role in the lesson. Without these resources this lesson would be less interesting for students. Students in this second-grade class were enrolled in Earth Science. The goal of the lesson was to address concepts of change and consistency by observing and measuring weather. These resources and lesson were developmentally appropriate. They respected the age and stage of development for the group of students and enhanced their learning. Describe how you would use an additional instructional resource to enhance part B5. An appropriate instructional resource I felt was missing from the lesson was a textbook. There were multiple occasions throughout the lesson where students could have made reference to a textbook for additional support or understanding. There was no clear definition or theorem used when explaining the purpose and use of the learning resources provided, nor the concepts included in the overall goal. For example, why did they need each tool and what was the appropriate way to use these tools? If a textbook had been provided students would have had the opportunity to make concrete connections for their understanding and applications. This additional resource has the potential to enhance student learning by giving them an outlet other than the teacher. They would be forced to think about and read in order to answer their question rather than the teacher verbally informing them. B6: Describe how students in a sixth identified video engaged in a listening, speaking, reading, writing, or thinking activity that provides opportunities for them to use higher-order thinking. Video Title: Using Discourse to Support Students Understanding of Multiplying Fractions. Case #238 Throughout my observation I identified the students engaging in three activities from the above list. Students engaged in listening, speaking, and thinking activities. To start with the students listened to the teacher as he spoke, and this continued throughout the discussion, whether the teacher or their peers. The teacher began the discussion with guided questions, “Does ½ = ½?”, “½ cookie = ½ a pizza”, “½ $10 = ½ $100”, “when multiplying do numbers always get larger?” Each question followed with several engaging discussions between students. Students verbally answered each question and then elaborated on their answers when needed. By doing so I was able to observe students interacting in speaking activities. When observing the way students answered these questions there were two types shown. Some students answered immediately without hesitation, while others collected all information and listened to what others were thinking before answering. The students who were quick to answer often changed their answer after taking a moment to think. Either way all students engaged in thinking activities in order to solve the problems before them. How did students use these to engage in higher-order thinking? The teacher’s intentions were to guide students into a critical thinking. This period of critical thinking resulted in higher-order thinking. Higher order thinking is a time when students analyze information/questions, evaluate problems, or synthesis while being creative and innovative. We see this as students begin to understand the connection between concepts and reach the conclusion that multiplying by fractions results in smaller numbers. a. Descried how you would enhance student engagement in higher-order thinking activity in the lesson observed in B6. In order to enhance student engagement in a way that produces higher-order thinking teachers must create an inviting and comfortable classroom, encourage questions, connect concepts, use real world situations, create scenarios that encourage critical thinking, and require students to elaborate on answers. In order to see these things in the lesson I observed, I would better guide students in a way that led them to make key connections sooner. Although students did reach the intended answer at the end of the lesson I observed they only did this through examples. There was no theoretical connection. In math, especially, I believe it is critical to teach kids through theories, terminology, previous knowledge, new knowledge, examples, repetition and practice. By using these the teacher Is requiring students to really dig deep and engage in higher-order thinking activities. Not only will they reach the intended answer they will be able to elaborate with concrete facts and evidence. Another way I would enhance student engagement in higher order thinking is by beginning my lesson with clear objectives. Allow students to know what they should know and be able to do once the lesson is over. This way when I present them with a problem they can be creative and innovative in reaching the intended conclusion. Part C: An instructional strategy is used for the sole purpose of helping students become strategic and independent learners. While reflecting on my teaching philosophy I have selected three strategies I feel are important to include in my classroom daily. These strategies are; Cooperative Learning, Technology, and Direct Instruction. With these three strategies I will aim to enhance student’s education. Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which teachers group students into small groups based on intellectual ability. These groups will include students with differing intellectual abilities and they will engage in a variation of activities in hopes to enhance their understanding. Using technology as an instructional strategy encompasses web surfacing, online classroom, audio and video, chat rooms, and so much more. Technology is rapidly advancing in today’s society and has the ability to engage and enhance student learning. Direct instruction develops from Skinners behavioral approach to learning. Skinner includes five practices for direct instruction. 1. Orientation- the teacher is to give an introduction for each lesson. 2. Presentation- the teacher is to present the material for each lesson. 3. Structured practice- the teacher is to work through examples with the class. 4. Guided practice- the teacher is to assist students as they work through problems. 5. Independent practice- the teacher is to release students to work on their own. In the video titled, Comprehending and Summarizing Text About our Solar System, I observed several learning strategies worth emulating. The teacher in this video used aspects of Direct Instruction that I find vital for a successful classroom. She enhanced student engagement by implementing several learning activities, from teacher demonstration, whole class collaboration, and partner collaboration. By including these different environments, I feel she was able to engage all students and lead them towards an accurate understanding. After observing the video, Using Discourse to Support Students Understanding of Multiplying Fractions, I decided I wanted to avoid the teacher’s strategy. Although the teacher was successful in reaching the conclusion that multiplying numbers together can result in larger or smaller numbers, his strategy was not appealing. The class strategy was discussion. He asked questions, some basic some guided, and the students answered. He did this until they were able to correctly answer the main question. That discovery being, that numbers can get larger or smaller when they are multiplied together. If I were teaching the lesson I would have rather students completed practice problems, independently or with partners, that would help lead them towards this discovery then bring them back together as a class to discuss. The students were not required to use their math skills, rather they listened to guided questions and answered the best they could. In my philosophy, referring to the strategy direct instruction, the students in the observed video lacked practice, and a proper presentation. The classroom environment I wish to have would resemble characteristics such as; energetic, intriguing, organized, engaging, comfortable, etc.… When using the term energetic you could also think active. I want students in my classroom to be actively learning, this will help keep students intrigued and engaged. My classroom environment should also be organized. Everything should have a home, and the lesson should be presented and visible at all times. If I can keep my classroom and lessons organized there will be less room for confusion and enhance student learning. I would also like to implement a comfortable classroom environment. By doing so my students will know that they are valued and important. If my classroom is comfortable there should be no barrier between student/teacher and student/classroom collaborative discussions. I want students to ask questions and discuss scenarios without hesitation. If I had to choose one observed video that best supports these characteristics it would be the one titled, Observing and Measuring the Weather. The students in this classroom were highly engaged, the classroom and lesson were organized, the energy level was high, and everyone was intrigued. References About ATLAS. (n.d.). Retrieved September, 2018, from https://atlas.nbpts.org/cases/
The destructive impact of recent natural disasters on many regions of the world has brought into focus the need for proper risk assessment, planning, preparedness and the implementation of early warning systems. The great earthquake and tsunami of December 26 2004 near Sumatra affected 13 countries bordering the Indian Ocean and was responsible for the deaths of more than 250,000 people. The great earthquake of 28 March 2005 in the same general area caused additional devastation. The hurricanes of 2005, and Katrina in particular, destroyed the city of New Orleans and other well-developed communities in the Gulf of Texas. The great earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan and Kashmir was a reminder of the degree of devastation and human suffering disasters can cause. Regrettably, disasters such as these occurred in regions known to be vulnerable but where not proper risk assessment studies had been made and no adequate plans for preparedness or mitigation existed. If such studies had been properly made and plans were in place, the death toll and destruction would have been minimized Unequivocally, disaster mitigation requires accurate and expeditious assessment of all potential risks, the issuance of prompt warnings, and programs of preparedness that will assure warning effectiveness and public safety. The methodology for assessing the potential risks that threaten each region of the world requires adequate understanding of the physics of each type of disaster, a good and expeditious collection of historical data of past events, and an accurate interpretation of this data as to what future impact will be. Since each type of disaster results from different sources, the risk assessment methodology will vary accordingly. Because of the extensive and specialized nature of disasters, it is outside the scope of the present report to provide a detailed analysis of how all risks are determined for planning, zoning, construction or evacuation purposes. Each disaster requires separate treatment and analysis. The construction of important critical structures, such as nuclear power plants, requires the adaptation of very conservative design criteria. This report provides only a brief overview of general principles that apply to the risk assessment of all types of disasters. In the present report, disasters are examined from a fundamental perspective, with emphasis on general techniques that must be used in assessing risks, with emphasis on mitigation, preparedness and public education. Strengths and limitations of risk assessment Risk assessment refers to an organized and systematic procedure dependent on the reliable identification of possible hazards and a relevant or appropriate assessment of the risks .Such risks arise with the intention of making comparisons in order to control and avoid them. The need to conduct a risk assessment in any organization is very paramount since it is the prior step when it comes to solving risks. There is need for security consciousness therefore proper security measures must always be adopted, developed and implemented based on relevant risk and vulnerability assessment of any given situation at any given time. Risk assessment has several uses such as being used as assessment of single site risk, assessment of group site risk for more investigation, derivation of real value for a certain site, derivation of generic guidelines relative to specific media, balancing of benefits and risks, considering long term legality, and being used as a tool to prioritize on the impacts of risks based on their significance. The mitigation of possible impacts will result in minimizing the potentiality of a threat or risk and increased security in the organization. Risk assessment always provides the most significant single framework for either strategic or tactical decision making in all organizations. Before conducting any risk assessment, it is imperative to understand the current laws, regulations, and mandates that may be driving organizations to put in place and implement security plans or conduct vulnerability assessments. Mitigation of risks from natural or technological hazards The risk assessment is always the basic primary tool required in measuring and evaluation of the economic impact, potential loss of life, property damage, loss of property and personal injury, resulting from natural or technological hazards. This process is always based on three processes: Identification of potential Hazards, Evaluation of potential hazardous events, and estimation of losses. The three processes need to be done keenly to enhance accuracy of the task being carried out so as to ensure that risks are assessed properly hence reduction of losses resulting from such perils or hazards. Natural hazards assessment and their mitigation must be always included in any development planning work or in the identification of serious investment projects that makes economic sense. It is taken as o prior task since their can be no development without taking care of the risks which might occur. By not considering the natural hazards and mitigation the resources to curb the risks might not be sufficient during the time of need leading to stoppage or reduction in economic development. The efforts aimed at assessing risks always consume both technical and financial resources. Concerning technical resources; skilled personnel such as technicians, engineers, meteorologists among others are employed. Financial resources will be required to pay labor, buy materials, and paying for other services. Therefore, natural or technological hazards assessment must include a way for estimation of the benefits and costs to the project and the economy. Total costs will be calculated and then subtracted from total benefits to see whether the projects are viable or not viable before they are taken as business opportunities. The strategies and methods of managing risks include limiting the negative effect of a risk, transfer of the risk to another place or party such as insurance companies and banks which is done by insuring property or storing money or other properties in the bank , avoiding the risk, and acceptance of the consequences of a given risk. Strengths of risk assessment It is always important for any organization to implement a risk assessment policy in their business. The assessment procedures are intended to help them keep track of the important basic sources that may hamper the well-being and health of the workers or employees of the organization. (Hardin, 2010) It is also significant for the staff in charge of the assessment program, to perform a thorough research of the main sources and reasons for natural or technological hazards. The strengths and advantages of carrying out risk assessment as a way of mitigating natural or technological hazards outweigh the usually perceived bureaucracy and they can be used in many different ways. For example, demonstrate that the organization or the company is actually identifying and assessing or controlling risks, reinforcing the possible need for financial expenditure to be set aside for controlling the risks since risks occur accidentally thus need for putting aside money for emergencies. Reduction of management’s time during occasional and periodic reviews of risks to ensure risks are analyzed properly .It is also vital that identification of potential unsafe or dangerous behaviors when implementing behavioral safety initiatives is observed keenly. In general, the advantages of risk assessment can be broadly categorized into the following: Justification of costs An additional security and mitigation measure always requires additional expenditure. This does not generate income and must always be properly justified in monetary terms. The Risk assessment and analysis process must automatically and directly generate justification for natural or technological hazards mitigation recommendations. Review of savings and productivity auditing A risk assessment programme can be utilized so as to enhance and improve the productivity of the natural or technological hazards mitigation or audit team. By making a proper review structure and using “self-analysis” features, more meaningful use of time is very possible. Consistency A major significant benefit of the risk assessment and analysis is that it always brings out an objective and consistent approach to all technological hazards mitigation reviews. This is applicable in different applications, but and types of organizations or business system. Communication During the process of sourcing of information from various parts of a company or a business unit, a risk analysis and assessment helps in communication and aids decision making. The risk assessment program is always a legal requirement or obligation before downward communication, upward communication or vertical communication is used in any organization. It must work for the good and benefit of all workers, employees, the top management and the company as a whole since effective communication will result when risks are analyzed and assessed before making decisions in an organization as it will lead to emergence of a planned communication. Limitations of risk assessment Risk assessment is just one way of making important decisions, but it may not be the only way or the best way either. One of the major concerns in any traditional risk and vulnerability assessment program is that it does not always take into consideration the big picture of the expected risk since risks are just noted down without considering the extent which will lead to proper preparedness for the expected risk. Some aspects of many of risk assessment programmes have come under sharp criticism for lack of measurable improvement on the risk. When the focus is narrowed only on the assessment results, organizations can sometimes fail to understand the real extent of their risk which is dangerous to the organization as it can lead to closure of business or company due to huge losses resulting from unexpected huge risks. Risk assessment plans are not always integrated with Enterprise vulnerability and risk Management Plans. Some risks require to be managed together with other organization risks. Unfortunately, this is not always the case as risk assessments are often not conducted outside the scope of the organization’s enterprise risk management policy. This may mean the results might not reach the top leadership or authority and may not get the tools required to mitigate the risks effectively since the affected will be a single organization or an individual making the authority concerned to be reluctant when it comes to risk management. Risk assessment is failing by not assessing the risks involved in similar organizations as a whole. Overlooking Paper Assets is another important weakness of risk assessment plans. Organizations and companies more often focus on electronic or digital assets that they ignore risks associated to paper repositories. For example in a bank, paper documents or files like customer records for loans may never be seen as part of the risk assessment. Consequently, mitigating measures are not always established to indicate when such paper records or documents are tampered with, lost or destroyed. This may lead to a breach of security in the company without any one knowing it happened. Paper assets are seen as though they are not that important as compared to digital assets since they are seen as valueless and yet they might be very important leading to failure in assessment of risks. Over focusing on control, measures instead of the potential business risk can be considered another limitation. Quite often people tend to think risk assessments are measuring risk, but in reality are only reviewing the possible risk control measures. Risk assessments occasionally follow specific checklists and without a clear understanding of your vulnerabilities, knowledge of the results of a natural or technological hazard risk assessment is not sufficient. It is important to study first how the vulnerabilities and threats come together producing a risk. Leaving the threats and vulnerabilities and focusing on the risk is the beginning of failure by many businesses since it is unconsidered vulnerabilities that will result to a risk; this has lead to big failure of risk assessment. Risk assessments can also lead to spending on an unnecessary technology. Since natural or technological hazard risk assessment tend to focus on some specific gaps for example in information technology controls, many organizations are forced into investing on irrelevant technology when trying to fix problems or threats that could be better addressed with just process changes. Companies and organizations may sometimes assume that buying a new technology will always provide better mitigation for all the risks.However, the organizations processes should always be optimized before any attempt to purchase or invest in a technology tool as a supplement. For example, separation of database operations roles and development creates a natural control that requires two people to help subvert it. Process solutions can therefore be better than investing and purchasing of complex or expensive technology for database changes monitoring. Finally, stating risks with no consideration to their possible business Impact can be a serious limitation of the risk assessment procedures. Many risks can be stated and the company made aware of such risks but by not considering the damage which can be caused by such risks is as good as not listing the risks as the plans on how to compensate the risk cannot be done without knowing the extent of expected risk so as to plan for it. Business leaders and managers tend to focus on actively growing shareholder value. Natural or technological hazard risk assessments are presented often without a fiscal impact and they may not be taken seriously. This always occurs since the impact in monetary terms may not be clear. Failing to properly translate the natural or technological hazard risk assessments results into those terms will ultimately hinder anyone’s ability to gain the sufficient resources to address them. Conclusion In conclusion, the paper ahs discussed in details the pros and cons of Risk assessment as a tool for prioritizing
Freneau and Indian Burying Ground
Freneau and Indian Burying Ground. I’m working on a Literature exercise and need support.
Link to the reading: http://www.poetry-archive.com/f/the_indian_burying_ground.html
Argue one side or the other about whether Freneau is praising or a critiquing the value of Native American culture. Clearly state whether he is being for or against this native culture, which is radially different from the American one, and give specific examples from the poem to defend your response.
Notes from the professor on what he is looking for in the writing:
–Use the words of the question in your response. –Use your mind, not your feelings. –If the question has a quotation, focus on it. –If the question does not a quotation, find an appropriate one and focus on it. –Always, always stay focused and stay textual. Finally, while I encourage you to use outside sources, I want you to document them properly. Do not just cut and paste material without proper attribution. Please use the MLA handbook as a guide.
Must follow the attached paragraph plan. Cited in MLA format.
Freneau and Indian Burying Ground
Ecotourism In Dominican Republic Tourism Essay
custom writing service Ecotourism In Dominican Republic Tourism Essay. Ecotourism has grown rapidly since the late 1980s, which is the fastest development of all the events in the tourism industry. The word ‘ecotourism’ is from ‘ecological tourism’. According to the definition of ecotourism is ‘Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.'( Martha Honey,1990).Furthermore, ecotourism also includes that traveling to natural destinationsã€building environmental awarenessã€respecting local culturesã€supporting human rights and democratic movements Nowadays, more and more countries and national organizationsã€including many individuals show high respect for worldwide ecotourism. Some countries like Kenyaã€Nepalã€Australiaã€Antarctica and Dominica. There are also many famous organizations such as World Tourism Organization (WTO)ã€United Nations Environmental Programmers (UNEP)ã€The International Ecotourism Society (TIES). It is considered that that is the reason why ecotourism can develop so fast that it can affect the world and our planet Earth greatly. (Transitions abroad, n.d.) The Dominican Republic, as the name “Natural Isle of the Caribbean” goes, the country which is an island nation in the Caribbean Sea. As well as having many mountainous rainforestsã€it is home to many rare plantsã€birds and animals in its limited 754 square kilometers. This is the reason that led to the Dominican Republic becoming an ecotourism island. Many people still believe that the lack of terrain and development funding is the other key why many people and global organizations claim that the Dominican Republic is well-known for its ecotourism industry. Although the Dominican Republic has many different cultures and customs like French cultureã€Spanish custom and local culture, for example, traditional Aztec culture and traditional Indian culture ,these different cultural phenomenon did not affect the natural system .Otherwise, natural ecotourism plays an important part in the Dominican Republics’ economy. All in all, people can learn more about Ecotourism in Dominican Republic. This research paper will examine four main aspects of ecotourism in the Dominican Republic: International and national organizations supportã€Advantages Disadvantagesã€the success of Ecotourism programmes and Future developments. With the remarkable improvement of people’s living standards¼Œecotourism has aroused wide public concern. USAID¼Œan American organization, has put a lot of efforts into developing ecotourism. USAID programs brought the public and personal sectors together, in order to support sustainable ecotourism development. USAID also gave a helping hand to creating a vision and seeking a key to ecotourism in the Dominican republics’ future. Laying emphasis on increasing leadership roles of local small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), increasing the communication of society ã€developing marketing toolsã€reopening the local airport ,and strengthening the quality of the services of ecotourism while using natural resources.(USAID¼Œ2009) The Tourism Sector Development Program, funded by the European Special Framework of Assistance¼ˆSFA,2006¼‰is an ecotourism program which is two years old, being implemented by the Ministry of Tourism and Legal Affairs (MTEcotourism In Dominican Republic Tourism Essay
Abnormal Psychology’s Historical Perspectives Essay
Introduction Biological psychology is a field that has provided insight into the behaviors of individuals in response to particular circumstances. Biopsychology forms an important basis for psychic therapy in the modern world. This paper explores the prime element of this branch of science and how they relate to psychiatry. Definition Biological psychology is a branch of psychology that tries to expose the biological aspect of behavior, i.e., the study of the brain I,n relation to the behavior (Wickens, 2005). History The ancient Greeks were the first people to appreciate the brain as the foundation for the mind. For example, Plato (429-348 BC) was the first to suggest the brain as the organ for reasoning. However, another early scientist including Aristotle believed that the heart performed this function while the brain acts as an organ for cooling the blood. In ancient times, the human body was venerated, and autopsies were prohibited so that the pioneering study of the human brain was before the time of Leonardo da Vinci (Wickens, 2005). Major theorists in biological psychology Descartes (1596-1650) Descartes proposed the pineal gland as the place for interaction between the mind and the body; it is the only single structure of the brain corresponding to his concept of the soul. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also remembered for the development of the concept of automatic reflex, which happens for instance when a limb is rapidly drawn away from fire. To affirm this response, Descartes hypothesized that a sensory fiber is composed of a tube containing a spirit to convey the message of heat to the ventricles, which then sends the animal spirit to flow to the muscle of the relevant muscle to trigger its withdrawal. Noteworthy is the fact that the mind was not involved in such event, reflexive, and thus not a cause of behavior (Wickens, 2005). Another proposal by this scientist sparked a big controversy among the then ancient scientist. He hypothesized that functions like respiration, digestion, memory, impressions, and emotions are reflexive. He supported these ideas with animals which did not seem posses spirit but are capable of having sensory activity, emotions and memories. Thus, these behaviors could be dependent on the physical phenomenon, except pure thought and reasoning which according to him was the function of the soul and unique to humans, parallel to the religious views of that time (Wickens, 2005). Luigi Galvani Experimental findings in 1971 by an Italian scientist, Galvani was substantial enough to dismiss Descartes theories of the animal spirit. Galvani discovered that he could cause the leg of the frog to twitch, in a different manner. We will write a custom Essay on Abnormal Psychology’s Historical Perspectives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This led to the conclusion that nerves are capable of conveying electricity and the animal spirit must have electric nature. Following the invention of the voltmeter, electric activity was indeed observed, and this lead to the dismissal of hydraulic theories and a different approach of study (Wickens, 2005). Franz Gall (1758–1828) Gall is famous for founding phrenology that is a conception that attributes a person’s behavior to the surface and shape of the head. He proposed that a person’s character could be determined by examining the shape and surface of his/her skull. His interest led to various discoveries by 1792 of regions of the brain he associated with the various faculties of the brain, like the faculty of murder and the inclination to steal (Wickens, 2005). Galls’ hypothesis was strongly opposed because his categorization of psychological elements like faith, veneration, and self-love was impossible to measure. However, phrenology popularized in the 19th century and numerous phrenological societies were established. Most importantly, social reformist speculates that phrenology could be employed to rehabilitate criminals or determine the best Member of Parliament (Wickens, 2005). Relationship between biological psychology and another field of psychology Biological psychology is a synonym to biopsychology, behavioral neuroscience, and psychobiology (Breedlove et. Al., 2007). Although physiological psychology is a term which some scientist prefer to regard it as a sub-discipline of biological psychology, it can be used to signify biological psychology. Theoretical models First, medical and biological models are essentially a physical perspective of abnormal psychology. Not sure if you can write a paper on Abnormal Psychology’s Historical Perspectives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, various efforts to elucidate abnormal psychology in basically material aspects have been made, so that ordinary persons can understand this phenomenon. Masterpasqua (2009) establishes that an abnormality such as anxiety is highly connected with the certain blueprint of DNA. Second, the socio-cultural model identifies the circumstances within which abnormal actions are perceived “…focuses on the influence of large social and cultural forces on individual functioning” (Damourv
Hinduism Definition and Characteristics Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Origin of Hinduism Diffusion of Hinduism Location of Hinduism Characteristics of Hinduism Conclusion Works cited Introduction Hinduism is the third most popular religion on earth. This paper seeks to discuss Hinduism in details by covering its Origin, diffusion, location, and characteristics. The discussion will bring out what makes Hinduism unique. Origin of Hinduism Hinduism is one of the oldest religions, and it is considered to be approximately 20,000 years old. It was the first religion of human civilization. The chief prophets that introduced the Hindu religion were BRAMHA from central India together with BISHNU and MAHESWARA from the south and north India respectively. Hinduism, unlike Christianity and Muslim, does not subscribe to a single book either does it derive origin from a human being like Jesus and Mohammed for Christians and Muslims respectively, instead it is an amalgamation of numerous religions and various set of beliefs. Hindu lacks creed and a single authority which makes it unique. Hinduism as a name was derived from central Asia as an explanation of the civilization that took place along the river Sindhu. The pronunciation of s as H by the residents brought the real meaning of the name of the religion. The specific origin of Hindu was at the Indus valley in Pakistan; the Hindu religion was originally referred to as SANATANA DHARMA. The residents of Sindhu invaded India and integrated with the local population and adopted the Hindu religion. Hinduism is divided into various divisions and includes the Punjab and the Gujarati as the main groups while the others come from India, Sri Lanka, and other countries. The language used in the summons is Sanskrit. Other distinguishing features that make Hinduism unique are: they lack a theological doctrinarian, lacks a single system of morality and also there is an absence of the concept of the prophet (Dogra and Dogra 5). Diffusion of Hinduism From the Indus valley, Hinduism spread into Southeast Asia all through to the island of Bali in Indonesia. Hindu has an estimated population of 750 million followers. The largest numbers of people who subscribe to the Hindu religion are in India where it is the main religion with almost 80% of believers. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Hindu religion also has some followers in the United Kingdom that amount to approximately 1% of the UK population; in the UK it developed in the 1960s and 1970s following the migration of people from Africa and India to the UK. Location of Hinduism Being the third largest religion in the world Hindu is the predominant religion in the south Asia region. That means it is the main religion in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. The spread of Hindu religion was primarily due to trade. The Indians used their merchandising power to assimilate people into the Hindu culture. This is explained by the presence of Hindu in the dominantly Muslim countries like Malaysia, the main reason why it operates in these Muslim countries is due to its appealing and universal nature. Characteristics of Hinduism Just like the other religions, Hindu has an inherent characteristic that distinguishes it from other religions. Among the characteristics of Hindu are: there exists no universal Hinduism, and it lacks a conventional system of beliefs. The distinguishing tenets of Hinduism are the belief in the following themes: “Dharma-to mean ethics and duties; Samsara- rebirth; karma- right action and moksha- liberation of the cycle of samsara” (Hinduism 1). Followers of Hinduism believe in one Supreme Being who they refer to as Brahman: Brahma to them is uncreated, omnipotent, omnipresent and eternal; Hindi recognize the existence of other gods representing different aspects of Brahma, and they recognize both the masculine and the feminine to complement each other (Hinduism 1). These are: Brahma: this is the creator aspect of the supreme god and often associated with Maya; avidya Maya who is the symbol of ignorance and Vidya Maya who is the symbol of knowledge (Hinduism 1). Vishnu: he is the one who preserves the universe and can appear in the earth in different forms and more often linked with the incarnations of God (Hinduism 1). Shiva: This aspect of God who is the destroyer or transcendent; he is the supreme God of Shaiva, the three branches of Hindu (Hinduism 1). Hindu also believes in the theory of causality or karma: the Hindu religion believes on the rebirth and the notion that the human soul is eternal. According to a Hindu therefore, an individual can experience the consequences of his actions through the rebirth cycle. Another belief of the Hindu religion is the belief in the theory of the wheel of rebirth: this is well known as the reincarnation of rebirth. Hinduism is a polytheistic religion: the fact that there is one god and several goddesses make it a polytheistic religion. We will write a custom Essay on Hinduism Definition and Characteristics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hinduism, unlike Christianity, is not only a religion but a way of life. Several forms of Hindu are henotheistic; this implies that they recognize only one Supreme Being but under him are the gods and goddess who can manifest each source (Hinduism 1). Lastly, it should be noted that Hindus have three basic principles that are linked to religion; these are: Worship: Hindu belief in worship as an integral mode of their faith. Cremation: according to the Hindus, people who die are burned and not buried. Adherence to the rules of the caste system: caste system is the division of individuals according to social groups. Each caste has its specific rule that has to be followed and obeyed (Hinduism 1). Conclusion Hinduism is quite popular and unique too. Hinduism cannot be considered to be a religion due to its many divisions and origin. Unlike other religions, Hinduism did not originate from a prophet but rather is considered as a set of many beliefs which are sewn together. Works cited Dogra, Urmila and Dogra, Ramil. Let’s know Hinduism: the oldest religion of infinite adaptability and diversity, 2nd Ed. New York: Star Publications, 2003. Print. Hinduism. Hinduism from the ancient time. Hinduism Today, 2011. Web.