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Primary Education And The Importance Of Universal Literacy Education Essay

Education and universal literacy are integral to one another and is one of the building blocks in any nation’s economic, social and political development. Education is important for an individual’s personality development as well as the sustained growth of a nation. Elementary and primary education in India is the foundation on which the development of every citizen and the nation as a whole hinges. India has made tremendous progress in terms of growth of educational institutions at different levels, physical access to schooling for children, and diversification of educational programmes. Today, 18 crore children are taught by almost 57 lakh teachers in more than 12 lakh primary and upper primary schools across the length and breadth of the country. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the large scale national program was launched in 2001 with an objective of achieving universal elementary education (UEE) by 2007. The program, which extends to all states and Union Territories to address the above mentioned objective in a time bound manner, has been successful. The Centre and states share funding of the programme in a ratio of 55:45. Reports indicate that the number of out of school children, which was 320 lakh in 2001-02, is down to 75.97 lakh in 2007-08. The first joint review Mission that visited eight sample states in February 2005, found that the SSA program had generated considerable interest, commitment and had put elementary education on the development agenda. Though progress has been made in the last 60 years to spread the education campaign, India needs to address the growing concerns which have so far kept us from achieving our set goals. This report enlists ten recommendations to improve the efficiency of the primary education system. The areas studied are quality of education, infrastructure, high degree of dropout rates, socio-economical equations hindering participation and an effective supervision cum tracking mechanism to ensure that progress with the right utilization of funds is being made. With respect to quality of education, not so encouraging trend in successful continuation from primary to upper primary, Pupil to Teacher ratio (PTR), number of contract based teachers, teacher qualification and their training. A lot more needs to be done to bring a stronger focus towards quality of education imparted at the primary level. Infrastructure woes continue with schools trying to operate without a proper building, lack of basic amenities such as toilets and drinking water. Though at times schools have buildings, they don’t have sufficient number of classrooms to cater to the numbers enrolling. In some states, schools continue to run with either a single teacher or a single classroom or both. Adding to this, the use of technology and computers in today’s global world we find ourselves lagging further behind. High student dropout rates are also seen in states/regions with lower socio economic fabric. Given the limited job opportunities, parents question the investment of sending children to school in the first place. We need to enforce a full proof system with checks and balances to abolish child labour as this has also resulted in children dropping out of schools. Though Govt and private initiatives such as the Mid-day meal have been successful to an extent, there is much ground to cover to ensure that primary education becomes a fundamental right for all instead of a privilege for a few. 10 Point Agenda 100% Enrolment in Primary Education : India’s double digit growth is dependent on ensuring enrolment of children in schools. The need of the hour is to ensure that a critical mass of people moves from class 12 to higher education so that they become creators of knowledge. We need to empower our future generations through a process of learning as only then will we be poised to take our country forward. Improving Infrastructure (School Buildings) : What do we need to do to ensure that we have a conductive environment for learning. Do we have school buildings, what condition are they in and how are they maintained? Civic Amenities (Toilets, Drinking Water, Playground / Park) : Schools need to be equipped with basic amenities such as toilets, dustbins and drinking water. We often say that Indians have a poor civic sense (Urinating on the road, Spitting, Throwing garbage from cars, balconies) Children have to be taught these basic values from an impressionable age so that they develop a civic sense. Improving Quality of Education : There should be a national commitment to ensure that quality education is equally available to all (SC, ST, Minority, Differently abled) and not just a privileged few. Qualification and Responsibility of Educators : RTE stipulates that teachers who do not have the right qualifications must acquire these within 5 years maximum. What is the quality of teaching provided, how does it shape our leaders of tomorrow? Is teaching merely one sided and text book driven or does it allow our children to think, question and expand their horizon? Control, Track and Report Progress on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Controlling and tracking closely the progress on SSA initiative is very important. Identified the key gaps with indication on what should be the focus areas to further improve Publicise Mid Day Meal Mid day meal scheme improves nutritional status of children in schools and to encourage poor children to attend schools regularly , This also helps to increase school attendance, eliminate classroom hunger and foster social equity. Retention, Contain Drop Out Rate The enrolment of students has increased in most states, the dropout rate continues. As PROBE points out that the effect of poor teaching standards is slowly sapping parental and child motivation over time. Improving the Female literacy in India The percentage of female literacy is only 54.16%. sufficient initiatives need to be taken to improve the women’s literacy rate. The initiatives required to be taken are explained below in detail. Improve Female Teacher Ratio Lack of female teachers is a potential barrier for girl’s education. Girls are more likely to attend school and have good and higher acadwilemic achievement if they have female teachers. 100% Enrolment in Primary Education The SSA objective to achieve near 100% enrolment has not been met and as per a 2007-08 DISE report, the enrolment rate (NRE) has been achieved at 95.92%. This implies that 4% i.e. 7.7 million children are still out of reach of primary education. The line of thought would include the reason for out of reach of primary education with respect to adequate number of schools the children to be enrolled. By plotting the population census against the number of schools, the data below suggests that in certain states and Union Territories, there are fewer number of schools compared to the population that it caters to. State/UT Total Schools Population as on 2006 % School ratio Primary Only Upper Primary to Primary ratio A

Conclusion On Maternal Health Seeking Health And Social Care Essay

The objectives of this study are to describe maternal health-seeking practices of adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and childbirth and to determine the effects of maternal health-seeking practices on their pregnancy outcomes. This study used the secondary data from a cross sectional survey named Survey of Pregnancy, Birth and Early Life (SPBEL) which was conducted in Kanchanburi province, 2003. A total of 117 nulliparous adolescent mothers aged 15-19 and 193 nulliparous adult mothers aged 20-29 who have delivered singleton live births within two years were included in this study. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the effects of maternal health-seeking practices on pregnancy outcomes. Our study found that the adolescent pregnancy rate (15-19 years) in Kanchanaburi province was 13%. Regarding their background characteristics, adolescent mothers tended to complete similar education level like adult mothers. A higher proportion of adolescent mothers were unemployed in comparison with adult mothers in this study. Concerning with health-seeking practices, a high level utilization of antenatal care was found in both adolescent and adult mothers and most of them received four or more antenatal visits. However, delayed and less frequent antenatal visits among adolescent mothers were found compared with adult mothers. Delivery rate at health facilities was very high and the rate did not differ between adolescent and adult mothers. With respect to pregnancy outcomes, adolescent mothers were found to have a higher incidence of preterm and LBW deliveries. Overall, pregnancy outcomes of adolescent mothers were more adverse than adults. Bivariate analysis showed maternal health-seeking practices had no significant effects on pregnancy outcomes of adolescent and adult mothers. Further adjustment of socio-demographic factors did not change the observed associations. On the other hand, we observed that age was a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nulliparous adolescent mothers had two times higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes than adults. In our study, we found the associations between pregnancy outcomes and their residence. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers from urban stratum was higher than that of mothers from rice fields, cash crops and upland strata after controlling age, health-seeking factors, level of education and employment status. Recommendation On the basis of our findings, some recommendations for policy implications and future studies are formulated in this section. Recommendations for policy implication High adolescent pregnancy rate calls for policy makers to give greater emphasis on sex education and promotion of contraceptive use among adolescents in schools as well as in the community. These interventions will help in delaying the initiation of sexual intercourse and improving use of birth control among adolescent women. Effective interventions to reduce either intended or unintended pregnancies among adolescents could improve adolescents’ maternal and child health. Despite the overall high use of maternal health care, adolescent mothers were less likely to use maternal health services compared with adult mothers. It was suggested that physical and social barriers accessing maternal health care for adolescent mothers need to be addressed by the government to improve maternal health care utilization among adolescent mothers. It is also recommended to initiate teenage specific antenatal clinic with youth friendly manner which could provide multidisciplinary care by detecting and managing biological and social risk factors for pregnant adolescents. Adolescent mothers were more likely to deliver preterm and LBW babies who are at higher risk of neonatal death. Moreover, neonatal morbidity among babies born to adolescent mothers was relatively higher than babies born to adult mothers. Provision of better antenatal and delivery care for pregnant adolescents could minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. It is crucial to provide training for health providers to understand more about the higher risks of adolescent pregnancy to achieve better pregnancy outcomes. In addition, health providers should be encouraged to pay special attention to postnatal contraception for adolescent mothers to postpone next pregnancy until they are biologically, psychologically and financially able to care for another baby. 5.2.2 Recommendations for future research Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between adolescent pregnancy outcomes and health-seeking practices. We suggest a prospective cohort study with a large sample size that includes information about potential risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as genital tract infection, pregnancy complications such as pregnancy induced hypertension and premature rupture of membrane, maternal malnutrition, anemia, and social problems faced by adolescent mothers to confidently conclude the effects of health-seeking practices on outcomes of adolescent pregnancy. Access to quality antenatal and delivery care will also be needed to consider as one important factor to determine the effects of maternal health care on pregnancy outcomes. Hence, it is recommended to include quality of maternal health care as one confounding factor of pregnancy outcomes. Our results provide a starting point to explore the reasons for relatively poor health-seeking practices of adolescent mothers. Qualitative study focusing on health-seeking behavior of adolescent mothers and social problems they encountered during pregnancy and delivery should be conducted for more in-depth understanding of adolescent pregnancy outcomes.

This week we focus on the concept of false discovery in data.  After reviewing the article by Naouma (2019), answer

custom essay This week we focus on the concept of false discovery in data.  After reviewing the article by Naouma (2019), answer the following questions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTq3cCsTEKk What is a false discovery rate? Can a false discovery rate be completely avoided?  Explain. What was the outcome of the results of the use case?

The Importance Of Time Management Education Essay

INTRODUCTION Time management is very important and it may actually affect individual’s overall performance and achievements. However, all of these are related by how individuals manage their time to suit their daily living or to make it flow steadily with their routines. Conducive settings and environment will surely promote positive outcomes to the students, besides having good lectures given by their lecturers. Nevertheless, students’ time management can be considered as one of the aspect that can move a student to be a good student. A good time management is vital for students to excel. However, some of the students do not have a good time management skills that has negatively affect their life and their study. The usage of time by students in higher education institutions is related to their daily routines and activities. Students’ time management can also affect stress level of students as they need to cope with their tasks and their personal errands. In educational institutions of Malaysia, time management has a role in determining how the students perform. This includes the students who are specializing in the teaching profession. Teaching profession is one of numerous professions accepted widely throughout the whole world. Due to this particular reason, higher learning institutions all around the world nowadays provide courses which either closely or directly related to the teaching profession. The learning institutions in Malaysia are not excluded. Here in Malaysia, higher learning institution provides educational courses in various fields of study. Many learning institutions have their own Faculty of Education to cater the needs and the students to further their studies in this particular field. Among these universities are Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Universiti Malaya (UM), Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Universitit Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM),Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) and Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM). The students who are undergoing the courses under the Faculty of Education are being exposed to what they should know and prepare for the educational field besides the knowledge that they gain during class. All of the students are being trained in improving both their knowledge and also their soft skills. However, all of the students do not have the same way of managing their time. This may have an effect both on their academic and social life. In order to determine how students manage their time, a study need to be carried out among students who are taking the B. Ed. in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) programme at the Faculty of Education, UiTM Shah Alam. This study is specifically for Part 8 or final semester students who are currently studying under the TESL programme. Statement of the Problem. Students in every university are different from one another, especially in the way they manage their time. The way of managing time for each individual is different in UiTM even though the courses taken are the same. Some of the students are even studying in the same class. Some class will have the session of a particular subject in the morning and some maybe having it in the afternoon or even later in the evening. The time allocation of the class may affect the students’ time managements. In other words, students manage their time to fit their needs and most of them manage their time by prioritizing on what they want to do, rather than what they need to do. This results in the difficulties of the students in performing their tasks based on what they planned. Thus, it is necessary to carry out a study in order to determine how students manage their time, and how it affects their studies. A study need to be conducted to find out how the students manage their time throughout their period of study and how it may affect their studies. The students are learning according to the timetable provided by the faculty that may or may not interrupt their common daily activities. The students have different ways to manage their time to cater to their study plan. This study is conducted to identify part 8 TESL students of UiTM time management and how it affects their studies. Research Objectives The main objective of the research is to determine the ways part eight B.Ed.TESL (Hons) students in the Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Section 17 Shah Alam, manage their time. The objectives of this research are as stated below: 1.2.1 To know how the students manage their time and their daily routine during their duration of study. This is mainly to investigate how students manage their time throughout their study which includes time for both academic and personal activities. 1.2.2 To investigate in what way time management affects their studies and performance. To discover how does students’ way of managing time affects their studies and their performance. 1.3 Research Questions This research is intended to answer the following questions: 1.3.1. How do the part 8 B.Ed. TESL students manage their time during their period of study? 1.3.2. How do they cope with academic workload during their study? 1.4.3. Do they have adequate time for social activities? 1.4 Significance of Study The significances of this study are: 1.4.1 To determine how part 8 B.Ed. TESL students of UiTM manage their time during their period of study, including on how they manage their time for academic activities and time for socializing. This can be looked on how part 8 B.Ed. TESL students make arrangement of their time, in which can be related on how they divide the time for academic purposes and also the time for their social needs. This study will discover how part 8 B.Ed. TESL students of UiTM manage their time to suit their need as students. 1.4.2 To raise the awareness of part 8 B.Ed. TESL students of UiTM on how they manage and spend time for their routines as students. The study is important for both students and the Faculty. It will bring benefits to the students who are not aware of how they spend or manage their time. The data collected in this study can be used as a guideline to the students to prepare a better way to lead their life or on how to manage their time properly. This also will help the students to make better time management for their academic and social life. 1.4.3 To enable the university to organize activities related to time management skill and self-improvisations, in order to enhance the students time management both during and after their classes. The Faculty may also use the data collected to carry out activities related to time management in order to improve whatever that should be improved about their time management. The students may also make necessary changes on how they spend their time or reschedule their daily routine in order to suit their needs or even to increase their performance in study. 1.5 Limitation of the Study The limitation in this study is on the number of the respondents. For this study, it would not be possible to obtain the information or data from all TESL students of UiTM. Due to that, the sample has been limited to part 8 B.Ed. TESL students of UiTM in Section 17, Shah Alam, Selangor only. 1.6 Definition of Terms Several terms will be used throughout this study. These terms are interrelated to one another and are used especially when referring to the subjects and the study done. The terms used may be different in meaning. 1.6.1 Time: According to Merriam-Webster Collegiate dictionary, 11th Edition; time is defined as “the measured or measurable period during which an action, process, or condition exist or continues”. Time in this research refers to the activities of part 8 TESL students of UiTM.. 1.6.2 Management: According to Collin’s Cobuild Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary, New Edition 5th (2006), management carries the meaning on the way people control different parts of their life. 1.6.3 Time Management: Based on the definition of time and management given above, time management can be said as the way of how individuals control their time throughout their daily life. In this study, throughout their daily life refers to time management applies to the period when part 8 students are studying at UiTM section 17, Shah Alam.

Ashford Week 5 Ideas for Helping Cody with his ADHD Condition in The Classroom Paper

Ashford Week 5 Ideas for Helping Cody with his ADHD Condition in The Classroom Paper.

InstructionsThis week, you explored several intervention strategies for helping with ADHD and the research assessing their effectiveness. You also became familiar with key considerations when implementing any sort of intervention for this disorder, including the importance of obtaining supportive, active “buy-in” from everyone involved in the treatment. Cody was assessed by the school district and is eligible for special education services through the IEP process (Individual Educated Plan). You and Mrs. Rivera spoke to an outside therapist who assessed that Cody can use some help in the school environment, so you spoke to his teacher. You presented the therapist’s behavior management plan designed to help him to focus and concentrate while minimizing his disruptiveness. The teacher knows that school personnel do not have to implement behavior plans from outside therapists and responds that she already has her hands full and she is not interested in adding any more responsibilities. She tells you that if you want the school to implement any sort of intervention, then Mrs. Rivera must request an IEP to present the report to the IEP team..Mrs. Rivera requests an IEP meeting to present the outside report and asks you to attend the meeting with her. For this assignment, describe the strategies the therapist may be proposing to help Cody in the classroom. Based on your understanding of the research literature: Describe, in detail, your ideas for helping Cody with his ADHD in the classroom. Explain your rationale for each idea (e.g., Why should the teacher put the entire class on a reward system?). Convince the stakeholders that there will be substantial value to all involved if your ideas are implemented consistently and carefully.Support your assignment with at least three scholarly resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including seminal articles, may be included.Length: 5-7 pages, not including title and reference pagesYour assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.Upload your document, and then click the Submit to Dropbox button.
Ashford Week 5 Ideas for Helping Cody with his ADHD Condition in The Classroom Paper