Powerpoint 12-15 slides w/200-250 words of speaker notes per slide3-4 References in APA format with in text citations. Graphics on all slides except title & reference Course Scenario is attached. Powerpoint Assignment Scenario:Michelle has told you that the board is now ready to see the final presentation of your plan for MM’s new product.”They are very eager to see what we have been working on during the past few weeks,” she says excitedly. “I am sure they will love the plan and am looking forward to your presentation.””Thanks,” you respond, feeling a few butterflies in your stomach. “I am looking forward to the presentation also. I think we have covered all of the bases and I am sure we have a solid plan. I have jotted down the order of items to cover that I think will be best for the presentation. What do you think?”
Objectives of planMarketing research used to select target marketProductPricingDistributionPromotional StrategiesMeasuring resultsContingency Plan”This looks like a solid format for the presentation. Let me know if you have any questions and I will be happy to help,” Michelle says exiting your office.You close the door of your office so you can fully concentrate on preparing your presentation. You have a lot of material to cover, but you have been working on this plan for weeks. Now it’s just a matter of formulating a cohesive strategy and anticipating any questions that may arise during the presentation.What might somebody else say to show your proposed solution is wrong?What could you say to show s/he is wrong?What alternative solution might someone else recommend?What reasons might someone provide to support their solution?How would you respond to their reasons?Is there a compromise or creative solution?
Presenting the Marketing Plan – Powerpoint
ANSWER: What is “The Method of Doubt? (also called Methodological Skepticism) used by Descartes? Does it lead to anything CERTAIN? – at least 4 paragraphs and 500 words_________________________________________________READ THE FOLLOWING & WATCH VIDEOCartesian Doubt: In seeking an absolutely certain starting point, Descartes proposed to use the tool of extreme doubt. He would ask of a belief: Is there any possibility that this belief can be doubted? Is there anything that would make this belief the least bit dubious? If the answer is yes, then the belief was to be eliminated, for it is not absolutely certain. (Of course, Descartes did not propose that we should stop believing a proposition if it failed the Cartesian doubt test. Failing the test indicates only that the proposition is not known with absolute certainty. It might be justified later if founded on certainty). This is called:Methodological Skepticism: Doubting ALL beliefs in an effort to discover if ANYTHING can be certain. It is based on the premise that Certainty, by definition, is the absence of doubt. It is a clever way to try to defect “regular skepticism” that maintains that certain knowledge is impossible.A Labor Saving Device: Not every belief can be subjected to the acid test of Cartesian doubt since we simply believe too many things. If you reflect for a moment on the vast body of beliefs that you have about ordinary things, then you will quickly see that if you tried to subject each of them to Cartesian doubt the project would take more than a lifetime to complete. To circumvent this practical problem, Descartes proposed a clever labor saving device. Rather than look at his beliefs individually, he would group them together on the basis of the sort of justification or support that they had. Thus, for example, your belief that I am wearing a blue necktie and your belief that the student next to you has taken off his shoes, though different beliefs, are based on the same sort of justification. They are both supported by the evidence of your vision. Now Descartes’ labor saving device works like this: If a given type of justification has ever led us to a false or mistaken conclusion, then all beliefs supported by this type of justification are subject to doubt. If this sort of justification has ever gone wrong, if it has ever led us to mistakes or errors, then we can never be certain that it will not mislead us again. Thus, to continue our example, if it can be shown that the evidence of our vision has ever led us to error, then all beliefs which are based on vision are subject to doubt. None of them are absolutely certain! Since vision has misled us in one case, then we can always ask whether it might not be misleading us in the case we are now considering. And this question is enough to generate Cartesian doubt concerning our belief in the case at hand. Of course he quickly discovers that ALL information from ANY of our senses is subject to doubt.II. The Quest for Certainty: Equipped with the method of Cartesian doubt and the labor saving device just described, Descartes set out on his quest to clear the path to certainly. The first job was to eliminate lots of potential candidates—to show that many classes of beliefs were not absolutely certain and thus could not serve as the foundation for the rest of knowledge. The Argument from Illusion—The Senses Under Attack: The first victims in Descartes’ attack on our beliefs are all those beliefs whose justification rely on the evidence of the five senses. Included among these, of course, are most of our everyday beliefs about the things going on around us. These beliefs are founded on the data provided by our senses. And, Descartes argues, none of these beliefs are certain. The argument itself is straightforward. Our senses have deceived us in the past, thus we cannot be certain of any belief that is founded on the evidence of the senses. The premise of the argument, that our senses have deceived us in the past, needs little defense. We have all had the experience of thinking that we saw or heard something and then discovering that we were mistaken. Some examples are optical illusions; smelling your favorite dinner in the over when you arrive at your Grand Parent’s house (but there is nothing cooking); hearing strange sounds when home alone late while frightened.One example Descartes uses is being on a boat on a lovely lake in France with your sweetheart on a sunny day. The oar looks BENT while in the water. But you reach your hands in the water and it feels straight! This is an example of your REASON correcting your SENSES, which is in part, why he is a Rationalist. By the way, he made a footnote to prove his hypothesis that the illusion of the bent oar is due to the refraction of light. Of course, he would later do just that and be the first one to figure out the mathematical and physics based proof and explanation of the refraction of light (that we now take for granted in the 21st century). But Descartes’ most famous passage pertaining the Argument from Illusion is the “Analogy of the Piece of Wax”. To make this point. Descartes first considers all the sensible properties of a ball of wax such as its shape, texture, size, color, and smell. He then points out that all these properties change as the wax is moved closer to a fire. The only properties that necessarily remain are extension, changeability and movability, all of which have deceived our senses but are corrected by our Reason.“Let us begin by considering the commonest matters, those which we believe to be the most distinctly comprehended, to wit, the bodies which we touch and see; not indeed bodies in general, for these general ideas are usually a little more confused, but let us consider one body in particular. Let us take, for example, this piece of wax: it has been taken quite freshly from the hive, and it has not yet lost the sweetness of the honey which it contains; it still retains somewhat of the odor of the flowers from which it has been culled; its color, its figure, its size are all apparent; it is hard, cold, easily handled, and if you strike it with the finger, it will emit a sound. Finally, all the things which are requisite to cause us distinctly to recognize a body, are met with in it. But notice that while I speak and approach the fire what remained of the taste is exhaled, the smell evaporates, the color alters, the figure is destroyed, the size increases, it becomes liquid, it heats, scarcely can one handle it, and when one strikes it, no sound is emitted. Does the same wax remain after this change? We must confess that it remains; none would judge otherwise. What then did I know so distinctly in this piece of wax? It could certainly be nothing of all that the senses brought to my notice, since all these things which fall under taste, smell, sight, touch, and hearing, are found to be changed, and yet the same wax remains…….Perhaps it was what I now think, viz. that this wax was not that sweetness of honey, nor that agreeable scent of flowers, nor that particular whiteness, nor that figure, nor that sound, but simply a body which a little while before appeared to me as perceptible under these forms, and which is now perceptible under others. But what, precisely, is it that I imagine when I form such conceptions? Let us attentively consider this, and, abstracting from all that does not belong to the wax, let us see what remains. Certainly nothing remains excepting a certain extended thing which is flexible and movable……These properties are however not directly perceived through the senses or imagination (the wax can be extended and moved in more ways than can be imagined). Instead to grasp the essence of the wax, it must be done through pure reason. We must then grant that I could not even understand through the imagination what this piece of wax is, and that it is my mind alone which perceives it”.— René Descartes, 1911 edition of The Philosophical Works of Descartes (Cambridge University Press), translated by Elizabeth S. HaldaneThe Dream Argument – A Second Assault on the Senses: The argument from illusion serves to show that many of our beliefs about the world around us are less than certain. But it might be thought that the argument from illusion is not adequate to expose all such beliefs to doubt. After all, it might be argued, my senses deceive me only under very special and unusual circumstances. When I am looking at something very far away, or when I am very tired and confused, or when I am drunk or have taken a drug of some sort, or when I am the subject of a psychological experiment—in these circumstances my senses may deceive me and lead me to a false conclusion. But what about those cases when there are no special or peculiar circumstances? What about the cases where I have not been drugged and where I simply hold my hand in front of my face and see my five fingers? Surely my senses cannot be deceiving me in this case. To combat this line of attack, Descartes uses a second argument to show that none of our beliefs concerning the world are absolutely certain. The argument is this: We have often dreamed that we were in places we were not. We have seen familiar objects and faces clearly. Yet those objects were nowhere near us. When Descartes dreams that he in his study, he is actually in bed. Thus even beliefs based on the clearest perceptions have sometimes been mistaken when the clear perception occurred during a dream. But we are never absolutely certain that we are not dreaming at any given moment. Thus we can never be absolutely certain of any of our beliefs based on even the clearest perception. Indeed, the concept of a “nightmare” is meaningless if we were always certain whether we are awake or asleep. Descartes will later attempt to trace our beliefs of Dreaming vs. Being Awake via chains of justification so we can know if we are awake or dreaming. But, for now, we must confess that are NOT certain. An ancient Chinese Philosopher put it this way: I had a dream that I was a butterfly. But now I am not sure if I am a man dreaming I am a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming I am a man!The Evil Demon Argument – Sweeping the Decks (almost) Clean: It might be thought that the argument from illusion along with the dream argument are sufficient to show that everything is doubtful, that nothing is certain. But this is not the case. It might be argued that even though we are never certain we are not dreaming, still there are a few facts about the world that we cannot bring ourselves to doubt. Perhaps when we see a certain color or shape in a dream, even though there is no object near us at the time that actually has that color or shape, we still can be certain that there actually are things of that color or shape in the universe. For even though our dream is a mere idea that corresponds to nothing in the mind external world, still where did we get the idea of that color or shape in the first place? Must we not have gotten it from the mind external world? Thus can’t we be certain that there are things of that color in the world even though perhaps there are none actually near us at the moment? Or take an even more extreme case. Suppose we see two apples and three apples being put together in a bag during the dream. Wouldn’t there be five apples in the bag? Now it follows from the dream argument that we may be deceived about what we have seen. Perhaps we are really asleep in bed and there are no apples closer than the kitchen. Still, can’t we be certain of the bare fact of arithmetic, that 2+3=5? Or, to vary the example, suppose we see a triangle. By the dream argument we can conclude that there may not be a real triangle near us. But still, can’t we be certain even in a dream, that a triangle has three sides? Can’t we be certain of this even if we grant that we are now dreaming? Descartes doubts that even these beliefs are certain. He suspects that even the existence of colors in the world can be doubted, that even the fact that a triangle has three sides (an analytic statement) can be doubted. Only absolute certainty can serve as the foundation for knowledge. He wants to be sure he is not deceived to believe with certainty in his favored, analytic and mathematical truths. Descartes realizes that he loves math and logic. Thus, he might be tempted to use math and logic as the foundation. So Descartes uses hyperbole (exaggeration) to make his point. He asks, “Can I imagine a possible world where even analytic truths can be doubted”? Yes! Imagine there is a Being as all-powerful as the traditional Christian God, but a Being as wicked and mischievous as the Christian God is good. If such a demon existed, and if he wanted to deceive you, couldn’t he do it? Couldn’t he deceive you into thinking that colors and shapes exist in the mind external world when in fact they do not? Indeed, if he is as powerful as the Christian God, couldn’t he even deceive you into believing that triangles have three sides, when in fact they do not? Couldn’t the demon give you ALL of your perceptions? Clearly, Descartes argues, such an all-powerful evil demon could trick you. Moreover, you do not have any guarantee that such a demon does not exist. You are not CERTAIN there is no such demon. Of course, you don’t believe that there is a demon. But that is not the point. The proposition that there is no evil demon fails the test of Cartesian doubt. So, if you cannot be certain that there is no evil demon, then you cannot be certain that he is not deceiving you. Thus you cannot be certain that colors exist in the mind external world, or that triangles have three sides. You might be an un-embodied mind in a vat having all of your perceptions fed to you! Pretty weird, but you must admit that there is room for doubt. Many science fiction stories are based on this possibility (including The Matrix).Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of MindWhat’s Left? – The Cogito: It might be thought that with this last argument Descartes has succeeded in destroying the quest for certainty. It might seem that Descartes has shown we can be certain of nothing! But Descartes did not draw this skeptical conclusion. He thought that even if there is an evil demon using all his powers to deceive us, there is still something we can be certain of.Descartes defended this conclusion in a brief and elegant argument that has fascinated philosophers for centuries. Suppose, he argues, that there is an evil demon (or evil scientist, or a virtual reality) and that he does his best to deceive us. Is there not one belief about which he cannot deceive us: the belief that we exist? Let the demon deceive me all he can, still if he is deceiving me, I must exist. If I did not exist, he would not be able to deceive me. I would not be there to be deceived. A deceiver implies the existence of a deceive-ee, this is me! Thus it is impossible for the demon to deceive me about my own existence. I believe that I exist, and in order to be deceived, I must exist. We might reconstruct Descartes’ Argument as a dilemma: Either the demon exists or he does not. If he does not, then I have no reason to doubt that I exist. But if he does and he is deceiving me, then I still must exist. So in either case I cannot doubt that I exist.Extending the Argument: Descartes offers several elaborations of the Cogito.1. From Thought to My Existence: It is not only “doubt” of my existence that guarantees I exist. Any mental activity is sufficient to establish my existence. If I think or reason or hope, then I must exist. Any thought implies the existence of a thinker. Of course, the demon may be deceiving me when I think; I may think that I am in my study when in fact I am in my bed (or when in fact I have no body at all); but in order to be deceived I must exist. So, even though my thoughts may be wrong, my existence follows from my thinking them. Descartes summarized this argument with the Latin phrase: Cogito ergo sum—I think, therefore I am.2. The Certainty of the Contents of Consciousness: It is not, Descartes argued, merely the fact of our own existence about which we can be certain. We may also be certain about all those beliefs, which concern the contents of our consciousness. The evil demon may convince me that I am seeing an aardvark, when in fact there is no aardvark to be seen. But though I may falsely believe that there actually is an aardvark which I am perceiving, still, I have a weaker belief about which I can be certain, namely the belief that I think I see an aardvark, or the belief that there is an aardvark-like shape in my visual field. I may be wrong in my belief that there is a real aardvark about, but I can’t be mistaken about the fact that “I” am having an aardvark perception. NOTE: So far Descartes has only proven the contents of his own consciousness (his mind). He has not proven the existence of your mind or the existence of his own body.Two Meanings of ‘Perceive’: To understand Descartes’ point we must note that the words ‘perceive’, ‘see’, etc. have two quite different meanings. In one sense of ‘perceive’, the veridical sense, I see something because there is something outside of my mind causing the perception. For example, is someone brings a yellow and purple striped zebra to class and it truly exists thereby causing me to see it and smell it, then it produces a Veridical Perception: A mind externally caused perception that corresponds to an object existing in the real world. Example: You have a mental image of a tree because you are currently looking at a tree. This is to say my perceiving the yellow and purple striped zebra implies that there actually is a real yellow and purple striped zebra there to be perceived. Thus if I believe I am perceiving a yellow and purple striped zebra (in the veridical sense) and there is no zebra there before me (because I am being deceived by a demonic philosopher) then my assertion was false. But suppose the demonic philosopher has me hooked up to a machine which creates in my visual field a lifelike image of the zebra. (Perhaps I am even caused to sniff the smell of a zebra.) In this case I do not perceive a zebra veridically; yet I still do have the visual impression of a zebra. Here too we might say that I see a zebra. But we are using the word in a different sense, the Phenomenological sense. To say that we perceive or see something in the phenomenological sense does not imply that there actually is a real thing there to be seen, but only that we are having the sort of visual sensations we would be having if there were a real object there. Case in point, you have a phenomenological perception of the yellow and purple striped zebra right now because you are thinking about it!Phenomenological Perception: A mind internal perception with no corresponding object causing the perception that is outside of your mind. Example: You have a mental image of a tree because you looked at one in the past.Summary of Descartes’ Method of Doubt
The Argument from Illusion “Doubts the Certainty” of the reliability of the senses. It doubts Veridical Perceptions.
The Dream Argument “Doubts your ability to distinguish with certainty” whether or not your perceptions are Veridical or Phenomenological.
The Evil Demon Argument “Doubts the Certainty” of the source of all perceptions.
Salem State College Method of Doubt Discussion
Sociological theory of religion
1 Using examples critically assess one sociological theory of religion In most traditional societies, religion is an important form of social ‘togetherness’. It augments a feeling of ‘community’ and promotes a set of shared values and beliefs in some form of god. Religion also plays a central role in cultural life; people often synthesize religious symbols and rituals into the material and artistic culture of the society: literature, storytelling, painting, music, and dance. It is the focus of the ‘society’ that is of interest to religious sociologists, in particular theories concerning the way religious behaviour differs between and within societies. Beckford notes that theories’ revolving around ‘how social interaction benefits or holds back societies’, has made sociology a renowned area of study. In order to establish a fundamental starting point in this thesis, the foundations of sociology and the sociology of religion will be described in context. Furthermore, it will discuss, in some detail, the sociological theoretical approach of functionalism by sociologists; a critical analysis will aim to show the differences in their approaches to functionalism and will include supporting and critical statements from preceding and subsequent sociological theorists. Sociologists generally define religion as a ‘codified set of moral beliefs concerning sacred things and rules governing the behaviour of believers who form a spiritual community’. Auguste Comte (1798 – 1857) describes sociology as the study of human societies. A classical view is that, ‘it is a social science’ that, ‘uses varied methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis’, and is often used to develop theory about human social activity. The sociology of religion therefore takes into account the aforementioned and also includes the practices, historical backgrounds, developments, universal themes and roles of religion in society. Jones (2003) describes Comte as the first to proclaim the virtues of an empirically based social science, a type of sociology that would have enormous implications for someone like Comte, who had been born during the aftermath of the French Revolution. Bilton et al (1996) explain this further: Positive social knowledge could offer the means for peaceful reconstruction of social order by the elite of enlightened scientists and intellectuals…Social change need not depend upon revolutionary violence and the manipulation of the mob’ Comte was able to make use of the new science for the progression of society and the re-establishment of order as well as being able to apply the positive method to social theory. Comte and his fellow Frenchman Durkheim are said to be the forerunners in creating the discipline of sociology. Thompson (1982) describes Comte as ‘giving the subject its name and an ambitious prospectus,’ whilst Durkheim gave it, ‘academic credibility and influence.’ Functionalist sociologists focus their attention on the ‘nature of institutional relationships in society’. To understand this further, one can use Talcott Parsons’ functionalist ideas as an example. Parsons, [who supported functionalism in the United States] used the functionalist perspective to group institutions in society into four related functional sub-systems; economic, political, kinship, and cultural. This theory stressed the importance of interdependence among all behaviour patterns and institutions within a social system to its long-term survival.  In a similar way Durkheim In trying to explain the value of social and cultural character, illuminated them in terms of their contribution to the operation of an ‘overall’ system. Furthermore, Malinowski, who promoted functionalism in England, endorsed the idea that cultural practices had psychological and physiological functions, such as the reduction of fear and anxiety, and the satisfaction of desires. Another Englishman Radcliffe-Brown contended that, ‘all instituted practices ultimately contribute to the maintenance, and hence the survival, of the entire social system, determining the character of inter-group relations.’ It is Parsons ‘sub-system’ of culture that encompasses religion that we now turn to. A functional definition of religion is fundamentally based on the ‘social structure’ and ‘drawing together’ of people, it pays particular attention to how religion guides and influences the lives of people who are actively involved, and through this promotes ‘unity and social cohesiveness’. Durkheim believed and argued that, religion was a socially constructed institution, serving the needs of society by socialising members into the same norms, values and beliefs, therefore reinforcing the collective conscience upon which the stability of society rests. He looked in depth at the origins, meaning, and function of religion in society. His belief was that religion was not so much about God, but more about the consolidation of society and the sense of identity that this creates within a particular society. He fully believed that individuals who accepted their role within their own society develop a form of ‘social conscience’ as part of that role, which Durkheim labels as the ‘Conscience collective,’ which in simpler terms could be labelled as, ‘ a common understanding’. Published in 1921 and penned by Durkheim,’ The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life’, is renowned as the best-known study on the sociology of religion. Using secondary data, Durkheim studied native totemism in primitive Australian tribes, in effect the totem is a symbol that is an integral part of the group, and during ceremonies will be the magnet that draws everyone together to form a collective whole. Therefore, totemism in this instance is explained not in terms of what it is, [what the content of its doctrines and beliefs are] – but what it does, that is, the function it performs for the social system. Durkheim claims that, ‘the totem, the sacred object is a representation, by which society symbolises itself,’ which according to Fulcher and Scott, he believed to be the ‘real basis of social solidarity.’ From his observations Durkheim developed his theory of the sacred and profane, believing that all things in society can be separated into these distinct categories, as a fundamental dichotomy the sacred and profane are seen as two separate domains or worlds. For Durkheim the sacred meant the unity of the group embodied in symbols, as in his example of totems, the profane was more about the mundane or the individual, and less concerned with the ‘group’. However the British anthropologist Evans-Pritchard (1937) observed that sacred things may be profane at certain times, an example he gives is the case of the Azande, who, when their shrines were not in ritual use, were used as props to rest their spears. This analysis of the sacred and the profane was extended to all religions by Durkheim and his followers, making a focus on what is similar about what they each do, and about the integrative functions all these religions perform on their social systems. He therefore viewed religion within the context of the entire society and acknowledged its place in influencing the thinking and behaviour of the members of society. Furthermore he believed that order flowed from consensus, from the existence of shared norms and values, for him the key cause of social upheaval stems from anomie, the lack of ‘regulating’ norms. ‘Without norms constraining behaviour’, explains Durkheim, ‘humans develop insatiable appetites, limitless desires and general feelings of irritation and dissatisfaction.’ Radcliffe-Brown continued Durkheim’s sociological perspective of society; he particularly focused on the institutions of kinship and descent and suggested that, at least in tribal societies, they determined the character of family organization, politics, economy, and inter-group relations. Thus, in structural-functionalist thought, individuals are not significant in and of themselves but only in terms of their social status: their position in patterns of social relations. When regarding religious ceremonies Radcliffe-Brown contends that ceremonies, for example, in the form of communal dancing, promoted unity and harmony and functioned to enhance social solidarity and the survival of the society, in this he agreed with another renowned anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski. Malinowski’s functionalism was highly influential in the 1920s and 1930s, a British anthropologist, he conducted one of the first major studies of religion from an ethnocentric perspective, on the people of the Trobriand Islands. The first anthropologist to undertake a long-term piece of field research, Malinowski lived among the Trobriand islanders for four years. In studying the functions of religion in a small scale, he agreed with Durkheim that ‘religion reinforced social norms, values and promoted social solidarity.’ Malinowski also believed that religion could relieve social anxiety and could provide a sense of security especially when people are faced with situations in which they have no control, an example Malinowski gives is based on his observation of the Trobriand islanders fishing in a calm lagoon, no religious practice was attached, however when faced with the perils of fishing in the open ocean, religious rituals were always performed. In this way Malinowski believed humans could exert a perceived control over a world in which they held no significant, individual power. This individual, perceived control can be seen to be used by people facing a personal crisis. Often in a situation where they have no control over the outcome, people will turn to religion looking for guidance and sanctuary; thereby giving them a sense of power. For Malinowski then, religion also helped to conciliate periods of life crises and events such as death, marriage and birth, these rituals, known as ‘rites of passage’ are marked by ceremonies, that by their very nature, are a form of ‘social togetherness’ that help to create social order and contentment. These ‘rites’ however can be seen to be controlled in that to a certain extent one is prepared for new life, death and marriage, these events form part the ‘circle of life’ and therefore come with some prior knowledge. Ceremonies that relate to these life events could be seen as a ‘predictable’ common bond that will help to reinforce social solidarity. Malinowski argues that religion minimizes the disruption, in particular, of death. He believes that the assertion of immortality gives rise to feelings of comfort for the bereaved, whilst the act of a funeral ceremony binds the survivors together. Coser (1977) explains further: Religion can counter a sense of loss, which, as in the case of death, may be experienced on both the individual and the collective level therefore religion as a social institution serves to give meaning to man’s existential predicaments by tying the individual to that supra-individual sphere of transcendent values which is ultimately rooted in his society. So far we have seen that collective or communal gatherings are generally aimed at promoting social solidarity and cohesion, this is backed by the empirical evidence offered by Malinowski in his study of the Trobriand Islands. Hamilton (1995) offers that these gatherings can also be interpreted as involving the ‘recognition of divisions, conflict and disharmonies inherent in the society and rituals may be seen as a means of coping with and defusing them’. Concerning Malinowski’s empirical evidence, a contrasting point is noted by Casanova (1995) who questions functionalism on empirical grounds, he argues that religion does not provide consensus and unity, instead he says that most conflicts [an example he gives is the Iran/Iraq war] in society have religious foundations. Marxist sociologists also criticise functionalists on a theoretical level. Marx claims that religion does not create societal consensus, instead it creates conflict between those that have wealth in the ruling class and those that do not in the working class. Therefore according to Marx, the only norms and values that are conserved by religion are those of the ruling class. Functionalist theory could therefore be said to neglect the areas in which religion has been dysfunctional for society, whereby religious divisions have caused disruption and conflict rather than promoting social order. History provides numerous examples of this including the aforementioned Iran/Iraq dispute, Northern Ireland and Bosnia. An “Extreme functionalist assessment of religion,” declares William Stevens, is put forward by American sociologist Robert Bellah. Bellah fuses Parsons’ argument that America derives its values from Protestantism, with Durkheim’s belief that the worship of god is the disguised worship of society. From this Bellah develops a new kind of religious concept, that of a ‘civil’ religion. Therefore despite the individual belief systems of American citizens, it is the overarching faith in America that unites Americans. Wallis (1983:44) cited in Jones, explains that Bellah finds evidence of civil religion in Presidential inaugurations and ceremonials such as Thanksgiving Day and Memorial Day are similarly held to integrate families into the civil religion, or to unify the community around its values. A further point to be made here is that generally civil religion does not hold to a belief in the supernatural. Bellah disagrees and says examples of confirmation in the supernatural can be seen or heard on a daily basis, phrases such as “God Bless America” and the words ‘In God we trust’ on the national currency, he believes are prime examples of this. However Stevens asserts that this is not the god of any particular creed, but a god of America. For Bellah then civil religion creates a social cohesiveness by gathering people together to collectively partake in some form of ceremonial event. Therefore flag waving at a sporting event or lining the street to celebrate a royal marriage or death can bring about a united outpouring of joy or grief that in itself generates order. A contemporary example is the untimely death of Princess Diana. Her funeral witnessed a monumental combining of people, faiths and nations in a symbolic act of grief. Functionalist sociologists tend to emphasize what maintains society, not what changes it and are criticized for being unable to account for social change because it focuses so intently on social order and equilibrium in society. Functionalists have to take into account that change does happen in societies and that change is a good thing, and can represent progress. Jones says that the functionalist way around this is to use an organic analogy – social progress occurs as it does with organisms – as an evolutionary change. Bilton et al explain that this takes shape in the form of structural differentiation…’differentiation is a type of splitting or separation of a previously undivided unit, the new units differ in that they are more specialised in the functions they perform’. Talcott Parsons, in his approach to social change, emphasises differentiation. According to Parsons, ‘Institutions change, if the need of the system changes.’ An example of a system change stems from The Industrial Revolution, which was facilitated by capitalism, was increasingly demanding technological advances to increase profit. In order to make this possible there was a need for more educated workforces. As a result the industrial economy needed a new form of family to perform these specialist functions. Thus, as one aspect of society changed – the economy and production – it required a comparable change in the educational system, bringing social life back into equilibrium. This new modernization of society, explains Marske, ‘is associated with the increasing indifference of the individual from the traditional social bonds of an intimate network of diffuse social relationships.’  Due to a greater demand in the workforce people from all walks of life came together causing an increase in the cultural diversity within a particular society. As a result individuality became a more prominent feature; religion it seems was becoming less social and more personal. Durkheim would disagree with this statement as he believed it was possible to be an individual as well as social institution, he explains, In reality, the religion of the individual is a social institution like all known religions. It is society which assigns us this ideal as the sole common end which is today capable of providing a focus for men’s wills. Dillon (2003) explains that social scientists and Western intellectuals have been promising the end of Religion for centuries, Comte announced that, as a result of modernization, human society was outgrowing the ‘theological stage’ of social evolution and a new age was dawning which the science of sociology would replace religion as the basis or moral judgements. Durkheim predicted the gradual decrease in formal world religions; in post-enlightenment society he felt that there would be a greater emphasis on the ‘individual’. This he believed would lead to a ‘weakening of ties’ in the modern world. In addition he envisaged that ‘social solidarity’ and the ‘collective conscience’ would be taken up by other institutions that would evolve into new forms of religious experience. Furthermore a maturing modernity would see scientific thinking replace religious thinking. As a consequence, Durkheim considered the ‘concept of “God” to be on the verge of extinction. In its place he envisioned society as promoting civil religion, in which, for example, civic celebrations, parades, and patriotism take the place of church services. If traditional religion were to continue, he believed it would do so only as a means to preserve social cohesion and order. Parsons disagrees with this synopsis, ‘with modern life will come structural frameworks that are more competitive and specialised, however they would still persist because religion is an adaptable structural framework for the explanation of inexplicable social phenomena.’ A criticism applied to the functionalist’s perspective stems from Durkheim’s analogy that societies and social institutions have personalities. To imagine that a ‘society’ is a living, breathing organism is a difficult concept when in fact it is seen as an inorganic object. This creates what can said to be a philosophical problem and an ontological argument that society does not have needs as a human being does; and even if society does have needs they need not be met. The view here is that society is alive in the sense that it is made up of living individuals. What is not taken into account is that each individual is a different entity, with their own wants and needs. As part of the unit they can function and integrate within the group as a viable member. However individual life choices may not always create a positive function for the society as a whole. Functionalists in general tend to have a too positive view by believing that everything that exists in society does so because it has some kind of functional purpose. Robert Merton believed that it was entirely plausible for society to have dysfunctional elements. Durkheim also recognised that some forms of social life could be seen in the same way, however he did not use the term dysfunctional. In his work on crime, he noted that crime was functional to society, this seems to be a contradiction in that he also said, ‘too high a level of crime’ might not be functional, because it could create a state of confusion regarding what constitutes the ‘norms’ that applied to peoples lives. As a society dysfunctional actions, in particular criminal actions are frowned upon, and as a society we can become ‘mob-handed’ in the way people come together to condemn an act of crime. Durkheim has a point to make here in that, ‘people combine together, forming a collective cohesion in defining themselves against what they are not.’ Picturing society like a vast machine, Merton argues that a society should best be considered as a cross between the cultural “goals” of a society-what it holds its members should strive for-and the “means” that are believed, legally or morally, to be legitimate ways that individuals should attain these goals. In an ideally organized society, the means will be available to deliver all of its members to their goals. One must take into account when analysing such theories that at the time of writing the world was a very different place to the one we live in today. Social anthropology has come under criticism for looking into primitive societies as a representation of unchanged societies – criticism in particular stems from the lack of historical records that could confirm or deny any findings. Radcliffe-Brown considered this type of work a mistake…his belief was that the religious and ritual systems ‘had to be understood in the context of the existing society and their role in that society. One could linger on Durkheim’s prediction that religion would decrease with modernity, religion here being in reference to the act of attending a social gathering in the worship of some form, whether it be totemic or divine. However an important point to note is that at the time when the ‘Sociology of Religion’ was in its infancy, religious practice was more of a regular occurrence than one would perhaps find in today’s society. However individuals are still irrevocably influenced by the role of religion in their own lives. Their beliefs and values allow them to feel supported in their everyday life; religion sets aside certain values and infuses them with special significance. Culture plays an important part here, as values, customs and beliefs combine to become a moral code by which societies adhere to and live by and pass on to future generations. Religion encourages collective worship be it in a church, mosque, temple, home or some other specified gathering place. Through the act of collective worship the individual is encouraged to feel part of a wider community. Today, societies are classed as more secular in their nature, yet if one consider the earlier statement about religion being an important form of social ‘togetherness’ it would be easy to make analogies with the different groups that make up the society we inhabit. For example schools hold assemblies, awards evenings and performances all which can be seen as an example of community spirit and social cohesion. People as individuals, have interests outside of their immediate social groupings, this does not make them an outcast or outsider, and instead it promotes a sense of identity, individualism and the ‘self’. The writings of sociologists such as Durkheim, Comte, Radcliffe-Brown and Parsons are still important today, especially in comparing the way society sees religion. However, in contemporary society sociologists have a different set of problems to contend with as belief in ‘modern society’ and ‘materialism’ for many becomes a more vital ‘moral value’ than partaking in a religious practice. BIBLIOGRAPHY Beckford, James A. (2003) Social Theory and Religion, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Bilton et al, Introductory sociology 3rd Edn (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998). Casanova, Jose, Public Religions in the Modern World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995) Christiano, Kevin J., William Swatos Jr
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Benefits of Breastfeeding and Stages of Child Feeding
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Breastfeeding is the oldest method of feeding a child and has existed since the beginning of time. Most of the mothers received advice on the methods of feeding their infants and it comes from a variety of different sources like relatives or their mothers, health professionals, friends, books, magazines and baby food manufacturers. Similar findings were reported by Worsfold (1996). It is found to confer several advantages to both the breastfed child and his mother. This is in line with the study by Gartner et al. (2005). 98.0% of mothers knew about the importance of breast-feeding. The most prominent benefit identified by 92.6% of mothers were protection of the baby from diseases as stated by Duggan et al. (1990) and Berg et al. (1984). 23.4% who found it to be economical and this matches the study by Duggan et al. (1990) and NRDC (2005). 8.5% of mothers concluded that breastfeeding protects the baby from childhood obesity as suggested by Cook et al. (2003) compared to the study by Clifford (2003) who did not find any association between them. Also, 8.5% of mothers agreed that breastfeeding prevents the mother from gaining weight. This is explained by the fact that during lactation, many calories are spent to produce milk as mentioned by NRDC (2005) and Brudenell et al. (1995). It can be seen that mothers in Mauritius had a good knowledge on the beneficial aspects of breastfeeding. Therefore mothers will try their best to breastfeed their child. This will not only provide adequate nutrition to their child but also some beneficial health effects to the breastfeeding mothers. Out of those 98 mothers who said that breastfeeding is important, 90 breastfed their child. However, all those who said that breastfeeding is not important breastfed their child. Those eight mothers who could not breastfeed their baby despite being aware of its benefits reported that they were either drug addicts, HIV positive or their baby was adopted. A study by Ashworth (2005) reported that the HIV virus can be passed from an HIV-infected mother to her baby, known as mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). This study also suggested that one in every 20 babies will become infected if breast-fed for six months while three in every 20 will become infected if breast-feeding continues for two years. Breast milk substitutes and their hazards Breast milk substitutes are alternatives to breast milk. They include powdered or liquid milks or formula, wet-nurses and exclude therapeutic formulas used under medical supervision (USAID, 2006). 82.0% of mothers knew about the hazards associated with breast milk substitutes. 61.0% of mothers reported diarrhea as the utmost hazard which does not tally with the study by Fein§ et al. (1997). The second hazard mentioned by 48.8% mothers was severe abdominal pain. 41.5% of mothers stated that vomiting was associated with the use of breast milk substitutes as researched by Dugdale and Eaton-Evans (1987). Allergy and childhood obesity were reported by only 31.7% of 7.3% of mothers respectively. These show that the mothers were very much aware of the hazards associated with breast milk substitutes. Mother would probably try to limit the use of breast milk substitutes as much as possible by taking into account the hazards associated with them. In this way, breastfeeding will be promoted leading to an improved health status of the children of Mauritius. However, for mothers who cannot or choose not to breastfeed for genuine and valid reasons, the use of breast milk substitutes may still be considered as a safe choice. Colostrum Colostrum is the yellowish, sticky breast milk produced at the end of pregnancy (WHO, 2010). 78.0% of mothers knew about colostrum. 72.5% of mothers correctly rightly defined it as the ‘precursor to breast milk’ while 78.0% 0f mothers correctly described its appearance as a ‘sticky pale yellow liquid. This shows that Mauritian mothers knew that colostrum is the first milk produced just after delivery and was able to describe it properly. 4.2 BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES Initiation of breastfeeding 47.3% of mothers breastfed their child in less than one hour after birth as recommended by the WHO (2010) and USAID (2006) while some breastfed their child after several days. A 22% reduction in neonatal mortality was seen in rural Ghana if breastfeeding is started within the first hour after birth (Edmond et al., 2006). It was also found that early initiation of breastfeeding builds on the baby’s innate reflexes and babies who start breastfeeding at this time continue to breastfeed exclusively thus adopting optimal feeding. The mother’s body produces the hormone while enhancing the flow of milk. The mother’s commensal (normal) bacteria start colonizing the baby’s skin and gut thereby protecting the baby against the harmful bacteria in the environment. During this time, the baby is calmer, is in an alert state with stable breathing and heart rate. Early initiation of breastfeeding has also been shown to help reduce post-partum bleeding, a major cause of maternal mortality in developing countries (IBFAN-Asia, 2007). In light of these studies, mothers should be advised and encouraged to breastfeed their baby just after birth or in less than one hour after birth. 66 mothers claimed that breastfeeding must be initiated in less than one hour after birth but unfortunately only 39 of them practised it. The main barriers associated with late initiation of breastfeeding in cesarean section deliveries were the adverse effects of anesthesia on mother-infant pairs, maternal discomfort and delayed onset of lactation as stated by Emel. (2010). Exclusive breastfeeding 36.8% of mothers rightly carried out exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Exclusive breastfeeding was found to contribute to protection against common infections during infancy and to lessen the frequency and severity of infectious episodes while partial breastfeeding did not seem to provide this protective effect and this was confirmed in a research by Galanakis et al. (2010). Unfortunately very few Mauritian mothers did exclusive breastfeeding for six months. This implies that mothers introduced breast milk substitutes like for example infant formula or food items earlier in the baby’s diet. Stopping breast-feeding before four months and introducing solid foods were associated with overweight and obesity at three years old as reported in a study by Hawkins et al. (2009). Formula-fed babies show quicker growth rates than breast-fed babies and seem to be at a greater risk of obesity as they progress into childhood. This could be explained by arguing that a breast-fed infant has more control over the rate of feeding and the timing of the end of feeding while bottle-fed infant might feel pressured to take in more feed due to being led by a parent to finish the bottle as stated by Ebbeling et al. (2002). Among 51 mothers who knew that exclusive breastfeeding must be carried out for six months, only 28 of them did so. The major reason reported by mothers was insufficient milk production which was in line with the study by Petit (2008). A small group of mothers thought that breast milk did not satisfy their baby as it is easily digested as stated by Maeda et al. (2001) and that infant formula would prevent their baby from getting hungry more often. Some mothers stopped breastfeeding before six months due to fatigue, backache, nipples infection, child refuses to suckle or simply due to the easy availability of breast milk substitutes on the market. Others wanted their baby to get used to infant milk so that they can leave their baby with some family members when they had to go out or had to resume work. Complete breastfeeding 22.3% of mothers carried out breastfeeding for up to two years which shows that only a minority of mothers practiced breastfeeding for two years. However, the data showed that 17.0% of mothers carried out breastfeeding for eighteen months, 12.8% for twelve months followed by 11.7% for three months only. This was explained in terms of several reasons like inadequate amount of milk produced and baby was not receiving enough milk. Some mothers stopped breastfeeding as they wanted to get pregnant again and for aesthetic reasons. Those who work reported that they did not get breastfeeding time. Others mentioned that their infants have lost interest in nursing and their husbands had negative opinions on breastfeeding. Among the respondents, few mothers stopped breastfeeding as they had sore nipples. Others were under medication and were advised by doctors to stop breastfeeding. Certain mothers found it difficult to breastfeed their baby when they had to go out and found it more convenient to use infant formula in public places. A study claimed that the leading reason why mothers stopped breastfeeding was insufficient amount of milk produced (Hussain, 2003). Most Mauritian mothers did not breastfeed their child for two years for several reasons and this would probably had adverse health effect on the child with a reduced beneficial effect of breastfeeding to the mother herself. Weaning Weaning is the process of expanding the diet of the infant to include foods and drinks other than mother’s or formula milk, to enable them to meet the extra nutritional needs for rapid growth and development (DOH, 1994).The weaning period is a crucial stage in the growth and development of the infant and child. The timing of weaning, the choice of foods, their methods of preparation, and how weanlings are fed, all affect the outcome46.5% of mothers introduced supplemental feed at six months of age. 93.0% of them introduced infant formula while others introduced mostly solid foods. It can also be seen that 29.4% of mothers started weaning before six months compared with 18.1% of mothers who began it after six months. The introduction of solid foods before 3 to 4 months were found to be associated with increased fatness and wheeze later in childhood, with an increased risk of allergy, and with higher rates of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes in infants while the European Food Safety Authority’s panel on dietetic products, nutrition, and allergies concluded that for infants across the EU, complementary foods may be introduced safely between four to six months, and six months of exclusive breast feeding may not always provide sufficient nutrition for optimal growth and development as shown by Booth et al. (2011). Out of those 58 mothers who knew that supplemental food must be introduced at six months, 42 rightly introduced it in the baby’s diet at this age. At around 6-9 months changes occur in babies’ mouths that help them cope with the change from drinking to eating. Babies younger than this may be more at risk of choking on solid foods. For parents, leaving solid foods until around six months means less time spent preparing smooth purées as babies can then cope with finger foods and lumpy foods more quickly and also fewer smelly nappies. Mothers who encourage their babies to help themselves to solid foods (an approach called baby-led weaning), rather than spoon-feeding them, say that this makes introducing solids an easier, more enjoyable and sociable experience. If breastfeeding is being continued to six months or more implies that your baby receives more antibodies and other protective factors. Giving only breast milk also means your baby is less exposed to harmful bacteria. Babies are more likely than adults to develop diarrhea and vomiting from such exposure as they have less acid in their stomachs. Early weaning is not convenient as babies do not actually produce all the enzymes needed to digest food thoroughly until they are about a year old. Under four months, any foods other than milk could put strain on the baby’s kidneys and the larger molecules in food are more likely to trigger an allergy. Although a baby given solids early may appear fine at the time, there are increased risks of eczema, wheezing and chest infections in childhood as suggested by NCT (2008). Others factors affecting weaning may include young maternal age, low maternal education, low socioeconomic status, absence or short duration of breastfeeding, maternal smoking, and lack of information or advice from health care in compliance with the study by Lakshman et al. (2009). Preparation of baby’s food at home and Use of ready-made pots 99.0% of mothers were preparing their baby’s food at home with 53.0% of mothers not using ready-made pots at all. This implied that among the 99.0% of mothers who were preparing their baby’s food at home, 40.0% of them were using ready-made pots in parallel as mothers found the cost of ready-made pots high. But due to its availability and convenience for babies, mothers tried to buy them for some meals. Therefore mothers would prepare one meal and use pots for others. Moreover, 29.4% mothers were using ready-made pots everyday while 30.4% claimed to use them rarely. The reasons for using ready-made pots rarely were due to their unaffordable price to some parents, unacceptable taste by babies, had to resume work, low freshness and less nutritious compared to ready-made pots. Mothers who prepared their baby’s food at home were mostly unemployed. Practice of exclusive breastfeeding and weight classification of children and BMI classification of children 35 children were exclusively breastfed for six months. From the findings, it can be seen that most of them (19) had a healthy weight represented by a percentile range which lies between 5th percentiles to less than the 85th percentile as mentioned by the CDC (2011). Also, most children had a weight of more than twice their birth weight at six months. This implied that the child’s weight doubled between four to six months which tallied with the study by Mahan and Escott-Stump (2008). This indicted that exclusive breastfeeding for duration of six months did prevent excessive weight gain in children thereby protecting the children against childhood obesity. Practice on complete duration of breastfeeding with BMI classification of children Among the 21 children who were breastfed for two years, most of them had a healthy weight represented by a percentile range which lies between 5th percentiles to less than the 85th percentile. This showed that breastfeeding for two years prevents childhood obesity. However, some of the children were underweight as classified with a percentile range of less than 5th percentile. This could be explained by the fact that mothers wrongly timed the introduction of food in the baby’s diet or the amount and type of food given to the baby was not correct. Practice on age at which weaning started with BMI classification of children 31 children out of those 46 children who were weaned at six months had a healthy weight classified by a percentile range between 5th percentiles to less than the 85th percentile. This demonstrates that weaning at the right time prevent excessive gain of weight by children thereby preventing them from becoming obese. It was also seen that despite some mothers rightly introduced supplemental food in the baby’s diet, the baby was overweight as she was not breastfed. 4.3 AGE OF INTRODUCTION OF SPECIFIC FOOD ITEMS ‘The WHO (2011) recommends that infants start receiving complementary foods at 6 months of age in addition to breast milk, initially 2-3 times a day between 6-8 months, increasing to 3-4 times daily between 9-11 months and 12-24 months with additional nutritious snacks offered 1-2 times per day, as desired’. The main items that were introduced early were cow milk, mashed fruits, fresh vegetables and mashed vegetables. 61.1% of mothers introduced cow’s milk before 8 to 9 months as reported by CHW (2008). This was a bad practice as early introduction of cow’s milk is associated with an increased risk of developing Type-1 diabetes afterwards and a protein in cow’s milk was responsible in causing an unusual immune response as stated by Goldfarb (2008). Also, early introduction of cow’s milk and infant formula increases the frequency of atopic dermatitis, cow milk allergy, and wheezing in early childhood which is in line with a study by Burks et al. (2008) and IDACE (2005). Fortunately the majority of mothers (49.0%) rightly introduced infant formula in their baby’s diet at 6 months. Mothers introduced eggs irrespective of whether it is egg yolk, white egg or whole egg at around 9- 12 months as stated by ADC (2005) to prevent allergies. However, a study by Koplin et al. (2010) showed that introduction of cooked egg at 4-6 months of age does not increase the risk of egg allergy but can rather protect against its development. Bread was introduced earlier than recommended by 37.0% of mothers which is a bad practice. Bread is a starchy food and consists of sugars. Therefore, early introduction bread in a child’s diet may lead to unusual weight gain in children. With time, the child may become overweight and obese. Research showed that overweight and obesity in children in most cases turned out to be obese adults which elevates the risk of diseases like heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and breathing problems as stated by AACAP (2010). Meat was introduced early by 40.8% of mothers. Meat is rich in saturated fats which is stored in the child’s body. The digestive system of the child is affected and with time, the walls of the arteries may thicken leading to atherosclerosis together with many other chronic diseases. 20.0% of others introduced salty snacks earlier than recommended in their baby’s diet. Excessive salt consumption leads to storage of water in the body and affects the normal functioning of the digestive system. Afterwards, this person is more likely to suffer from high blood pressure and others health related problems. The main reason claimed by mothers for the introduction of milk and milk products were mainly as a source of calcium for the child. Other reasons include strength of bones and teeth, proper growth and development of the child. Eggs were given to children as a source of vitamin D, protein and to test for allergies. Cereal and cereal products were given as a source of carbohydrate to provide the child with adequate amount of energy to carry out his daily activities and for basal metabolism. Meat and meat products were given mostly as a source of protein and to vary the type of food the child consumes. Sweet and salty biscuits were given to children as snacks usually at tea time with a glass of milk to prevent the child from being over hungry at dinner time thereby preventing overconsumption of nutrients during the meal. The purpose of inserting fruits and vegetables in the diet is to provide the child with all the essential vitamins and to prevent constipation and other health problems related to malnutrition. Ice cream was rarely given as a dessert while custard was given to the child when he could not eat normal meals or during illnesses. With respect to my study, no problem was encountered with children. However, some children may be allergic to eggs, some specific brands of infant formula or fish while some children may suffer from cold while eating ice cream. 4.4 DETERMINATION OF THE ACTUAL BMI OF THE CHILDREN The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a child’s weight and height and is used to assess obesity (CDC, 2011). The BMI of the children ranges from 12.82 to 21.33. These values were plugged on the body mass index-for-age percentiles to determine the percentile curve to which the children’s BMI tally with. Using this percentile and the data in Table 2, it can be easily seen whether the child is underweight, has a healthy weight, is overweight or is obese. The majority of children had a healthy weight compared to a small majority of children being underweight, overweight and obese. Therefore, it can be concluded that most Mauritian children had an ideal weight. 4.5 WEIGHT EVOLUTION OF CHILDREN Most children had a weight of more than twice their birth weight at six months and thrice their birth weight at twelve months. This implied that the child’s weight doubled between four to six months and tripled at one year which tallied with the study by Mahan and Escott-Stump (2008). This showed that exclusive breastfeeding for six months, introduction of supplemental food at six months with continued breastfeeding till two years enable the proper growth and development of the child by preventing excess weight gain by the baby. In some cases, the children’s weight did not double at six months as they were ill and lost some weight during that period. Some children whose weights were more than thrice their birth weight were not properly breastfed. That is why their weights were higher than thrice their birth weight even though supplemental food was introduced at the right time. 4.6 CONCLUSION Breastfeeding is and will always remain the best way of feeding a child. Children who were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and were given supplemental food at this age with continued breastfeeding till 2 years were found to grow properly with a healthy weight. It was also found that those children who were not breast fed as recommended probably gained more weight despite the fact that supplemental food was introduced at the right time. Therefore, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months with the right age of introduction of complementary food in the baby’s diet together with prolonged breastfeeding till 2 years old is essential for the proper growth and development of a child. Mothers should be given knowledge on breastfeeding so that they can practice it in a more effective manner. 4.7 RECOMMENDATIONS Breastfeeding must be initiated within the first hour after birth. Exclusive breastfeeding should be carried out for the first six months with continued breastfeeding for two years or more, together with safe, nutritionally adequate, age appropriate, responsive complementary feeding starting in the sixth month. Mothers should be informed about the advantages of breastfeeding to both their baby and themselves Medical staffs should make mothers aware of the hazards associated with breast milk substitutes and its consequences, which may arise afterwards throughout the baby’s life. The weight of children must be controlled regularly to ensure that the child is growing properly i.e. to see if his weight doubles at 4-6 months and triple at around 12 months. HIV mothers must not breastfeed their child to prevent the Mother To Child Transmission (MTCT) of the virus. Advice must be given to mothers regarding the preparation of baby’s food at home and ready-made pots available for babies so that babies can be given more hygienic and nutritious food. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Individual Diversity and Organizational Behavior Essay
Individual Diversity and Organizational Behavior Essay. Understanding individual diversity is a difficult and challenging task. It has led to many researches, studies, arguments, and dialogues between philosophers and intellectuals. Unfortunately, an induced definition or understanding of individual diversity has not been presented and is still warranted. The demographic variations in the workforce, alterations in organizational structures, and competitive business landscape have all contributed to the element of diversity (both inherent and acquired) in the workforce and has made it customary in contemporary organizations. This paper is aimed to discuss the magnitude of individual diversity and how it has a direct impact on the organizational behavior by providing different examples. Moreover, after presenting a thorough understanding of diversity various organizational practices have been discussed, which could help to enhance business operations and organizational behavior. Individual diversity can be explained as the distinctiveness or the presence of characteristics that are different from each other. In any organizational setup, diversity is witnessed at every level from task groups / junior employees to board of directors. It is argued that individual diversity in any organizational setup affects the outcomes of organizations; it reduces employee turnover and increases the performance. Outlining the approach through which the distinctive orientation of individuals both in minority and majority affects groups’ working and operational outcome of companies. This activates the relational identity distinctiveness and can result in eithers benefits or disadvantages based on the management of issues (Kinicki, 2008). At times individuals encounter issues and challenges in group settings. Communication is an important aspect of managing diversity, which generates negative outcomes in case of poor communication within organizations. Individuals belonging to different cultures often encounter issues of language barriers and lack of interaction with their team members. Some of the issues related to communication diversity include differences in individual perspectives, cultural backgrounds and understanding, knowledge, and designation levels. All these issues are countered in a diversified organization (TosiIndividual Diversity and Organizational Behavior Essay