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Pre-Industrial Societies Report (Assessment)

Pre-industrial societies are those where the means of mass production of goods had not yet been developed by humanity. People used hand labor to create products, and this imposed certain limitations on the development of their societies. Moreover, many nations shared the same model for a community. Below is the comparison between modern research and the primary source of the pre-industrial era. Similarity of Patterns Patricia Crone has created a work where she discusses the trends and elements of pre-industrial societies in the world, particularly those that existed in the West. She discusses several elements that served as reasons for all these societies to be similar, having much to do with the speed of production and the satisfaction of fundamental human needs. For instance, she mentions that most people in the pre-industrial era were occupied in the agricultural industry. This is explained by the fact that the amount of food that could be produced without the help of various machines, plants, and chemicals was small and insufficient. Food resources were scarce, and it took a lot of human effort to satisfy everyone’s needs. This consequently affected the size of the population. There were not enough means to sustain growth, as an increasing population would face famine. Nevertheless, farmers were not considered poor despite the scarcity of resources. Of course, rulers were the most privileged class, yet people of all professions were regarded as a necessary part of the society’s model. Another widespread profession in all pre-industrial societies was the military. From the time people chose farming over gathering and hunting, there were those who wished to use force instead of agricultural effort. It was necessary to protect crops from invaders wishing to take them away. Even though many rulers chose to wage war against their neighbors to expand their power in those territories, there was no real need for collecting more agricultural lands. Primary Sources Hammurabi’s Law Code is one of the oldest documents to survive to the present time. It features the laws created by King Hammurabi during his rule in Mesopotamia, a country with a classic pre-industrial society that existed nearly two thousand years before Christ. The Code offers evidence supporting Crone’s findings of limitations for that period. Hammurabi’s Code provides much information about how farmers were to be treated in cases where they broke the law and, specifically, if they did any damage to crops. Any loss of food was reimbursed with money. For instance, if farmers were too lazy or careless regarding the condition of fields they maintained and if this resulted in the loss of crops, then they would have been required to pay money to compensate the damage. If they did not have the means to pay the government, their property was to be taken away. Moreover, damaged fields were distributed among other farmers who would take better care of them. This measure was implemented due to the scarcity of resources as mentioned by Crone. The fact that so much attention is paid to farming underlines the importance of this labor, as well as serves as evidence that most people were working in this arena. Conclusion Farming was a key element in the pre-industrial era and shaped the model of the societies of those times. The limitations of hand labor determined the size of populations along with the rules and regulations imposed on farmers. The scarcity of resources, combined with the slow rate of production, served as reasons for similarities in all pre-industrial societies. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More
Enterprise Risk Management. Need help with my Computer Science question – I’m studying for my class.

Chapter 25 – Uses of Efficient Frontier Analysis in Strategic Risk Management

How does efficient frontier analysis (EFA) differ from other forms of complex risk assessment techniques?
What limitations might an analyst encounter through the use of EFA?
How can efficient frontier analysis results be communicated and utilized with nonmathematical decision makers?

Chapter 22 PPT – JAA Inc.–A Case Study in Creating Value from Uncertainty

How high do you assess the knowledge level of the business strategy throughout the company by the average employee? Is it your assessment that there is a robust understanding of JAA’s business strategy? Support your position with examples.
As you are aware, effective implementation of ISO 31000 involves effective design and implementation of a risk management framework and effective implementation of the risk management processes. This will be verified by incorporation of 11 key principles. Find an example in the case for each of the 11 principles in action.
If you compare the internal audit department at JAA to several that you know of currently in the marketplace, what are some of the major differences that you see at JAA that obviously have contributed to superior performance? What is unique and refreshing about the approach to the external audit as compared to what you have seen in industry?

Enterprise Risk Management

Air France SWOT Analysis and Organisational Culture

Air France-KLM is an international airline company and a member of the Skyteam airline partnership. The company was formed on May 2004, following the merger of Air France’s and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM), thus creating the world’s largest airline group by earnings and second largest worldwide cargo operator in terms of revenue-tonne kilometers. The company operates under two major networks hubs, Paris-CDG and Amsterdam-Schiphol. The Company’s three main businesses are passenger transportation, cargo operations, engineering and maintenance. The company counts more than one hundred thousands employees all over the world. Passenger transports being the major business of the company with more than three hundred destinations worldwide. The majority of the employees are based in France and the Netherlands. Both Air France and KLM continue to operate flights under their distinct brand names as subsidiaries of Air France-KLM. LIST OF ACCRONYMS AF – Air France NWA – Northwest Airline CSR – Corporate Social Response MRO – Maintenance Repair and Overall CDG – Charles de Gaulle IT – Information Technology E

The Changing Nature of the Music Industry Essay

research paper help Table of Contents Introduction The Pre-Internet Business Model of the Music Industry Technological Innovations that Transformed the Music Industry Conclusion References Introduction One of the most important technological innovations of the twentieth century was the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW), a global network of servers that allows users to access information via the Internet. The Web started a revolution that led to the development of the Information Age and changed many aspects of society, including the entertainment business. The responsive nature of business means that it evolves in line with the latest technology and responds to current trends. A dramatic transformation occurred in the music industry, which saw its business model radically changed as a result of digitalization, data compression, and the rapid expansion of the Internet. Over the last two decades, the Internet has been transforming the way people produce, buy, and share music. This process is still underway: Continuous technological innovation prompts companies to create new distribution models to respond better to consumers’ needs. The Internet also creates new opportunities for emerging artists and allows virtually anyone to become famous. This paper seeks to address the changing nature of the music industry. The researcher focuses on technological innovation and the way it has transformed established business models. The Pre-Internet Business Model of the Music Industry In the pre-Internet era, the business model of the music industry relied on some form of physical distribution. As the technology progressed, various forms of physical distribution, including vinyl, cassette tapes, and CDs were used to distribute music. The first technological innovation that had a major effect on the business model of the music industry was the creation of portable phonographs (Osborne, 2016). These devices, exorbitantly expensive at first, made it commercially viable to sell music records. Vinyl was used to record and physically distribute music, and the evolution of technology gradually made music more accessible in the post-war era. As the technology improved, music players became smaller, cheaper, and more portable, and by the 1960s, battery-operated tape recorders became bestsellers (Portable Music, n.d.). Such technological innovations as Dolby B noise reduction allowed cassettes to retain a comparable level of quality to vinyl and, more importantly, allowed music to become more portable and accessible. Record companies turned toward ceasing the production of vinyl records and directed their efforts toward producing cassettes. The creation of the Walkman and its copies eventually made cassettes the major form of physical distribution, and they remained dominant until they were replaced by CDs in the early 1990s (Portable Music, n.d.). As such, the major trend in the music industry before the expansion of the Internet took place was the increasing portability of music. Over the years, physical media became smaller, cheaper, and more portable, but it was still physical in nature. The reliance of the music industry on physical distribution significantly limited further development of the portability trend. If an individual wanted to listen to a new album, they had no choice but to buy it on physical media, which was not very convenient. The fact that physical distribution was in the hands of a handful of major record labels also made it difficult for independent artists to find their audience. The physical distribution model implied that an artist had to sign a contract with a record label first, which would produce and distribute music for a share of sales. While this business model was very convenient for major record labels, as they had a monopoly on producing and distributing music, it also meant that independent artists could hardly become popular without a record label’s support. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technological Innovations that Transformed the Music Industry In the pre-Internet era of the music industry, the pivotal point was digitalization of music. This process occurred in two dimensions: Studios gradually shifted to digital devices to record, compose, and edit music, while CDs dropped in price and became the major form of physical distribution. As more studios used digital devices, software solutions were developed to assist them in the editing process. A few years later, when the Internet took over the music industry, improved versions of these editing tools allowed independent artists to create their own music. In addition to the fact that CDs were cheap, they had no copy protection. As a result, sales of blank CDs were on the rise, as was piracy. In the late 1990s, the Internet was growing, but penetration rates were still low, and low Internet speeds limited the ability to share lossless music files online. The creation of MP3 compression format “opened up the possibilities… for the unproblematic file sharing of music online” (Dolata, 2011, p. 9). This compression format allowed for the production of music files that were very lightweight and exhibited no noticeable loss of quality. The dramatic impact of this technology was underestimated by the music industry: The first Digital Rights Management Standard was agreed upon only in 2006 (Dolata, 2011, p. 10), when uncontrolled production and distribution of music files through the Internet were significantly reducing the record companies’ revenue. As Internet penetration rates increased, music distribution transformed from physical to digital (Coleman, 2009). The iTunes store was created as a digital distribution platform and became the dominant force on the download music market. As a natural continuation of this business model, streaming services, such as Apple Music and Google Play music, were introduced in the 2010s and offered their users access to unlimited music streaming for a monthly subscription fee. The rapid expansion of the Internet also made it possible for aspiring musicians to become famous with no support from record labels. Digital distribution made it much easier for them to create and distribute music and earn revenue. Independent musicians could produce music using digital recording and editing tools, distribute it via the Internet, and earn revenue with no need to pay a record label. As such, the entry barrier for the music industry became much lower (Bessant

Total Environmental Health and Safety Management

1. However, eliminating the hazard and substitution have usurped engineering control’s position at the top of the hierarchy although they have always been obvious best options, just not always included in discussions of the hierarchy of controls. Identify two examples where elimination of the hazard or substitution was, or might be, applied as a means of hazard control. Discuss some of the pros and cons of this option as compared to the other options in the hierarchy. You may also select examples from places you have worked or for which you have some familiarity. Your response must be at least 200 words in length. 2.In Unit III, you sent a document in which you informed management at Gemstone Fabricators, Inc. that it would need to enhance its accountability specifications in its performance evaluations for managers. You also pointed out the need to make sure that employees who have been asked to be involved in the safety endeavors at Gemstone understand and are trained in the roles they are expected to play. Cindy is the plant manager from Gemstone, and she has asked you to perform a sound level survey and noise dosimetry in the fabrication shop, which can get pretty noisy when all three mechanical power presses and the 12-foot shear are running at the same time for several hours a day. She also asked that you identify noise level exposures in the adjacent welding department. Your results indicate that the noise levels in the area are just above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure level for an average day in the fabrication department. The welding department is adjacent to the fabrication department, and there is no separating wall. The welding operations are not quite as noisy, although the crackle of a well-adjusted MIG welder can be rather loud when welding mild steel. Noise monitoring and dosimetry of the welders indicated an exposure of just over OSHA’s Action Level of 85 Dba. In addition, you remember taking the survey readings and watching the noise level jump in the welding shop every time the power presses or shear cycled in the fabrication area. After consulting with fellow industrial hygienists, it was determined that setting up a 12′ X 30′ noise barrier wall between the fabrication area and the welding area and adding noise absorption panels to both sides of the barrier wall and to the white-painted concrete walls in the fabrication department would decrease the sound levels in the welding area to several decibels below OSHA’s Action Level. Of course, these engineering controls will cost $33,000 dollars. This is compared to a continuing hearing conservation program to include annual audiograms, or hearing tests, annual training, and providing noise protection for the welding department which is estimated to cost $9,000 per year. This amount would be saved each year if the engineering controls are installed. If the company takes out a loan for $33,000 at 5% interest, what will the payback period be for the loan? Please consult your unit lesson for the necessary formulas. What would be your recommendation to the employer with respect to the options available? Please show your work. Make sure you justify your reasoning and that you consider the hierarchy of controls in your discussion. Your response must be at least 200 words in length in addition to your financial analysis.

1500 word essay that argues how shooting an elephant speaks to the relationship between East and West. Argue if the relationship is fair, problematic, exploitative, romantic, mysterious, etc. The argument should be supported with specific textual moments

1500 word essay that argues how shooting an elephant speaks to the relationship between East and West. Argue if the relationship is fair, problematic, exploitative, romantic, mysterious, etc. The argument should be supported with specific textual moments.

Essay 3 Assignment:Orientalism and the relationship ofEast and WestWe began this module with the question ofhow Western literature captures and describes the East. Why is Western perception of the East is problematic? Edward Said offers a complete analysis that answers this larger question. Historically, the West has led a calculating and intentional assessment of the West with the goal of shaping the East for the benefit of the West. The missing link here is discussion of the effects of Western writing and presence on the peoples and lands of the East.For Essay 3 you may work with one texts we have discussed. (i.e.““Shooting an Elephant” and “Araby”). You are required to use 3-4 outside, scholarly sources. ** Course text do not count as one of the 3-4 outside sources**Your essay should work to argue how the story and/or poem speaks to the relationship between East and West. You may argue the relationship is fair, problematic, exploitative, romantic, mysterious, etc. Your argument should be supported with specific textual moments and expanded analysis. The goal is to connect specific moments from the text to the larger idea of Orientalism.1500 wordsuse of 3-4 outside sourcesWorks Cited page / in- text citationsSome Brainstorming Questions:3. How does George Orwell’s “Shooting an Elephant” present an alternative example of the East/West relationship? Why is the officer’s psychology significant? Why do you think Orwell builds the British officer in this way? Perhaps the officer’s fear and conflict is meant to challenge the historical description of imperialistic figures as they are consistently presented in a different light (controlling, dominating, relentless).Annotations
1500 word essay that argues how shooting an elephant speaks to the relationship between East and West. Argue if the relationship is fair, problematic, exploitative, romantic, mysterious, etc. The argument should be supported with specific textual moments

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