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Pre- and Post-operative Management of Hip Replacement Case Study

Table of Contents Pre-Operative Management Post-Operative Management Conclusion References Older patients having a fractured neck of the femur are usually discussed within a risk category because of high rates of morbidity and mortality associated with their condition. These patients are often proposed to undergo a total hip replacement to improve health outcomes and increase their functional mobility, but the problem is that negative outcomes associated with surgery are also possible (Bagaria, 2018). In this context, much attention should be paid to proper and effective pre-operative and post-operative management. The focus should be on decreasing risks for older patients that are related to their comorbidities associated with femoral fracture. The early and appropriate surgical fixation of the fracture along with necessary post-operative treatment and rehabilitation are required for addressing the health issue (Farrell, 2016). In this paper, appropriate pre-operative and post-operative management strategies and techniques will be discussed in the context of addressing the case of a nursing home patient who needs to undergo a total hip replacement. Pre-Operative Management Pre-operative management for an older patient includes several stages to complete to prevent any complications related to the surgery. When patients come to the emergency department, nurses are responsible for making primary observations and providing analgesia to relieve severe pain (paracetamol given every six hours or opioids when prescribed) (Spasovski, 2017). If opioids do not work to relieve pain, nerve blocks can be prescribed depending on a patient’s assessment (Farrell, 2016). Nurses also provide nutritional screening for a patient and control a diet and fluids consumption 24 hours before the surgery. Furthermore, a patient will be starved for 6 hours before the surgery (Boddaert, Raux, Khiami,
Introduction The article “Signs of Life in Euro Zone Could Point to Recovery” by Ewing and Minder (2013) focuses on the future of the European economy based on some current events. The economic conditions observed in Greek, Italy, Spain and other European nations over the last four years have indicated that the Euro Zone is prone to economic crisis that could also affect other parts of the world. In fact, declining economic growths and financial crisis over the last five years have strained the idea of developing a unified Europe. However, the current economic conditions in these nations provide some hope that the regional economy will improve. Arguably, the current events reported in the article are strong indications of a possible quick economic recovery in the European Union. Article analysis Current event in Europe Ewing and Minder (2013) have presented a number of economic, social, political and geographic evidence that show some signs of economic recovery in various nations. For instance, the article shows some confidence in French banks, which has resulted from effective strategies for recovery. Such strategies have led to effective clearing of debts and fiscal problems. However, they argue that one of the current events that indicate a possibility of quick recovery is the economic growth in Spain. According to the analysts, Spain is experiencing one of the best rates of economic growth in the current fiscal year. Reports indicate that the country’s economy has crawled out of a two year recession, growing by an annual rate of about 0.4%. Analyses of current events in Spain indicate that the rate of unemployment stands at 26%, which means that the country was the worst hit by the crisis. However, the article reports that the rate is decreasing significantly. Apart from Spain, the article also analyses some recent findings in Portugal, a country that has also crawled out of recession in the last 8 months. Positive sights of growth According to the article, reports from various central banks in Europe indicate a strong economic performance in the last few months. For instance, it quotes Holger Schmieding, the Berenberg chief economist, saying that “…even Greece has started recording strong economic growth…” (Ewing

English 111

English 111.

Assignment Purpose:This assignment will give you the opportunity to carefully explore two different resource types to further your understanding of selecting the appropriate resource type for your information needs.Assignment Description:Part 1In this exercise, you’ll compare the type of content found in a blog and a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article. Take a look at the blog entry “5 Ways to Dodge the Winter Blues” from Southern Living’s “The Daily South” blog ( answer the following questions:Who is the author of the blog?What are the credentials of the author of the blog?Is the author of the blog an expert on the subject?How long is the blog posting?Are there links to other information embedded in the blog posting?What kinds of non-text materials are included in the blog post?From this blog posting, can you find other postings about the same topic or by the same author? If so, provide examples.Who published the blog?Part 2Next, review the following scholarly journal article:Nawjin, J. (2010). Happiness through vacationing: Just a temporary boost or long-term benefits? Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(4), 651-665. doi:…Retrieve from: from the Psychology Database – ProQuest.Who is the author of the journal article?What are the credentials of the author of the journal article?Is the author of the article an expert on the subject?How long is the journal article?Are there links to other information embedded in the scholarly article?What kinds of non-text materials are included in the scholarly article?From the scholarly article, can you find other articles about the same topic or by the same author?Who published the journal article?Summary question: Is the information found in the blog different in quality from the information found in the journal article? What would you use each type of information for?(Questions for this assignment were drawn from: Burkhardt, J.M. (2016). Teaching information literacy reframed: 50+ Framework-based exercises for creating information-literate learners. Chicago: Neal-Schuman, page 89.)How to submit your assignment:
After you complete your assignment using a Word document, save your work, and then you will need to attach the completed document to your submission. The process will be similar to making an attachment to an e-mail: Under Attach File, click on “Browse My Computer.” Look up your saved document, and click “Open. Scroll to the bottom of the page, and click “Submit.”
Do not just provide Yes or No answers to the questions, but be sure to support your answers with additional details and/or examples when appropriate. This assignment is worth a possible 40 points and should be at least 1-2 pages in length. Please be sure to proofread your assignment before submitting.
English 111

Personal Statement

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Assessment of Airborne Bacteria and Fungi

Assessment of Airborne Bacteria and Fungi. Quantitative Assessment of Fungi and bacteria in air inside Bradford Apartment Abstract The experiment was conducted from the week from 10/26/2014 to 11/02/2014 at the Bradford apartments. Different types of agar media were used to estimate and quantitatively assess fungi and bacteria in air within an air-conditioned apartment unit. Fungi are essential to our environment, due to their function of decomposing organic materials. Nevertheless, airborne fungal spores can cause irritations and allergies and can even compromise the human immune system in less maintained buildings. Inappropriate humid control or water damage, as seen in the apartment used for this experiment, can lead to high loads of fungal spores. Thus, this study focuses on the qualitative assessment of Fungi and bacteria in air inside a Bradford Apartment by using different agar media, which were incubated at two different temperatures corresponding to human body temperature (37°C) and room temperature (25°C) . Noticeable is that almost all agars incubated at 25°C show a greater count of colonies than those incubated at 37°C. Introduction The Apartment of interest is on the top floor and recently experienced some water damage due to a leak in the roof structure. It currently houses an Oceanic 29 gallon Biocube, which evaporates about one gallon of water within a week. The Apartment temperature was set to 25 C while conducting the experiment. The building contains vaulted ceilings and central air conditioning, which creates various microclimates favorable by fungi and bacteria. In addition, the living room and bedroom of the apartment contains carpet. Airborne fungal spores can cause irritations and allergies and can even compromise the human immune system in less maintained buildings (Taylor et al. 2014). The kingdom Fungi includes funguses or fungi, which represent a large group of eukaryotic organisms. All fungi are heterotrophs, which means they absorb nutrients through their cell walls and cell membranes. They are essential to our environment, because they decompose organic material and therefore, recycle nutrients essential for plant growth. Besides yeast, all fungi consist of elongated filaments, also called hyphae. When the hyphae grows bigger in size, it creates a network called mycelium. Once fruiting, they become mushrooms or molds. Fungi are abundant everywhere, such as dead matter, air, and soil but also in symbiosis with plants, animals and/or with other fungi (Van De Graaff, Kent M. et al, 2009). Bacteria belong to prokaryotic microorganisms, which lack a true nucleus and bounded organelles. They appear in different shapes such as spiral, spherical or rod-shaped. It is believed that bacteria were the first life form on our planet and are therefore present in soil, water, deep in the earth crust, and extreme conditions such as nuclear reactors. Most bacteria are harmless and can be found on and in the human body like the gastrointestinal tract. They also live in symbiosis with other animals and plants. One of their roles is to break down surrounding organic materials by converting them into absorbable compounds. (Van De Graaff, Kent M. et al, 2009). The media for this lab includes Rose Bengal Agar (RBA), Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and trypticase soy Agar (TSA). In past research experiments PDA and RBA have been used to cultivate fungi. TSA is used for Bacterial growth (Neogen 2011). Frequent sinus infections were traced back to severe allergic irritations in eyes and sinuses, which compromised the renter’s immune system and caused illness. Therefore, this experiment focuses on bacterial and fungi abundance in air regarding different locations with three different growth media. Due to the structure of the apartment, greater fungal counts should be expected at 25oC than at 37oC. Methods Experiment was conducted from 10/26/2014 until 11/02/2014. Each agar was prepared with 500 ml deionized water, which was added into three different 1 liter conical flasks. Each dehydrated medium was weighed according to each Agar type: 16 g of Rose Bengal Agar, 39 g of Potato Dextrose Agar, and 40 g of Trypticase Soy Agar. Each dehydrated media was added into its own flask, it was well shaken and mixed. After sealing each flask with aluminum foil and autoclave tape, all three flasks were autoclaved at 15 PSI (120°C) for 20 minutes. Once safe to open the autoclave machine, the flasks were taken out and allowed to cool down. Meanwhile, 4 petri dishes were labeled for each location, Patio, Bedroom, Living room and bathroom. Each flask was tilted sideways before removing the aluminum foil to prevent contamination through air entering the flask. The solution was then poured into 24 petri dishes. All dishes were left out for about 30 minutes to cool down and solidify. After sealing each petri dish, there were transported to the location of interest. Two petri dishes of each agar were exposed for 15 minutes at each location besides the patio location, which were exposed for only 5 minutes. Of the two petri dishes from each location, one was incubated at 25°C while the other one was incubated at 37°C. All petri storage units were sterilized before exposed petri dishes were placed upside-down inside of it. The first storage united only contained petri dishes incubated of 25oC, where as the second unit contained only dishes incubated for 37°C. Each united was labeled accordantly and placed in its according incubation set to 25°C or 37°C. After a week, plates were examined and number of colonies were noted. Only fungi colonies were recorded on Rose Bengal and Potato Dextrose agar, while Trypticase Soy Agar only noted Bacteria colonies. Results Note that high numbers of 35 and 26 fungi colonies have been counted on RBA and PDA which were exposed outside for 5 minutes and incubated at 25°C. In contrast, TSA only showed 7 bacterial colonies at the same conditions. TSA shows great numbers of 19 bacterial colonies at 25°C in the bathroom, while Rose bengal only counts fungi colony for the same location. On the other hand, Potato Dextrose counts 4 fungal colonies. Noticeable is that almost all agars incubated at 25°C show a greater count of colonies than those incubated at 37°C, except PDA for the bathroom (Table 1). Discussion Fungi are present everywhere in great numbers and play an important role in decomposing organic matter. Our subtropical climate outside contains heat and moisture, which can affect the building structure. Furthermore, the apartment houses a 29 gallon Oceanic Biocube, which evaporates approximately one gallon within a week. The greatest amount of colonial growth was noted outside on my patio in PDA and RBA. PDA is composed of Potato Starch and Dextrose that encourages fungal growth, because dextrose and starch are a sugar unit called glucose. It functions as an energy source for fungal sporulation. This explains why 26 fungi colonies have been noted on PDA. The final pH of PDA is 5.6 /- 0.2 which inhibits most bacterial growth but provides a good base for fungi. Some of the components in Rose Bengal Agar are soy pentose and dextrose. These substances provide nitrogen, vitamins, and energy encouraging fungal growth. Rose Bengal is a major ingredient in the Agar to avoid rapidly growing molds and inhibits bacterial growth. Another ingredient is Magnesium Sulfate, providing trace elements essential for good fungal growth. All the ingredients provide a perfect base for fungal growth, explaining the 35 colonies counted. On the other hand, the air inside the apartment is filtered, dried, cooled down, and distributed by the air conditioner. Nevertheless, the water vapor from the aquarium causes high humidity within the apartment and changes the air conditions within the rooms. Some fungi and bacteria live in symbiosis within the human gastrointestinal tract. This explains why the greatest number of bacterial colonies were present in the bathroom. One ingredient in TSA is Pancreatic Digestion of casein, which provides nitrogen, vitamins and carbons for good bacterial growth. A majority of bacteria and fungi are known to survive very harsh conditions known to humans. Therefore, even though the bathroom is frequently cleaned, some bacteria and fungi are able to survive. As a result, 19 colonies in the bathroom were collected and incubated. Bacteria and fungi grow in many environments with different temperatures, from the cold arctic to hot springs. Therefore, the optimum growth temperatures vary. Bacteria can be psychrophilic, mesophilic, or thermophilic, with wide ranges of temperatures. Bacteria living within the human digestive system are exposed to a temperature of 37°C, explaining the colonial count at 37°C (Eddleman 1998). Fungi can live in different ranges of temperatures just as Bacteria, but the ranges differ. Most fungi are mesophilic, which lay between 18°C-22°C. Some fungi are tolerant to temperature changes, meaning they can survive or even grow in higher or lower temperatures varying from their optimum temperature. On the one hand, if the temperatures rise below the optimum temperature range, it can slow down or even inhibit chemical reactions, which can slow down growth. On the other hand, higher temperatures lead to denaturation of enzymes causing death of the cell. Therefore, the petri dishes incubated at 25°C have a greater number of colonies than the ones incubated at 37°C (Neogen 2008). References Dr. Burge, Harriet. “How Does Heat Affect Fungi.” The Environmental Reporter. Environmental Mircobiology Laboratory, Inc. March, 2006. Web. 19 September, 2013. 1-13. Ph. D. Eddleman, Harold. “Optimum Temperature for Growth of Bacteria.” Indiana Biolab, Palmyra IN. Revision #3. 23 January 1998. Web. 19 September, 2013. 1-5. Neogen. “POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR.” Acumedia. 4 April, 2011. Web. 19 September, 2013. 1-2. Neogen. “ROSE BENGAL CHLORAMPHENICOL AGAR.” Acumedia. 2 January, 2012. Web. 19 September, 2013. 1-2. Neogen. “TRYPCTIC SOY AGAR.” Acumedia. 6 November 2010. Web. 19 September, 2013. 1-3. Van De Graaff, Kent. Crawley, John L. “A Photographic Atlas for the Biology Laboratory.” Morton Publishing Company. 6th Edition. Englewood, Colorado, 2009. 63-76. 27-28. Print. Taylor, Michael. Gaskin, Sharyn. Bentham, Richard. Pisaniello, Dino. “Airborne fungal profiles in office buildings in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia: Background levels, diversity and seasonal variation.” Indoor and Built Environment. 14 August 2013. Number of colony forming unites (CFU) Rose Bengal Agar Potato Dextrose Agar Trypticase Soy Agar Sites: Temp. 25 C 37 C 25 C 37 C 25 C 37 C Patio 35 4 26 4 7 1 Living Room 2 0 3 0 14 1 Bedroom 4 0 3 0 6 2 Bathroom 1 2 6 14 19 15 Assessment of Airborne Bacteria and Fungi

St Johns Anselmo v Grossmont Cuyamaca Community College District Case Brief

St Johns Anselmo v Grossmont Cuyamaca Community College District Case Brief.

I’m working on a sports management question and need support to help me learn.

Select one of the cases below. Brief the case in detail, research more about the case, identify similar cases within the sport industry and choose a side. You may also elaborate on the issues within the case. When choosing a side, please argue in favor of that side using supporting details, sources and evidence. See below for points to keep in mind:Minimum of 5-7 pages, size 12, Times New Roman font, double-spaced, standard 1″ marigns.Please provide a cover pageYour works cited page should list all of the outside sources used, including your textbook.Please use reliable, scholarly sources. Do not use wikipedia.Attach your paper as a word doc or PDF.Due by Sunday, 5/9 at 11:59pm Case Options:Avila v. Citrus Community College District (2003) Coleman v. Western Michigan University (1983) Verni v. Aramark et al. (2006)Anderson v. Little League Baseball Inc. (1992)
St Johns Anselmo v Grossmont Cuyamaca Community College District Case Brief

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