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Post University Physiological Challenges Pre Screening Discussion Questions

Post University Physiological Challenges Pre Screening Discussion Questions.

I’m working on a psychology question and need an explanation to help me study.

DQ#1 Pre-Screening QuestionsIdentify a specialty group that you want to run over the course of eight sessions, include whether the group will be homogeneous or heterogeneous, and be sure to include any other background information about the group that you think is necessary. Now, identify at least 4 pre-screening questions that are applicable to the group you have chosen to facilitate, and explain why you selected those pre-screening questions.DQ#2 TerminationWhat are three challenges of the termination stage? Please be sure to discuss those challenges in detail, and also explain how you might address those challenges as the group leader.
Post University Physiological Challenges Pre Screening Discussion Questions

ece311 week 5 final paper.

Final PaperThis paper should be a combination of philosophies, theories, and concepts learned in this course, and demonstrate how they apply to the early childhood classroom. The primary focus will be on the comprehensiveness of the many components that are necessary to consider when designing curriculum for a preschool or young child’s classroom.For the Final PaperSelect an age group (Pre-K, kindergarten, first grade, etc.).Identify and discuss the three theories and/or philosophies that reflect how you envision your classroom and curriculum.Provide a summary of the concepts you will teach in each academic area (math, reading, science, and the fine arts).Describe two specific activities for each academic area that will demonstrate how you will teach these concepts in a way that is representative of both the theories/philosophies you discussed and NAEYC or state standards.Your paper must be seven to eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in your approved style guide.Writing the Final PaperThe Final Paper:Must include a cover page that includes:Name of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.Must include at least two outside scholarly sources.Must use American Psychological Association (APA) style as outlined in your approved style guide to document all sources.Must include, on the final page, a reference list that is completed according to APA style as outlined in your approved style guide.Must be well organized and reflect college level writing.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.WEEk 4 OUTLINE IS ATTACHED. Use it to complete assignment.Jaruszewicz, C. (2012). Curriculum and methods for early childhood educators [Electronic version]. Retrieved from*You must properly cite and reference the course text in every discussion. A citation is a parenthetical note within the body of your response. It comes after a direct quote or a paraphrase. A reference comes at the end of your response and refers to the required reading or material. Use in-text citations.
ece311 week 5 final paper

The term Green Revolution was first coined by the USAID United States Agency for International Development in 1968. It all started in Mexico with US aid and backed by the support of giants like Ford and Rockfeller Corporation way back in the 1940’s. It was the initiative of a man named Norman Borlough who developed a strain of rice and wheat which yielded an output (under optimal conditions) so far only dreamt off. These strains of cereals were termed as HYV (High Yielding Variety). Norman Borlough is considered to be the father of the Green Revolution. He played a very instrumental role along with M.S. Swaminathan who was our minister for Agriculture in bringing Green Revolution to India. ‘The G R was considered as the solution to feed the world’s growing population, it very well may have been.’ [J R McNeill] ‘In India alone the astounding agricultural growth in Punjab is exemplified by the increase in Punjabi wheat production from 1.9 to 5.6 million tons during the years 1965 through 1972.’ [1] The production of rice also increased greatly. ‘India soon adopted IR8 – a semi-dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation. In 1968, Indian agronomist S.K. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice. IR8 was a success throughout Asia, and dubbed the “Miracle Rice”. IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR36. [2] India was on the brink of a famine in 1961, but with the introduction of G R we became an exporter of food grains within a very short period of time. G R was a gift of the developed nations to the third world countries. It was a package deal promoted by the World Bank to help them get out of their debt traps. The G R was accepted with open arms with little or no thought about its viability or sustainability. It was looked on as a one stop shop to their economic and demographic problems. ‘The green revolution- the US-sponsored technological package for agricultural development-was accepted in India some-what over-enthusiastically and also un- critically. It was hoped that with improved farm production, not only a lasting solution would be found for the perpetual problems of rural poverty and hunger but also it would generate a new resource base-a launching pad for rural industrialisation that would create new employment opportunities and would improve the quality of life at the grassroots in an appreciable measure.’ [Dhanagare 1987] Rather than ‘Why was the Green Revolution such a great success?’ I would like to argue from the point of view of ‘Was the Green Revolution such a great success?’ I would like to consider the viewpoints of some scholars which may be quite contrary to what the advocators and promoters of Green Revolution would like to believe. The G R as already mentioned earlier was a package deal it came along with certain factors like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and mechanization and large size holdings without which the success of G R would not be dramatic. These are factors that India did not and could not afford at all levels. Apart from this G R was not all positive it looked like it came in with more negative as time passed on. Through different case studies I would like to present my argument. Endosulfan Poisoning in Kasargoad, Kerala, India This is the story of a small village in the state of Kerala a village named ‘Swarga’ literally meaning heaven. A village untouched by industrialization and people depended on plantation farming. A typical Indian village until suddenly people found things going wrong, Calves dying honeybees disappearing, wildlife being affected and then slowly the people being affected by a strange illness. The cause, unknown. The Kerala state government decided to spray its cashew plantations with ariel pesticide. It was a sight to see a helicopter hovering over the village and it attracted a lot of attention. Little did the people know what the aftermath of this would be. Even when a sudden and strange kind of illness hit little did they associate it with the helicopter, they believed that it was some kind of a curse. Until one farmer noticed a strange coincidence in the death of his three calves and raised up an issue. This interested a journalist who began to probe into this situation. A local doctor who began to see a strange pattern of new diseases in his patients added value to the work of the journalist. It was not an easy path to travel and prove their stand as they had to fight capitalist giants who’s stakes were high in the manufacture of the deadly chemical. The help of an international organization was sought. A fact finding team of PAN(Pesticide Action Network) AP headed by Dr Romeo F Quijango was formed. The objective of the mission was: To find out the veracity of the reports that there have incidents of illness since the cashew nut plantations started their operations The extent to which these aerial sprayings have affected the people and the environment After detailed inspection of the surroundings, physical examination of the affected people and a wide range of interviews with both the local people and authorities the reports of poisoning were confirmed. The findings stated The cause for the illness was intrinsic toxicology properties of endosulfan There seems to exist no other probable causes other than endosulfan for the occurrence of illness There is a clear time and geographical association between the occurrence of illness and the aerial spraying There is a corroborated effect on both the environment and the animals which are related to endosulfan poisoning. Medical reports of the victims as recorded by the local physicians confirmed the poisoning Biological and environmental samples analyzed at laboratories confirmed the presence of endosulfan. The findings confirmed the poisoning and a permanent ban on the spray of endosulfan was placed. The extent of damage cannot be undone. Most of the cases of poisoning described in the report are of young children born with cerebral palsy due to the poisoning. Though this report was confined to Kasargod there are wide spread use and effects felt in the neighboring states as well. Here I would like to include an article from the newspaper that report cases of endosulfan poisoning from Karnataka Gowda was born in 1977. To his chagrin through RTI he found that 92 villages were sprayed with endosulfan in the four taluks of the district. He visited 82 villages and found that horrifying cases of disabilities, especially cerebral palsy affecting adults and children. “I have decided not to get married -firstly to carry this fights forward and secondly to see that my children don’t live like me. I may get married if I can afford to do a gene test which proves everything is alright with me,” he adds. Gowda says: “In some places the situation is too horrible to describe. A mother who is an anganwadi teacher has two children one of them is affected with this type of poisoning. She gives him food at 9 am locks the door and goes for work.” When she returns, the boy will be rolling in his own fecal matter. This is an everyday story. The government officials, if they visit each and every home, they will understand the gravity of the problem. But they don’t, hence don’t understand our situation [3] This has been the effect of the indiscriminate use of pesticides and insecticides on the unaware and innocent lives. Rachel Carson dedicated her entire book ‘The Silent Spring’ to bring awareness to the effects of insecticides and pesticides on man and his environment. Though she did succeed to large extent on banning their indiscriminate use still continues in the third world countries. This according to Clevo Wilson Clem Tisdell are due to varied economic reasons and also due to lack of knowledge. Farmers continue to use pesticides if their net discounted rate of return is greater in the present. This happens much more in less developed countries than in more developed countries. To make themselves economically viable farmers are forced to use pesticides because it causes an increase in the production in the short run, though the cost will increase in the long run which they are unaware of, and also once a new technique is used the cost of reverting back maybe very high. Further it may be due to a lack of knowledge on the part of farmers. It may also be that use of pesticides and fertilizers are considered to be an integral part of commercialized agriculture. To add to this would be the pressure the farmers may face from advertisements and sales schemes of companies manufacturing insecticides and fertilisers. It has also been found that though farmers may be aware of Integrated Pest Management systems they may not be easily accessible, as seen in the case of farmers in Sri Lanka. [4] Our next case study is based in Punjab that highlights the negative effect that G R has had on the employment of the youth. Punjab agriculture has been known for the green revolution of the late 1960s and the 1970s. Not only has it achieved an irrigation coverage of 95 per cent of the net sown area, cropping intensity of 185, and 98 per cent HYV coverage which are all the highest among the Indian states, but even the yields of major crops – wheat and paddy – are of a very high order, i e, 3,941 kgs and 3,393 kgs per hectare respectively [CACP 1997] The agricultural sector in Punjab is very capital intensive with the highest number of tubewells and tractors in the country and the highest consumer of electricity, 21% of wheat, 9% of rice and 21% of cotton produced in India came from Punjab. In the 1980’s the scene began to change, the same level of production could not be maintained. The net costs began to increase mainly due to over mechanization and small holdings were no longer profitable to cultivate. This became apparent in the rise in tenancy of small farms and another evidence of this was an increase in the market for second hand tractors. The proportion of marginal holdings in total decreased from 37 per cent to 26 per cent during 1970-71 to 1990-91 and those above 10 hectares increased significantly [GoP 1997] The unemployment rates increased The proportion of agricultural labour in total rural male workers went up by 2.2 per cent during the 1980s and that of cultivators went down by 2.7 per cent. The unemployment rate among rural males (2.9 per cent) in the late 1980s was marginally above that at the national level (2.8 per cent) and that among rural females more than double (7.4 per cent) that of the national level (3.5 per cent) [Chand 1999a]. To add to this were the problems of monoculture and lack of diversification, increased attack of pests due to increased resistance to insecticides decreasing water levels. Thus based on the Jhol committee agriculture was diversified to include horticultural crops leading to the opening of food processing industries.This did not seem to make much of a difference as the three industries could work only with a small number of farmers and this did not make much of a difference to the rest. The high mechanisation of agricultural operations had added to the problem of rural un- employment. Now, combine harvesters could do the entire harvesting of paddy and a large proportion of wheat crop, which had cut down the number of days a farm worker could be gainfully employed in the farm sector. The labour requirements were also increasingly met from migrant labour. On the other hand, educated rural youth did not find farming profitable enough as an occupation. Unemployment of youth in Punjab was not due to lack of work opportunities in the farm sector per se, but due to the strong preference of these youth for non-farm jobs. But the industrial sector of the state which was dominated by small-scale industry did not offer many skilled jobs and depended on migrant labour for manual work as these workers were available for lower wages, did not create trouble as they had less political clout and bargaining power. On the other hand, urban people were preferred for skilled jobs as they are more tuned to industrial or corporate work culture [Chand 1999b]. The problem of rural unemployment was compounded by the fact that rural youth did not possess any special skills and did not have an aptitude to work in conventional industries owned by local capital. The only industries they were more familiar with were agro-processing ones which had recently roped in some rural youth but the jobs were few as the operations were highly mechanised and few manual jobs remained. [5] The very purpose of G R was to improve agriculture and reduce the income disparities but that very purpose was defeated. Through our next paper ‘Green revolution and increase in social inequalities in India’ D.N. Dhanagre [6] we are going to see how social inequalities have increased. The effects of G R were assessed within five years of its initiation into India through a symposium organised by the Centre for the Study of Social Change in 1973. Where both, the positive side and the negative side were highlighted. On the positive side the increase in crop production was stressed on. ‘This increase was 87.2 per cent in Punjab, and 64.90 per cent in Haryana where the gains in production performance were impressive'[Vyas, 1974: 67-70], and hence there was no alternative to G R to develop the backward regions of our country. ‘The green revolution was distributed differentially to different categories of farmers putting the small and marginal farmers at a relative disadvantage. The reasons for differential distribution were obvious. The high cost/high yield cereal technology of the green revolution called for substantial capital investments generally beyond the means of a majority of small and marginal farmers.'[CSSC 1984]. To add to this the Indian Government was criticized by the Halselemere Group of favouring the rich and large land owning farmers in distribution of cheap credit and subsidies rather than the poorer ones. Size and nature of land holdings- Initially it was believed that the size of the holding did not matter in G R practices, but when it came to the reality of implementation it was found not to be true. The agricultural development bureaucracy working at the grass root level that scale neutrality was not true, the larger holdings were at an advantage. According to Danagare even the introduction of HYV seeds there was a ‘pro rich bias’ seen. The requirement of each farmer to buy two shares of seed worth Rs 100/- each per acre was again to the advantage of the larger land holding farmers. Since the G R package was created with the perennially irrigated land in mind the government favoured them rather than farming in semi-arid and dry areas again leading to disparity in the distribution of income regionally. Further it has been found that while poor farmers own only 21% of land in wet regions almost 50% of the land was owned by poor farmers in the dry regions,[Atherya et,al 1983]. ‘The polarisation process that accentuates the rural class differences has been further intensified by the green revolution.’ In a survey done by Bhalla and Chada in Punjab its been found that farmers with land holdings less than 2.5acres earned Rs1231/- while those with land holdings 25acres or more earned Rs24,283/- annually. In other words a rich farmer without putting in any physical effort was earning much more than a poor farmer, where he and his entire family would have had to work. Use of mechanization- as very apparent mechanization of farming was to the advantage of the rich and large land holding farmers. It not only increased disparity among the farmers but also hit hard on the labourers. Billings and Singh have discovered that in Punjab the demand for agricultural labour went up from 51 mandays to 60.1 mandays with the introduction of the persian wheel as a means of irrigation and of fertilisers and pesticides. However, when pump-sets, wheat-threshers, corn-shellers and tractors are introduced the average demand for labour drops down to 25.6 mandays (1969: A 221-24) It was found through surveys both in Punjab and in Chengilpet TN that the poorer farmers did not hesitate to invest and compete with the rich farmers though it was an uphill task for them but they did not benefit. ‘In fact, all available statistics indicate greater and greater immiseration and pauperisation as the green revolution technology package has spread in diffierent parts of India.’ [Dhanagare 1978] I would like to conclude by mentioning Vandana Shiva’s view as expressed in her book ‘The violence of the Green Revolution – Third world agriculture, ecology and politics’ in the western view our system of agriculture was primitive and they wanted to thrust upon us their modern scientific view, as a socio political solution to our problems which only created more problems. In the traditional agricultural systems Shiva believes that people used their knowledge and experience to create a balance between the resources and their uses. ‘Cropping systems include a symbiotic relationship between soil, water, farm animals and plants’. ‘They were preserving and building on nature’s process and nature’s patterns’. This system was based on sustainability and made the farmers self- reliant as advocated by Gandhiji. As Rachel Carson puts it ‘ In nature nothing exists alone'[ Silent Spring] and if we don’t recognize this and awake to the fact that we are a part of the nature we are destroying we may be too late.
The main idea that is being promoted throughout the book Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other by Sherry Turkle, is that, as time goes on, people grow increasingly depended on technology – even within the context of how they go about addressing their socialization-related anxieties. To justify the validity of her suggestion, in this respect, Turkle points out to the phenomenon of more and more individuals deciding in favor of robots/robotized dolls, as their intimate companions: “We come to see what robots offer as relationship. The simplification of relationship is no longer a source of complaint. It becomes what we want” (Turkle 27). The author also enlightens readers that the Internet has long ago ceased being solely the instrument of informational transactions – as of today, it became nothing less of an ‘alternative reality’ for many individuals, who clearly prefer it to the surrounding de facto reality. According to Turkle, the earlier mentioned state of affairs can hardly be considered thoroughly appropriate, because it results in the increased ‘atomization’ of Western societies, while undermining their structural integrity from within. Moreover, according to Turkle, the fact that humanity grows increasingly dependent on the technology’s ability to simulate the ‘desirable reality’, has a negative influence on the measure of the affected individuals’ mental adequacy. As she pointed out: “I believe that in our culture of (technology-induced) simulation, the notion of authenticity is for us what sex was for the Victorians – threat and obsession, taboo and fascination” (Turkle 16). This, of course, adds to the overall spirit of ‘technological pessimism’, emanated by the book in question. Even though Turkle indeed deserves to be given a credit, on the account of the book’s line of argumentation being discursively legitimate, there are nevertheless a number of the apparent drawbacks to how the author argues her point. The main of them can be well deemed the implication that, as it appears from the book, Turkle happened to believe that people’s obsession with the companionship-simulating technological gadgets/virtual reality is something necessarily ‘unnatural’ and therefore – counterproductive, in the psychological sense of this word: “Online, we can lose confidence that we are communicating or cared for. Confused, we may seek solace in even more connection” (Turkle 258). Nevertheless, even though there are indeed a number of indications that people’s increased tendency to rely on technology (when it comes to satisfying their companionship-related longings) cannot be considered particularly ‘healthy’, there is nothing truly odd about it. After all, people’s ability to pursue with leading a highly sociable lifestyle appears to be environmentally predetermined. This explains why it is specifically the rurally based individuals, utterly dependent on agriculture, as the mean of ensuring their physical survival, who are being known the sheer strength of their commitment to the virtues of a socially integrated communal living. The reason for this is apparent – the very realities of such a living naturally presuppose one to function as the society’s integral part – as the ultimate tool of ensuring its existential competitiveness. In highly urbanized Western societies, on the other hand, this could not be the case, by definition – being technologically advanced, these societies produce more than enough of the so-called ‘surplus product’, which makes it possible for people to succeed in claiming their environmental niche, without having to organize themselves in ‘packs’. It is important to understand that there is nothing truly phenomenological about the fact that, up until recently (prior to the beginning of post-modernity), the representatives of Homo Sapiens species used to experience the urge to socialize with each other – while in the process, people are being provided with the opportunity to experience a strongly defined sensual pleasure, which in turn is being chemically (mechanically) triggered. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why, for example, people tend to assign such a high emotional value to the notion of love/amorousness, which is the integral part of one’s socially integrated lifestyle? This is because, while pursuing a romantic relationship with each other, they initiate the process of their brains beginning to produce the ‘happiness-inducing’ hormones of testosterone, dopamine and endorphine. In its turn, this can be referred to as a ‘reward’ that nature provides to the sociable individuals, because it sees one’s willingness to pursue with the communally integrated lifestyle, as the indication of his or her ‘evolutionary fitness’. After all, the more one is willing to socialize, the greater are his or her chances to find a mating partner and to get on with ‘baby-making’. And, in recourse-scarce preindustrial societies, babies come as a particularly valuable survival-ensuring asset, because even small children can be successfully turned into agricultural helpers – hence, the phenomenon of the skyrocketing rate of fertility in the Third World. In technologically advanced Western societies, however, there is simply no need for people to indulge in ‘baby-making’ on an industrial scale, as their foremost existential priority, which naturally causes them to grow ever more detached from each other, in the emotional sense of this word. Nevertheless, this does not have much of an effect on these people’s strive to experience the state of happiness, Given the fact that, as we pointed out earlier, the concerned sensation is chemically induced, this makes it possible for Westerners to rely on technology, when it comes to pursuing their innermost happiness-related agenda. Therefore, we cannot quite agree with the author’s insistence that there is something utterly unnatural about the Western humanity’s increased dependence on robots, as ‘surrogate’ lovers: “We allow ourselves to be comforted by unrequited love, for there is no robot that can ever love us back” (Turkle 253). Because love is essentially an illusion, it does not matter whether robots can ‘love us back’ – what matters, in this respect, is their ability to help triggering the ‘happiness-inducing’ set of chemical reactions inside of our brains. At the time when people did not possess the technology that makes it possible to substitute humans with robots, as ‘companions’, it was thoroughly natural for them indulge in the extremely close and personal forms socialization with each other. Nowadays, however, it is becoming increasingly more natural for people to seek companionship with robots. It is not only that the nearby presence of the robotized mechanisms, designed for ‘companionship’, will allow the concerned individuals to enjoy the steady production of the earlier mentioned ‘hormones of happiness’, but it will also spare robot-owners of the headache of having to deal with the imperfectness of their would-be-human companions. As David Levy (a computer engineer quoted by the author) noted: “Robots will teach us to be better friends and lovers because we will be able to practice on them. Beyond this, they will substitute where people fail” (Turkle 17). Apparently, it is specifically the technology-driven socio-cultural progress, which deems things ‘natural’ or ‘unnatural’, and not the fact that even today, many people cannot help clinging to the discursively outdated conventions of interrelational morality/ethics. We will write a custom Essay on Technology-Obsessed People specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the phenomenon of people’s technology-induced ‘alienation’ cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the qualitative specifics of a post-industrial living, which in turn came about as one of the by-products of the ongoing process of Western societies becoming ever more urbanized. In plain words, the reason why, as time goes on, more and more people end up choosing in favor of socially alienated lifestyles, reflected by the concerned individuals’ tendency to enter into the ‘surrogate’ emotional relationships with their technologically advanced gadgets, is that the very evolutionary laws of history have predetermined it to be the case. Therefore, the author’s predisposition to discuss the mentioned phenomenon in predominantly negative terms, does not appear to be thoroughly justified. Nevertheless, as it was implied earlier, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other does in fact contain a number of valuable insights into what account for the qualitative aspects of the Western civilization remaining on the path of progress. Specifically, Turkle succeed rather spectacularly in exposing the clearly degenerative aspects of the process of more and more technology-obsessed Westerners growing increasingly egocentric, which in turn diminishes their ability to function as the society’s productive members. Therefore, there can be only a few doubts that the reading this particular book will come in handy for just about anyone, interested in researching the concerned subject matter at length. Works Cited Turkle, Sherry. Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books, 2011. Print.

Use of Torture Against Terror Suspects Essay

Use of Torture Against Terror Suspects Essay. The United Nations “Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,” considers torture as a serious violation of human dignity (HREA para 1).The UN argues that torture is not justifiable since it amounts to a violation of peoples’ fundamental freedoms. As such, the UN unconditionally bans torture in whatever form and for whatever reason. The UN defines torture as: “severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or third person information or a confession or punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed” (HREA para 3). This definition alludes to the fact that torture is improper in a civil society. However, this view is perceived as too shallow, one-sided, unwise, and not in reality with present-day challenges (para 1). This implies that there are some instances when the use of torture is not only permissible but morally right. Suffice to state that torture has been used successfully in the past to thwart future terror attacks. As such, President Obama should not prosecute those who advocated for it. The UN unconditionally bans the use of torture against terror suspects. However, this ban is not in reality with the present day challenges. There are instances when torture is not only necessary but also the only effective way to ensure that the safety and security of innocent people is safeguarded. For instance, torture is necessary if it prevents the occurrence of terrorist attacks. To elucidate the need for torture as a terrorism prevention measure, it is vital to consider several hypothetical cases. To begin with, consider a situation when a terror attack is imminent. Torture is necessary to save the lives of innocent civilians. As such, it is morally appropriate to subject any person suspected of plotting the attack to save the lives of innocent citizens. While terrorism is an extreme case, there are other modest instances when torture seems necessary since any other method of investigation might not be fruitful. Levin (para 5) states that the public too, would agree to the use of torture against terror suspects, especially if the victim is a child. According to the results of a hypothetical poll conducted on mothers, a majority of the members of the public would approve torture against terrorists who kidnap newborns from hospitals. While these are just hypothetical cases, memos released by CIA prove that future terrorist attacks would not have been prevented if waterboarding would not have been used against terror suspects (Thompson and Ghosh para 5). This justifies the need to consider the use of torture as a means to safeguard the safety and lives of innocent civilians. It is evident that the use of torture against terror suspects can deter the loss of innocent lives. However, the definition of torture has been the subject of legal debate. Some of the torture methods used to obtain information from terrorists are not legally considered as torture. For instance, debate exists both within and without the US justice department on whether waterboarding falls under torture. Some critics argue that torture means any method which inflicts severe physical and mental pain on victims. Waterboarding is not torture since it does not inflict severe physical and mental pain on its victims (Safire 5). This assertion seems to be the reason why President Obama halted the prosecution of CIA officials who supported the use of waterboarding and other methods of torture against terror suspects. In his argument, President Obama states that even though the use of waterboarding against terror suspects violates basic human rights, it was facilitated by the legal realities of the time (Meyer para 3). This implies that even the most liberal minds acknowledge that torture can be legally permissible. Suffice to state that torture is neither advocated as a means to obtain crucial information, nor as a means of punishing wrong doers. Instead, torture is advocated as a measure of ensuring that national security is not compromised. Additionally, torture is advocated when necessary to save the lives of innocent people, who do not volunteer to be harmed. This assertion opens debate on the need to protect the individual rights of terrorists. It is imperative to note that every individual has inalienable rights to life, security, and freedom. However, each of these individual rights comes with corresponding duties, obligations, and responsibilities. This implies that there are consequences for violation of these rights. Given this, a person who plans to carry out an attack that endangers the lives of innocent people not only violates but also denies himself individual basic rights, including the right to life. Therefore, such a person accepts the liability of his heinous acts. Unfortunately, by protecting the life of a terrorist, the lives of innocent people are endangered. According to Levin (para 5), this is moral cowardice. Since life should be protected using any means possible, it is thus necessary to protect the life of innocent people, even if it means sacrificing the life of an individual; the terrorist. The assertion above leads to a debate on whether President Obama should prosecute those who advocated for torture. To answer this question, it is imperative to put a few issues in perspective. To begin with, the use of torture is not advocated as a means to obtain information from suspects but a crucial deterrent to mass murder that might occur as a result of a terrorist attack. Secondly, the legality of some of the torture methods used, such as waterboarding, cannot be ascertained. President Obama condemned the Bush administration’s use of waterboarding but confessed that the method was legally permissible at the time. Additionally, memos from the CIA prove that waterboarding has effectively thwarted future terrorist attacks. More importantly, the dignity and sanctity of life has to be protected at all cost, including sacrificing the life of a terrorist. Unfortunately, protecting the life of a terrorist puts the lives of many innocent people at great risk. This amounts to moral cowardice. As such, President Obama is justified in preferring not to prosecute those who advocated for the use of torture against terrorists. It is morally justifiable to sacrifice the life of one person in order to save the lives of other people. Such justification comes in the wake of the debate on the rationale of using torture as a deterrent to terrorism. Pro-life activists argue that the life of a terrorist needs to be protected. However, the lives of innocent civilians threatened by terrorist activities are equally important. Such lives must be protected at whatever cost, including sacrificing the lives of those who plot the attacks. Thus, using torture to protect innocent civilians becomes morally justifiable. Based on this argument, President Obama is justified in not prosecuting those who advocated for torture as a terror deterrent method. Works Cited HREA. “Torture, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment”. Web. Levin, Michael. “The Case for Torture.” Web. Meyer, Bill. “Obama Say No Charges to Be Filed Against CIA Officials for Waterboarding During Bush Years.” Cleveland Live Inc. 2009. Web. Safire, William. “On Language: Waterboarding”. The New York Times, 2008. Web. Thompson, Mark and Bobby Ghosh. “Did Waterboarding Prevent Terrorism Attacks?” Time. 2009. Web. Use of Torture Against Terror Suspects Essay

San Diego State University California Missions and the Indigenous People Discussion

essay writer San Diego State University California Missions and the Indigenous People Discussion.

I will provide you with the material needed in order to answer ALL of the following questions in a total of at least 400 words. 1) What were the goals of California missions? How did Indigenous peoples resist during the time period of the missions? Be sure to provide specific examples.2) How does the term “Manifest Destiny” relate to the chapter “Sea to Shining Sea” from our textbook? Be sure to provide specific examples from the textbook.3) What was Deborah Miranda’s argument in “Lying to Children about the California Missions and the Indians” article? What stood out to you, and why? 4) How does your K-12 education relate to the experiences mentioned in Lim’s article on “Educating Elementary School Children About California Missions and Genocide”? Why might the ways missions are taught be problematic? How might this problem be resolved, specifically what does Lim advocate for in the article? 5) What stood out to you in the article “What the ‘California Dream’ Means to Indigenous Peoples”? What does the “California Dream” mean to Indigenous peoples, and what solution does Chilcote suggest?6) Provide a quick analysis of Bob Marley’s “Buffalo Soldier” based on the history covered in this week’s materials. This analysis is open to your own interpretation and creativity! Please include lyrics and examples from our materials to build meaningful connections.7) Lastly, since this is our very last discussion blog, please take a moment to reflect on what we’ve learned so far. What do you predict we’ll be learning in our final Module 6 and how will these materials connect to the materials we’ve already covered? What did you find to be the most important take-aways from this course? What was most interesting or personally meaningful to you, and why?
San Diego State University California Missions and the Indigenous People Discussion

Cuyamaca Gollege Contingency and Memory Discussion

Cuyamaca Gollege Contingency and Memory Discussion.

First of all – this video is about how we input the world into our mind (Links to an external site.)Second – This video is about how we remember things in our Brain (Links to an external site.)**If you like that one you can watch this one!! (not required). (Links to an external site.)Third – How to remember more! (Links to an external site.)NOW -Can you apply the concept of CONTINGENCY to these videos?Try to apply it to just one and then respond to other students in the discussion about what they said.
Cuyamaca Gollege Contingency and Memory Discussion

Capella University Critical Thinking Model Discussion

Capella University Critical Thinking Model Discussion.

Critical Thinking ModelCritical thinking involves the ability to be in control of one’s thinking. It includes the ability to consciously examine the elements of one’s reasoning, or that of another, and evaluate that reasoning against universal intellectual standards of clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, and logic. It also involves the structured examination of sources of information.For your initial post:Review Paul and Elder’s Critical Thinking Model media piece from this week’s What You Need to Know. You may recall that you were introduced to the Paul and Elder model in your first course at Capella. Since that time, you have used critical thinking to develop your coursework as you considered problems in the field of psychology, reviewed research, applied theories, and worked toward recommended solutions.Reflect on the eight elements of thought in the model and on the intellectual standards. Describe some specific ways you have implemented some of the elements and standards into your academic work. To give your peers and instructor a good understanding of your application, as you compose your post, name specific elements and standards. Discuss ways the elements and standards have applied to your everyday thinking and behavior as you interact with people in your personal and professional life.**SHORT DISCUSSION POST, 2-3 PARAGRAPHS**
Capella University Critical Thinking Model Discussion

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