Table of Contents Introduction Background Symptoms of PSTD and coping strategies Relieving traumatic events Emotional numbing Avoiding reminders of traumatic experiences Blocking traumatic experiences Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional / anxiety disorder that normally affects individuals who have experienced an extremely stressful or frightening ordeal. It is commonly a result of psychological stress. McIntosh states that, trauma that really threatens one’s mortality and one that extremely compromises with the normal emotional health of an individual, is bound to cause post-traumatic stress (4). As the name of the disorder suggests, it is stress that happens after a person experiences extreme fear or trauma. Those who suffer from this disorder usually re-live or re-experience the ordeal that triggered the trauma. These individuals often come up with defensive mechanisms that help them forget these experiences even though for a short period. Tim O’Brien’s novel In the Lake of Woods shows us the effects of the Vietnam War on a former American soldier called John Wade. He exhibits the characteristics of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. The rage that causes him to inadvertently scream “Kill Jesus” is suppressed to the “forgetting tricks” throughout the novel. Background The novel tells of a sad story of post-traumatic stress disorder as experienced by John Wade, a Vietnam War veteran. The main concept of the book revolves around John Wade’s experience through flashbacks including his abused childhood. As John grew into a man, he became involved with a woman by the name Kathy. In their relationship, both kept many secrets from each other. For instance, Kathy hated her marriage to John Wade, had an affair with the dentist of which John was aware and how John had the habit of spying on his wife. Thus, their relationship was built on deceit, concealment and illusions. Furthermore, during the war, John wrote letters to Kathy, he stated to her in pride of his involvement in a massacre of a village as well as his identity as the Sorcerer. Symptoms of PSTD and coping strategies The three principal groupings of the most common characteristics symptoms of PTSD are re-experiencing/relieving the traumatic event, emotional numbing and avoiding reminders of the traumatic experience. Many occurrences in war happen suddenly and unexpectedly. These occurrences do not give the one experiencing them enough time to conform psychologically to the sudden change (McIntosh 9-11) thus leading to PSTD. Similarly, John Wade exhibits these characteristics after having gone through the Vietnam War. Relieving traumatic events He relieves the traumatic event of the Vietnam War. Consequently, after John came back home from Vietnam, he gets a job in records within which he destroys any evidence of his involvement in the My Lai massacre. He concealed his involvement to gain a position as lieutenant governor of the state of Minnesota as well as a United States senator but lost miserably. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More John’s Vietnam ordeals continuously haunt the couple as they settle in their cabin house following John’s defeat. John even forces his wife to have an abortion even thou she really would love to have children. He kills his unborn baby just like those helpless villagers in Vietnam during the massacre. Emotional numbing John exhibits emotional numbing and cannot feel what is going on around him. This is a coping strategy of victims of PSTD as Peters, in his article urges that the individual becomes ‘numb’ to the environment around him and the normal emotions experienced by a normal person become nonexistent to them (6-7). As a symptom, to his depressing state, we find that he unknowingly carried the kettle of boiled water into the bedroom to watch his sleeping wife. “It was almost a fact, but not quiet, that he moved down the hallway to their bedroom that night, where for a period of time he watched Kathy sleep…” (O’Brien 188-189). John seemed out of touch with his actions as well as his environment. Apparently, John felt a numbness inside him that traveled to his mind and a feeling of not quite caring about his actions. “Odd, he thought. The numbness inside him. The way his hands had no meaningful connection to his wrist” (p.50). This numbness, of not feeling the twisting of his wrist, indicates that he was not even aware of his destructive action of pouring the water from the kettle. He is not aware whether Kathy woke up or not. We as the readers are not even sure what is real or John’s figment of imagination. “In the dark she seemed to smile at him. Then she jerked sideways, puffs of steam rose from the sockets of her eyes. Impossible, of course” (p.84) – this part particularly shows the level of disorientation that John suffered as he did not seem to understand his horrible action of burning his wife. The way John viewed the scenario in the dark was obviously so inaccurate that he mistook Kathy’s look of pain for a smile. He did not realize that the steam rising from her eyes was a sign of the burning that was taking place. The book was written in John’s viewpoint and the use of words “impossible, of course” show that to him, the puffs of steam rising from his wife’s eyes were just unreal allowing his continuing of burning her to death. John was not even moved by his actions the next morning. The following day he does an action so absurd that we are shocked. John did not even remember that he had dumped the body of his wife in the lake. His forgetfulness about killing his wife and concealing her body is a forgetting trick that the author uses in the novel to show us how the PSTD victims conceal or deny their actions. Thus, John avoids dealing with this possible horrific action. We will write a custom Research Paper on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Avoiding reminders of traumatic experiences People suffering from PSTD avoid reminders of the traumatic experience. In John’s case, he tries to avoid remembering the traumatic experience of killing of his wife by getting involved in a search team and questioning his neighbors about her whereabouts. However, on pages 131 to 132, “He remembered the weight of the teakettle. He remembered puffs of steam in the dark…the steady lap of waves against his chest…Absurd, Wade thought”. At this point, John saw it as absurd that there was steam rising in the dark, a scenario that any normal person would have realized as coming from the extremely hot water he was pouring. We have seen that a post-traumatic stress disorder victim has frequent periods of lapsing memory and a mind that is disconnected from the normal occurrences of life. Such an individual like John Wade will suffer disorientation throughout his life. Though having forgotten sinking his wife into the lake, he gets flashes of the events that occurred that night as time moves on. Later he wakes up in the deep night and goes to the boathouse where he feels that something horrible had happened at that place only that he did not remember what it was. “…as sense of pre-memory washed over him. Things had happened here. Things said, things done…” (188). On page 242, however, he seems to remember everything even where his alleged missing wife is “He didn’t think about it. Quick, he stripped naked and filled his lungs and dove to the bottom where Kathy was.” Disturbingly, John thought of his dead wife as he would if she were still alive as he swam towards her body. “From the bottom of the lake, eyes wide open, Kathy Wade watches the fish fly up to swim in the land of sky blue waters…” (286). He thought that she was looking up at him and that she was swimming. “Kathy stares up at him from beneath the surface of a silvered lake…she swims in the blending twilight of it in between” (288). On page 283, it seems that John is now aware of his actions but still has some sense of denial “Had he harmed her? Well no, but yes”. Of course, he knew he had harmed her but he seemed to justify that he had done it in his sleep meaning he did not mean to do it. “He was Sorcerer. He was guilty of that, and always would be….” Meaning he still identified himself with the person, he was in Vietnam. He still was the person who made things disappear and vanish. He still was the man who wanted to kill. Blocking traumatic experiences The other coping strategy that PSTD sufferers use is blocking the traumatic experiences from the mind. Victims of post-traumatic stress disorder usually try to block out intrusive memories of the occurrence, feelings that re-animates that event into the current as well as feelings of severe anguish on recalling the traumatic event (McIntosh 9). Not sure if you can write a paper on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The traumatic experiences are pushed back into the subconscious and the victims often forget some of the traumatic events although this does not mean that the memories go away forever as they can be revived by watching horrific scenes involving war on television and some of the war veterans have suffered by seeing similar war horrors (Peters 4). Moreover, Vietnam War veterans are known to have memories and nightmares associated with the war experiences. They become so caught up in these memories that they find difficulty in focusing on present and events around them. The veterans say that their dreams often involved terrifying memories of the Vietnam War and other horrible nightmares not related to the war. The veterans avoid people and events that remind them of the war even decades after the war ended. They attempt to block off these memories and distressing feelings arising from the memories. This leads to withdrawal from the family circle, their friends as well as the entire society (McIntosh 9). This may explain why John withdrew into the Lake to try to escape from the haunting experiences although his bid failed. John tried to block out the memories of Vietnam and some of the horrific secrets about the war are buried deep inside in his memories. However, the effects of war leave an indelible mark on the veterans’ minds and lives and John was no exception and often suffered from blackouts as well as nightmares. He would wake up yelling because of recalling horrors about the atrocities that he took part in during the Vietnam War. Eventually the horrors led him to kill his wife an action that he would otherwise not have likely committed had he not been haunted by the Vietnam horrors. He cannot escape from the undead memories of the war. Conclusion War veterans suffer from PSTD and in most cases; they end up committing unforgivable acts. Most are unable to cope with the traumatic events that they experience while at war and thus there is a need to help the veterans overcome the trauma and fit into the normal life once the war is over. John does not recover from the PTSD and kills his wife Kathy in cold blood. He symbolizes the horrors of war that continue long after the war is over. O’Brien captures John’s coping strategies- re-experiencing/relieving the traumatic event, emotional numbing and avoiding reminders of the traumatic experience- using “forgetting tricks” in a compelling way. Works Cited McIntosh, Steven. “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and War-Related Stress” Information For Veterans and their Families (2000): 4-20. Web. O’Brien, Tim. In the Lake of the Woods. New York: Penguin Books, 1995. Peters, Roger, F. Casualties of War: Vietnam War Veterans PTSD and Depression. Human Focus Group, 2003. Sept. 13. 2003. Nov. 11. 2010. http://www.heas.com.au/downloads/casualties_of_war.pdf
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Content Scenario:You are the manager of the packing department. A memo from headquarters announces that the maximum merit salary increase (i.e., a raise when no promotion is involved), is 6%.You have a subordinate who, you feel, deserves a bigger raise. A year ago, Sheila Whitfield was promoted into the pre-label division of your packing department. She quickly became proficient in her duties – so much so that now others ask her for advice. You especially like her positive approach to solving problems. She sees obstacles as challenges and more often than not figures out ways to do what needs to be done within the constraints provided. On her own initiative, she started a program to make others in the company aware of the expense of labels and shipping to better control costs. The program has been very successful, and the company has saved money while still using clear, informative labels with adequate packaging. She has excellent working relationships with label suppliers and her counterparts in other companies.In her most recent performance appraisal, Sheila had 14 out of 21 boxes checked “Exceptional” (the other seven were “Commendable”, the next highest category). Her overall ranking was “Exceptional.” Indeed, the only two suggestions for improvement were minor ones:Continue to be aggressive, but temper the aggressiveness with diplomacy;Continue to expand responsibility in current position.Write an email to Phoebe Buffay, the Salary Compensation Committee chairperson, recommending that an exception to the rules be made so that Sheila can be given an 8% raise. Addtional information: -Correct email formatting -Add/include any details necessary that make your message more effective (information the manager would have in this type of situation”-Include the subject line and date before beginning your message.
Many people with ASC (autism spectrum conditions) have intricacy in identifying emotions in themselves and other people. For young children learning to speak, suffering from autism present a special problem to their teachers as well as parents as they are faced with the challenge of teaching these unfortunate children how to express themselves through speech. The importance of effective communication cannot be underestimated. Yet teaching students with autism is not an easy task, it requires patience and use of special assistive technology tools to help these children learn how to form words and use them effectively. There are various technologies that can be used, while other are simple some of these technology are so advanced and needs extra training to use them. One of the basic technologies that has been used for a number of years is Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS ) studies have indicated that this technology improves communication of children with autism This paper intends to discuss on the use of this assistive technology to educate students with Autism. Introduction People with autism spectrum conditions have impairments in public communication; included in this core impairment is an intricacy with the social emotional reciprocity in addition to nonverbal communication such as gestures, facial expression and eye contact. Regularly, people with autism spectrum conditions have difficulties identifying emotions particularly complex emotions that call for metalizing (jealous, embarrassed, sarcastic) in both themselves and other people. All of these complications can add to challenges in keeping and making friendships and other encouraging peer relationships. WHAT IS ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY? Assistive technology tool means any piece of equipment, item, or product system, whether acquired commercially, modified, off-the-shelf, or customized, that is used to maintain, increase, or improve functional abilities of people with disabilities. Assistive technology service directly assists people with a disability in the acquisition, selection, or use of an assistive technology. The Use of Assistive Technology to Educate Students with Autism The theory of mind is one conceptualization used to explain the social impairment in autism spectrum conditions (Golan and Bauminger, 2006). The theory states that people with autism spectrum conditions have an intrinsic disability in terms of recognizing the psychological perspective of others. That is, they have problem imputing emotion, meaning, and intent to other people. Deficits in this part are serious to effective social interaction, to a great extent it is anticipated on knowing what other people are feeling or thinking. Getting to know emotions is one aspect of the capability to take another person’s perspective. A number of studies have researched on the interventions to educate individuals with autism spectrum conditions to identify emotions. These comprise social skill instruction (Golan and Bauminger, 2006) and assistive technology interventions. For instance, Bauminger (2006) examined the use of a behavior based intervention to assist in the emotion recognition skills of 15 high responding kids with autism, ages 8 to 17. The intervention involved lessons from a social skill syllabus used in the school setting for 2 to 4 hours per week for 7 months. The lessons comprised of activities such as role play and just plays with a normally developing peer and working on the skills acquired from each weekly lesson with parents at home. The end results showed advancement in the kid’s emotional ability and knowledge to give examples of difficult emotions. Specially, at post intervention, the partakers with autism were likely to start social communication with their peers and spent a lot of time displaying encouraging social behaviors. In another study, Hadwin, Baron-Cohen, Howlin, and Hill (1996) taught children with autism spectrum conditions to foresee and identify emotions in others using a computer based intervention called the Emotions Trainer. Partakers between the ages of 12 and 20, incorporated in either a control group or an experimental, were diagnosed with either Asperger syndrome or autism. The program comprised of five sections that incorporated asking the user to select the correct emotion out of four options explaining photographed facial expressions, events or situations, and descriptive captions and objects. Contrasted to the control group, the experimental group showed improvement in their ability to recognize emotions in tale and cartooned circumstances that triggered an emotional response, but not in their recognition of emotion in pictures (facial expressions), on which both intervention and control groups demonstrated improvement. The following section will examine Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) as one of the key assistive technology used to assist students with autism. Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) This is a low technology assistive system created as an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), where pictures are used in place of words to assist children with autism to communicate because of their problems in speech development. At the initial stage of using PECS, a child is provided with a number of pictures of favorite toys or foods. If the child requires any of these things, he simply gives the picture of the specific item to a therapist, teacher or even caregiver (Charlop-Christy, et al. 2002). The person receiving this picture in return hands the toy or food to the child. Through this exchange, communication is then strengthened. Similarly PECS can as well be applied to make suggestions regarding things viewed or heard within the surrounding. For instance, a student might view a car passing by and give a picture of a car to his teacher. The objective of this method is that, when a child starts to acknowledge the importance of communication, the child will start using natural speech instead of pictures. How this assistive technology works A student with autism can be taught how to use this technology by his teacher, caregiver or a therapist, who understands the way this technology works. Normally, an applied behavior analysis (ABA) method is applied. Through this method, prompts are offered to control the picture exchange. More so, in the initial stages of PECS training, the student selects a picture he wants and gets what is on the picture, for instance food. Receiving food is meant to give a positive reinforcement to the student for his use of the picture in communicating. Normally PECS training entails six stages: Stage I: the teacher lists down a list of the student’s favorite items normally starting with foods. A single item from the list is chosen for the opening training lesson, and item’s picture is drawn. The item can be put in a place visible to the student, to allow the student to view the item but not to pick it. When the child seems interested in the item, the teacher gives such a student a picture card of the item. The teacher guides the student’s hand to pick the picture and give it to the teacher. The moment the teacher receives the card from the student, he communicates loudly the want the student wants, for instance, he say “so you want the cake” and give the cake to the child. Stage II: the teacher moves a little distance in order for the student to move towards him to give the picture card to the teacher. Stage III: the student is provided with several picture cards so that he can choose the one representing what he wants. The selected picture card is given to the teacher, at this moment; the student may use a binder or a communication board where the cards will be held. Stage IV: at this point, the student is provided with a card written on “I want____.” The student has to use this card together with the picture card illustrating what is wanted. The concept is that the student will learn the way to communicate through complete sentences. Those students who can not read the words can be in a position to recognize the words written as symbols on the card. Stage V: prior to this stage, the student has never been directly what he wants, at this stage, the teacher asks the student directly what he wants, and then waits for the student to select a picture representing what the students wants. This lesson builds the basis for future communication between the student and the teacher when the teacher wants to find out what the student wants. Stage VI: the moment the student is able to fluently use PECS, and has managed to generalize the system to use it to communicate with other people apart from the teacher; the student is taught the way make suggestions on something that he has observed. The teacher picks up something interesting and asks the student to say what the item is. At that stage the teacher also picks a card with “I see _____.” The student is to match the card with what he is seeing. In this manner, the child is able to learn how to communicate what he observes together with his experiences to other people (Charlop-Christy, et al. 2002). Theory behind this technology The express reinforcement coming from immediately receiving what a student with autism is the main principle of PECS. A student is able to show his inner wishes without speaking any words, and be rewarded. Such tangible rewards greatly reinforce such a child compared to social rewards, particularly during the initial stage of communication. PECS could as well improve the social relations of an autism child. This is because the child is able to learn to initiate communication; more so, at this point the child is not expected to speak, so the child is less intimidated. How effective is the technology A number of studies carried out have indicated that PECS is useful tool in helping children with autism. For example, a study carried out by Schwartz, et al. (1998) on eighteen preschool students suffering from autism and with speech difficulties established that those children were able to communicate through PECS in their school days. However, after a training of one year, nearly 50 percent of these children stopped to use PECS and instead began to natural communicate (Schwartz, et al. 1998). More studies supporting this observation were found by (Charlop-Christy, et al. 2002). generally, evidence from a number of studies have established that PECS assistive tool is an effective technique in developing natural speech in children suffering from autism, particularly if they are taught how to use this tool when is below six years of age (Bondy, 2001). Side issues This technology has no known side effectives to children with autism. Though a number of parents showed concerns that their children could end up depending on PECS as their communication tool, and fail to develop their natural speech, this concern lacks any credible support from studies. On the contra, there is credible evidence showing that children suffering from autism are able to learn through PECS to develop their speech quicker compared to those who have not used PECS (Bondy, 2001). Conclusion Children suffering from autism conditions have impairments in public communication; included in this core impairment is an intricacy with the social emotional reciprocity in addition to nonverbal communication such as gestures, facial expression and eye contact. Such children need special assistance when at school to improve on their communication special speech. Teachers and caregivers have a number of assistive technologies that they can use to assist these children. As discussed above one of the very effective and easy to use assistive technology is Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS), though it involves only six stages, they offer the child with the required speech mechanism and enable a student with autism to al least be able to form words and communicate his feelings. Nevertheless, as noted by Charlop-Christy, et al. (2002) this technology can be used together with other technologies for better results.
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Strategy Execution: Building a Balanced Scorecard Case Study
Introduction Strategy execution is the definitive practice for translating a great strategy into improved organizational performance. In strategy execution, cascading corporate goals and measures helps align the entire firm towards the selected strategic direction (Hoque et al. 529). In the present article, the author’s purpose is to explain the latest techniques for designing an integrated strategy cascade tool – the balanced scorecard or BSC – that supports the realization of performance targets and indicators based on past research (Simons 1). The idea of connecting financial and non-financial measures/indicators to strategy through the BSC has been the focus of empirical studies over the past 20 years (Hoque 5). The article’s contributions to this field relate to the alignment of the BSC with “financial, customer, internal business process, and learning and growth” measures for performance tracking (Simons 17). The author is a distinguished Harvard Business School professor who teaches strategy execution to the MBA class. Intended Audience The article is a module reading for a business program. The intended audience is students undertaking programs such as MBA or executive business courses. It illustrates the techniques for building a strategy map and a BSC for effective monitoring of financial and nonfinancial targets – customer, internal process, and learning/growth goals – by future business managers (Simons 17). As the author explains, the teaching module (module 9) presented in this article is a part of a fifteen-module course on strategy execution. He cites “Module 2: Building a Successful Strategy” that focused on the deployment of intangible assets in the strategy execution framework when introducing the concept of the balanced scorecard (Simons 3). The BSC techniques for tracking strategy execution are developed in this module. The aim is to equip the learners with strategy execution skills as well as communication and assignment of accountability to managers. The Author’s Purpose As stated, the author’s purpose is to explicate how to build a strategy map and the BSC model through a synthesis of past research and case studies. His arguments build on the past research and the BSC framework by Kaplan and Norton and involve a consideration of previous modules. The aim is not to refute another author’s argument, but rather to survey research and firms that have implemented the BSC model to explicate the best practices in the choice of strategic goals and measures. To accomplish this objective, the author reviews multiple cases, including ABB Industrie AG, Barclay’s Bank, Boston Retail Company, and Blue Cross Shield. Definition of Important Terms The author gives the definitions of the terms used in previous modules and appearing in the article. The respective modules where each term first appeared are referenced in parenthesis. The author defines 27 important terms used in the article for the reader. The definitions express the concepts relevant to the design and deployment of BSC, as used in the article. They also help distinguish between related terms, such as accountability and accountability systems (Simons 18). All the terms defined are those used in modules 1-8. An example is the term ‘cash wheel,’ which is defined as “a model of the operating cash flow through a business” (Simons 18). Fact or Opinion It is clear from the article that the author is reporting on the facts. While the balanced scorecard is a common concept in literature, the author provides an integrated analysis of the model with illustrative examples and cases. The author supports his arguments with an impressive array of facts drawn from literature and case studies. However, the study relies only on a few past studies/articles to support the arguments. In the background of the analysis, the author skillfully ties strategy execution to the accomplishment of business goals and targets. He begins by saying that an effective strategy execution supports the translation of a strategy into measurable goals/targets and the alignment of the entire firm with these goals (Simons 1). The concept of the balanced scorecard and the steps involved in building the BSC are adapted from Kaplan and Norton’s model. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article contains verifiable information related to the implementation of the BSC. The four steps of this model, i.e., defining the business strategy, building a strategy map, selecting measures for tracking key initiatives, and assigning accountability to managers,” are well supported in the literature (Dechow 514). To support his claims, the author uses reports of real-life cases of companies implementing the BSC in press releases, financial journals, and previous modules. For example, the author uses the Boston Retail case reported introduced in module 1 to illustrate the four perspectives of a strategy map – financial, customer, internal business, and learning and growth – and related measures/goals (Simons 4). Thus, the author’s arguments are grounded in factual concepts and real-world cases. Central Arguments/Conclusions It is clear from the article that the central arguments relate to the utilization of the strategy map and the BSC as important frameworks for translating strategy into superior performance. As such, the author gives a detailed explanation of how to create a strategy map, a subset of the BSC, to track an organization’s performance goals and measures. The four perspectives give a cause-and-effect logic for harnessing organizational resources and staff skills to produce economic value for the firm (Simons 3). The author uses illustrations to elucidate cause-and-effect linkages (strategy maps) between the measures and goals of the four perspectives. In addition, the article uses four case studies to illustrate the key components of the strategy selection process, including goals/measures alignment and best practices in BSC implementation. An example is the BSC implementation approach adopted by the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Alabama that made the healthcare organization to receive a four-star quality rating (Simons 13). Thus, the article’s arguments and conclusions are clearly supported by evidence and analysis. To such a complex concept, the author sums up the module by reiterating the four perspectives involved in developing a strategy map to align the organizational strategy to specified performance goals and measures. Experiment or Study Although the article does not report an experiment or study, it gives an in-depth analysis of the methodology followed by companies in developing a strategy map and BSC. Since it does not involve an empirical investigation, a study methodology and expected results are not given. Rather a theoretical analysis of previous studies and cases is given. An example is the Boston Retail’s strategy map. In this case, Boston Retail’s executives set the financial goal of raising its revenues by “150 percent over the next five years” (Simons 10). To achieve this goal, the firm expanded its store network and improved its supply chain efficiencies. The article further explains the approach followed by the company to develop customer goals. Boston Retail’s initial value proposition focused on female students through affordable fashion. With regard to the internal perspective, Boston Retail reviewed its operations management processes, resulting in improved warehouse efficiencies (Simons 11). In setting up the learning and growth goals, the firm focused on employee training to bolster their capacity to offer quality customer experience. The article offers a clear methodology of how Boston Retail developed the goals for its strategy map. Expected Information or Augmentation The article gives detailed information on how to build a balanced scorecard as would be expected in any work on this topic. Cheng and Humphreys have also analyzed the balanced scorecard framework and the linkages between strategic goals and performance measures as a way of determining the suitability of a firm’s strategy (899). As would be expected, the article follows the four key steps of developing a BSC. Additionally, the article creates linkages between goals and measures in all the four perspectives of a strategy map. The goal-measure linkages support the visualization of the performance of each unit or employee (Chen 68). The BSC developed in this article is based on Kaplan and Norton’s earlier formulation, which also contains the four core steps. Therefore, the article gives the expected augmentation of the key concepts of strategy execution and the balanced scorecard. We will write a custom Case Study on Strategy Execution: Building a Balanced Scorecard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organization of the Article The article is organized in a logical manner. It begins with a brief background to the concept of strategy execution followed by a definition of the balanced scorecard and an explanation of an earlier BSC model by Kaplan and Norton. This academic style is particularly important since the target audience includes students. A brief list of the four key steps followed when implementing the balanced scorecard is given and later explained in detail in subsequent sections. Embedded within the article are relevant case studies that illuminate valid concepts touching on strategy mapping and execution. The objective of any analysis is to improve clarity in the meaning of the concepts/ideas utilized in the BSC framework. The article not only explains the key concepts of the BSC model, but it also develops them with examples and real-world cases. The presentation of the concepts is systematic and easy to follow. The Writer’s Style As already stated, the author begins with a stilted brief background to the concept of the balanced scorecard before delving into the steps involved in building a strategy map, which is the basis for the BSC. It is obvious that his presentation style is formal and academic, hence, well suited for the target audience – MBA students. It does not involve a concise report or an executive summary for corporate use. Further, the author’s use of case studies gives the article an academic flair. He states the expected learning outcomes for students, a key characteristic of MBA courses. The learning outcomes stated include “how to develop a strategy map, how to select and use strategy measures, and how to assign accountability to individual managers” (Simons 1). Further, the author suggests further case studies to help the learner gain more insights into the strategy execution process. The Author’s Language The author gives a balanced analysis of the concepts related to strategy execution through the balanced scorecard. A high level of objectivity is achieved with verbatim statements from managers of the case companies and citations from other studies. For example, when analyzing Barclay’s balanced scorecard, the author quotes its CEO, Andy Jenkins, who exudes confidence regarding better financial prospects for the bank (Simons 6). Inferences on the best practices in building the BSC are made based on the executives’ statements and reports. The case studies also lend the article credence as an objective synthesis of strategy execution in an increasingly competitive environment. It includes exemplars of the actions taken by executives of the firms to realize financial, customer, or internal process goals. For example, CMO of the Boston Retail was able to “identify measures and targets for each objective” using the strategy map (Simons 14). Further, the article focuses on the views of executives of the case companies as opposed to the author’s own views or experiences. However, bias is seen in the choice of sources/references. The author relies heavily on past modules as the source of information for the article. The definitions of the terms used in the article all relate to concepts already used in past modules, i.e., Modules 1-8. Illustrations or Charts The article involved extensive use of charts to illustrate the strategy implementation steps. First, the author provides a chart showing the interrelationships among the four perspectives of a strategy map (Simons 4). The strategy map gives an effective visual representation of the goals and measures related to each perspective. He also explains the cause-and-effect relationships among the perspectives through a chart. A detailed strategy map for Boston is also given, showing the retailer’s approach to strategy execution. It effectively ties the measures to the targets to show how the company tracks performance. Conclusion Without a proper strategy execution approach, corporate strategies are nothing more than superfluous. This paper reviewed an article examining the balanced scorecard and its efficacy as a performance measurement tool. Overall, the author gives a clear and elaborate analysis of the BSC implementation process. He masterfully interprets the strategic concepts relevant to the balanced scorecard approach and supports his analysis with real-world examples. The findings suggest that measures, including non-financial ones, could be tied to a firm’s strategic vision using the BSC. Therefore, the BSC tool can be used to augment traditional performance tracking models that are grounded in financial measures alone. Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategy Execution: Building a Balanced Scorecard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Chen, Clara. “Discussion of: Testing Strategy with Multiple Performance Measures: Evidence from a Balanced Scorecard at Store 24.” Journal of Management Accounting Research, vol. 27, no. 2, 2015, pp. 67-73. Cheng, Mandy, and Kerry A. Humphreys. “The Differential Improvement Effects of the Strategy Map and Scorecard Perspectives on Managers’ Strategic Judgments.” The Accounting Review, vol. 87, no. 3, 2012, pp. 899-924. Dechow, Niels. “The Balanced Scorecard: Subjects, Concepts and Objects – a Commentary.” Journal of Accounting
The enthalpy change at 1 atm of which reaction corresponds to the standard enth
assignment helper The enthalpy change at 1 atm of which reaction corresponds to the standard enth.
The enthalpy change at 1 atm of which reaction corresponds to the standard enthalpy of formation of solid potassium bromate, KBrO3?A.K(g) + Br2(g) + O2(g) –> KBrO3(s)B.K(s) + Br2(l) + O2(g) –> KBrO3(s)C.K(s) + Br(g) + 3O(g) –> KBrO3(s)D.K(g) + Br(g) + 3O(g) –> KBrO3(s)E.K(s) + Br2(g) + O2(g) –> KBrO3(s)
The enthalpy change at 1 atm of which reaction corresponds to the standard enth
WK7 517 Assignment 3 Cost and Quality
WK7 517 Assignment 3 Cost and Quality.
Assignment 3: Cost and
assignment is a continuation and enhancement of Assignment 2.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), and assign resources and cost by using a project
management tool. As the IT project manager, you have been assigned a project to
deploy ten (10) wireless access points in your company’s warehouse and break
room within the next ninety (90) days. You are free to make assumptions that
satisfy the scope of the project such as training, wiring, consulting efforts,
submission will be made in .mpp format and will be graded on the accuracy of
your work package assumptions and duration estimates.
assignment, address the following:
Create 15 or more decomposed work
packages into 4 levels that are assigned to 5 or more main tasks (75 line
Ensure the main WBS tasks headings are
the 5 PMBOK® process areas.
Create a Work Breakdown Structure Code
for each task.
Determine an overall project duration and
duration estimates for each of the tasks. The duration is not to exceed 90
Create accurate work package assumptions
and duration estimates.
Include 7 resources assigned in the
Resource Sheet as “Work” types and 3 resources assigned as “ Material”
Ensure the Resources are paid no more
than $30/hour and that the “Material” cost per use will not exceed
Include your resources and materials from
the Resource Sheet in the task sheet.
Create 10 dependencies in the Task
assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
Microsoft Project or its open source
alternative in .mpp format.
WK7 517 Assignment 3 Cost and Quality
Contemporary management issue
Contemporary management issue.
1- assignment about the management issue i will send all my document in files but i should writ about some company is called schlumberger in Oman, write in general about the subject first then write about the company.2- only you have write about 2 thinks:A- Discussion of business ethics management. (2500 words only) B- Discussion of diversity management programme. There is some point under each subject i will send with the document.3- you have write interdiction , first paragraph , second paragraph , conclusion.4- refrains.5- my assignment when you finish from it i have to submit it in turntin and that websaid its looking or searching in all of my assignment if i take it from if i taken from any resource( internet, students …) so you have be careful in that to not become high parentage.plase i wanna get good mark in this assignment i will send in paper all what you need to do in this assignment and how to get good mark so red full and let me know.i will send links for the schlumberger omani company to take the information from there and for the general information you have look from your recourse. for the Discussion of diversity management programme you have see in this link:http://www.slb.com/search.aspx?q=how%20business%20…for the Discussion of diversity management programme.http://www.slb.com/search.aspx?q=diversity%20manag…page 2 to 6 steps of the assignment page 7 what you have write in my assignment. thank you
Contemporary management issue