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Port Operations, Designing, and Logistics in China Report (Assessment)

Implications of an Uncertain Future on Port Planning and Design Introduction Ports act as economic gateways of various countries. The reason behind this is because they play a key role in the development of both domestic and international trade. According to Bichou, the effective operation of ports is dependent on, among others, the mission statement of the planners (99). It is also noted that the operations of these facilities differ between regions. The differences result from the laws, approaches, and attitudes of specific nations. In the recent past, analysts have shown interest in conducting studies on port development. The scope of research has become a dominant theme in the field of maritime economics. Harlaftis, Tenold, and Valdaliso note that the studies aim at understanding the uncertainties and evolution of the port industry (102). Besides, scholars want to gain more knowledge of the changing role of ports in logistics and supply chains. In this section, the author will discuss a statement made by Taneja et al. regarding the uncertainties affecting port planning (222). Uncertainties Affecting Port Planning and Design In the journal ‘Implications of an Uncertain Future for Port Planning’, Taneja et al. make several observations regarding the future of the maritime industry (224). They note that the uncertainties under which docks operate make planning and designing of these socio-technical infrastructures difficult. Uncertainty refers to inadequate knowledge of past, current, or future events. According to Taneja et al., the port industry is characterized by an evolution of function, logistical, economic, and technological ambiguities (221). The statement by the scholars is true. The reason is that the factors mentioned are linked to globalization and liberalization. In the recent past, the business environment has experienced extensive changes. Analyzing the Uncertainties Mentioned by Taneja et al. (221-245) Evolution of the Functions of the Port Over the past few decades, the maritime industry has experienced extensive transformation. Since the introduction of commercial containers, shipping has become a faster and cheaper way of transporting merchandise from one continent to the other (Pineiro 89). Due to these changes, the functions carried out by ports have evolved. Initially, the role of these facilities was to handle, distribute, and stack merchandise. Today, ports have become multipurpose logistic chains. Transportation of goods in harbors flows from one form to another. In the end, all the flows integrate and then disband. The evolution of functions has become an uncertainty under which the docks must operate. If proper measures are not put in place, the ambiguity makes planning and designing of maritime activities a challenging task. To minimize the complexities, port planning needs to concentrate on flows. Besides, the industry should ensure effective and cheap transportation of goods. Borger and Bruyne note that there will be an extensive growth in containerized traffic shortly (248). Consequently, port managers must ensure that the infrastructure matches the traffic growth. Technological Uncertainties Taneja et al. consider technology to be one of the ambiguities that make planning and designing of ports a challenge. Today, most nations are working hard to introduce new technology into their dock industry. The advancement leads to changes in the shape and texture of the old container terminals. According to Shen, the rapid developments in construction materials and technology impact significantly on planning (65). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The maritime industry has to shift and use emerging technologies to deal with such issues as security, operational effectiveness, and environmental conditions. Also, ports have to focus on acquiring bigger ships, up-to-date cargo handling techniques, efficient data collection and processing frameworks, and new equipment configurations. Harlaftis, Tenold, and Valdaliso support the arguments made by Taneja et al. by stating that contemporary ports must adopt advancements in ICT and use efficient data collection procedures (247). All these changes are aimed at boosting terminal operations. However, the new technological innovations place new demands on port infrastructures. Logistical Ambiguities Taneja et al. consider this element to be an issue that affects planning and designing in the maritime industry (228). Logistics refers to a time-sensitive procedure of the flow of merchandise from one point to another (Taneja et al. 233). According to this definition, logistical ambiguity can be described as the various factors affecting the transportation of goods. It is a fact that the shipping industry suffers from these uncertainties. The problem is caused by such issues as delays, demand and inventory, poor coordination, and delivery constraints. Logistics is an evolving phenomenon (Shen 25). The development is caused by such aspects as globalization, changes in shipping costs, and the desire to venture into new markets. With the innovations in the maritime industry, clients expect reliable, flexible, and precise services. Besides, they need their goods to be delivered at the utmost speed and affordable costs. All the factors associated with logistical uncertainties impact the planning and designing of technical infrastructure in the ports. Economic Uncertainties The constant shifts in the global economy lead to ambiguities in the maritime industry. The primary role of ports is to facilitate international trade. Trade is affected negatively by global recessions. The impacts extend to the shipping industry. Pineiro notes that approximately 90% of the world’s trade is supported by the maritime industry (114). The statistics reveal that shipping is the most common means of ferrying goods. Economic uncertainties cannot be avoided. During severe global recessions, companies tend to lay off container ships and workers. According to Taneja et al., such crises make it a challenge for ports to design and plan socio-technical infrastructures (240). Conclusion The maritime industry is the primary driver of international trade in the world. Despite the various economic gains associated with the industry, the sector is affected by various uncertainties. According to Bichou, the ambiguities impact the planning and designing of port infrastructure (97). Coordination of activities is affected negatively when planning is interfered with. Port Performance Indicators The Use of Port Performance Indicators Performance measurement in ports helps in the management of internal and external pressures. The evaluation is done by collecting data, monitoring, and benchmarking activities (Borger and Bruyne 250). The procedure has various benefits for organizations in the port sector. For example, the information acquired can be used to enhance operations. Besides, the process can provide dock managers with a basis for planning future developments. Port performance indicators are measures of different aspects of facilities and operations in the harbor. To enhance the effective evaluation of the performance of ports and terminals, the selected indicators should be easy to use and compute. The pointers should also provide insight into port management (Harlaftis, Tenold, and Valdaliso113). Different sets of indicators can be used in various ways. One mode is to compare performance with a goal. The second involves monitoring the recital trend. We will write a custom Assessment on Port Operations, Designing, and Logistics in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Various performance indicators can be used to examine the efficiency of ports and terminals. According to Pineiro, each cargo at the dock should have its unique set of pointers (85). The reason is that ships transport different categories of goods. The most common port performance indicators include those associated with the financial, operational, and logistical aspects of the facility. Financial Indicators The pointers are used by dock managers to determine the cost of running operations. Labor and capital equipment are some of the elements that incur high expenditure. Financial indicators are also used to evaluate the total revenues generated from the shipping activities. All the fiscal information is acquired from the accounting systems. According to Bichou, financial indicators are used to identify the areas that need more allocation of resources (117). Operational Indicators The pointers are used to ensure that all activities run as expected. If port operations are not going according to plan, many areas will be affected. One of the elements impacted by an operational failure in the financial sector. The indicator comprises four efficiency parameters (Taneja et al. 237). They include: Output per ship berth-day The constraint is used to determine the average output of each carrier at a berth per day. The output is measured in tons. Idle time at berth The indicator is used to measure the time a ship stays inactive at the dock. Minimal idle time is an indication that cargo handling is done on time. As such, more carriers can be prepared to ferry goods. Pre-berth detention The parameter measures the time vessels wait before they are allowed to access a berth. Turn-round time The indicator defines the time spent by ships in the dock. It is the duration spanning from entry to departure (Harlaftis, Tenold, and Valdaliso 101). Logistics Performance Indicators They are used to measure throughput, maritime, and intermodal connectivity (Borger and Bruyne 260). They are also used to evaluate vessels’ call size and quality of procedures carried out by customs officials. Not sure if you can write a paper on Port Operations, Designing, and Logistics in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Linear Programming for Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric linear programming technique. It is used to evaluate the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) in the transport industry. Calculation In the table provided, there are 7 DMUs to be evaluated. They are represented by n. Each consumes m inputs and produces s outputs. From the statement, it is assumed that DMU1 consumes X1j of output A and produces Y1j of output A. It is also assumed that X1j ≥0, Y1j ≥ 0, and for each DMU there is at least one positive input and output. From these assumptions, the ratio of outputs used to measure the relative efficiency = DMUA = DMU0, the DMU to be evaluated relative to the ratio of all the j = n DMUjs The function to be maximized is: Max h0 = s.t = for j=1,….n max h0 = s.t = for j=7 xij is the amount of inputs i used to obtain Yrj. The amount of output r produced by DMU j, vi, and ur represents the weight allocated to input i and output r. To solve the mathematical problem, the equation is transformed into a linear programming model. Max = . . Ur, vi ≥ 0. . . 38, 16 ≥ 0. The solution to equation 2 is as follows (min ᶱ) . . . . The above equation is a CCR model that portrays the use of an input-oriented approach. The output orientation is depicted as follows: Max ᴓ. . . . . ᴓ is the value of the relative efficiency score for each DMU. To come up with a final solution, the DEA model integrates another constraint: . . Issues Affecting the Chinese Bulk Port Sector Introduction Port developments take place all over the world. The level of growth is determined by a nation’s need to import and export goods. It is also influenced by the desire to acquire and benefit from the growing seaborne trade. Currently, China is the largest shipbuilder in the world (Pineiro 110). Over the past five years, the nation has also reported the highest container-port throughput in the globe. China’s ports facilitate the transportation of such goods as coal and iron ore between the mainland and islands. To keep up with the increasing competition in the shipping industry, China is upgrading its container transport system. In this section, the author will analyze the issues facing the Chinese bulk port sector’s development. Besides, the implications of these phenomena on the government and policymakers will be addressed. Issues Facing the Chinese Bulk Port Sector The Chinese bulk port industry has experienced extensive growth in the recent past. By the end of 2004, the nation’s ports had approximately 2,500 berths (Borger and Bruyne 265). The berths had a combined capability of handling 61.5 million containers. Consequently, China is ranked first in the world in terms of the capacity to handle containers. In 2009, the country’s container throughput registered a 6% decline. Despite the drop, China’s throughput accounts for 25% of the global container share (Shen 36). China continues to dominate the shipping industry. Currently, the country controls the largest share of imports and exports in dry and bulky goods (Pineiro 96). However, various factors affect the bulk port sector. One of the problems is the competition. Chinese carriers faced stiff rivalry from the Brazilian Valemax. Vales are the largest bulk carriers in the world (Harlaftis, Tenold, and Valdaliso 113). Their capacity ranges from 380,000 to 400,000 tons. They are also the longest ships in the world. The vessels were intended to transport iron ore from Brazil to Asian and European ports. Since the launch of Vale operations, Brazil has failed to get clearance to dock in Chinese ports. Due to their large size, the carriers would transport iron at lower prices. To limit the competition, China’s transport ministry banned Vales in 2012. The authorities claimed that the interdiction was based on technical reasons (Shen 40). However, the ban has been lifted. According to Taneja et al., the growth of Chinese iron ore and coastal sectors is facing a downturn (241). The reason is due to stiff competition from neighboring ports. The Port of Rizhao, for example, poses threat to Qingdao. Each dock wants to lead in the iron ore throughput. The rivalry has affected the capability of most ports in north and northeast China to handle bulky goods. Also, all the harbors in the country are competing amongst themselves. Each dock desires to be the ‘pivot haven’ of the industry (Shen 24). Some ports have even violated bans put in place by the state with regards to the acquisition of new ships. One such harbor is Lianyungang. Over the past two years, the haven has obtained two carriers. On its part, Taipingwan went ahead and carried out construction projects without the approval of the Beijing authorities. The reason behind these moves is to stay ahead of rivals. Another issue affecting the Chinese bulk sector is overcapacity. The issue is a major source of concern due to the nation’s slowing economic growth and ongoing capacity additions. Overcapacity is not limited to China’s economic landscape (Pineiro 110). It also affects the global economy. The reason is that congestion leads to increased tension in the trade sector. Some of the harbors suffering from severe overcapacity include Xiamen, Dalian, and Yingkou. Major developments have been taking place in Dalian. Once the project is complete, the port will have the capacity to handle over 300 million tons of goods. Expansion plans lead to increased competition (Bichou 105). On its part, such rivalry results in overcapacity of resources. Another issue affecting the Chinese bulk port sector is the demand for efficient, comprehensive, and high-quality services. To meet the demands, Chinese ports will have to invest more in infrastructure. With the slowing economic growth and downturn in steel production, the nation is at risk of acquiring expensive but empty terminals (Pineiro 95). Implications on the Chinese Government and Policymakers The issues affecting the Chinese bulk port sector have various implications for the government and policymakers. The key players in the maritime industry have to come up with ways to tackle the existing issues. After lifting the ban on Brazil’s Vales, the port industry had to devise ways of keeping up with the competition. Policymakers in the ministry of transport permitted Dalian, Tangshan, and Ningbo-Zhoushan Qingdao to build bigger berths capable of handling the vessels (Harlaftis, Tenold, and Valdaliso 108). In efforts to improve the port industry, the government and policymakers will have to approve the construction of more terminals. The move will facilitate the handling of more goods. As such, pressure from customers will be reduced. Also, the transportation of more commodities will lead to a rise in the growth of GDP (Pineiro 83). The stakeholders will have to devise ways to deter ports from violating the restrictions put in place. Several ports have carried out expansions without authorization. Such moves disadvantage other players in the sector (Bichou 109). Finally, the government and policymakers need to put in place measures to curb excessive competition and overcapacity in the maritime sector. Works Cited Bichou, Khalid. Port Operations, Planning, and Logistics, London: Informa Law from Routledge, 2009. Print. Borger, Bruno, and Denis Bruyne. “Port Activities, Hinterland Congestion, and Optimal Government Policies: The Role of Vertical Integration in Logistic Operations.” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 45.2 (2011): 247-275. Print. Harlaftis, Gelina, Stig Tenold, and Jesus Valdaliso. The World’s Key Industry: History and Economics of International Shipping, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print. Pineiro, Laura. International Maritime Labor Law, Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2015. Print. Shen, Cichen. Port Selection Reveals Beijing’s Concerns about Terminal Overcapacity. 2015. Web. Taneja, Poonam, William Walker, Han Ligteringen, Maurits Schuylenburg and Robert Plas. “Implications of an Uncertain Future for Port Planning.” Maritime Policy

Driverless Cars and Safety Concerns Essay

Driverless cars might soon become mainstream as more transport companies are considering employing the new technology or even doing their research. While the idea of no longer depending on manual navigation seems fairly attractive, one cannot dismiss the risks related to self-driving cars. The infrastructure as it is now is not precisely apt for the use of driverless vehicles en masse. Every human driver is well aware of how unpredictable road trips might be, even if he or she takes a familiar route. While the human brain is flexible and can process unanticipated events, hardware and software can only deal with the situations that they are programmed to handle. A sudden change of weather such as a storm or heavy rainfall might render a driverless car, if not useless, then at least erratic and potentially dangerous in its functioning. The main problem is that the technology might not be robust enough to consider all the possibilities. However, in the future, the application of machine learning might as well make driverless cars safer and their systems “smarter” in a way that they would mimic human reactions to unpredicted events. Another way to make driverless cars safer is to render preliminary training obligatory. Humans tend to perform poorly when they think that they can depend on an automated system. Such an attitude is nothing unnatural, and yet, it might pose an accident risk. For instance, according to the National Transportation Safety Board, the fatal Tesla crash in Florida in 2016 was caused by the driver’s over-reliance on automation. He grew unengaged and inattentive to the road, which resulted in the accident that took his life. Evidently, a self-driving car might be a completely new experience even for a skilled driver. He or she would still have to monitor the work of the system and report errors when necessary, which takes some time and effort. All this could be explained in specialized classes, which would be mandatory in order to gain a license to own a self-driving car. A question arises as to whether driverless cars are even worth developing and deploying given the current challenges. There are definite benefits to owning a self-driving vehicle, such as the ability to do other things while commuting. A person no longer has to concentrate on the road and can manage his or her time more efficiently. Second, driverless cars might make the lives of the elderly and disabled much more manageable by helping them run their daily errands without depending on others. Nevertheless, people will only get to enjoy the advantages of this new technology after better design solutions are applied, and accurate testing is conducted.

Marginal cost and marginal revenue Essay

assignment helper Both marginal revenue and marginal cost determine how the production of an additional unit in an enterprise contributes to the profit of the enterprise. Therefore, they both play an important role in calculating the point at which an organization maximizes its profit. Marginal cost is the amount of money that the enterprise incurs in producing an additional unit while it counterpart, marginal revenue, is the amount of money that the production of an additional unit brings into an enterprise. Companies aim at producing at such an amount that the aforementioned two measurements are equal. This way, the enterprise is at the profit maximization point. “The relationship between these two economic concepts is important because an imbalance on either side can result in production inefficiencies” (Vitez, 2013, p. 1). Such imbalances indicate economies of scale. Scenario Quantity TR (Total revenue) TC (Total cost) MC (Marginal cost) MR (Marginal revenue) PROFIT 0 $0.00 $10.00 $20 $150 -$10 1 $150.00 $30.00 $20 $140 $120 2 $290.00 $50.00 $30 $130 $240 3 $420.00 $80.00 $40 $120 $340 4 $540.00 $120.00 $50 $110 $420 5 $650.00 $170.00 $60 $100 $480 6 $750.00 $230.00 $70 $90 $520 7 $840.00 $300.00 $80 $80 $540 8 $920.00 $380.00 $90 $70 $540 9 $990.00 $470.00 $100 $60 $520 10 $1,050.00 $570.00 $110 $50 $480 11 $1,100.00 $680.00 $120 $40 $420 12 $1,140.00 $800.00 $130 $30 $340 13 $1,170.00 $930.00 $140 $20 $240 14 $1,190.00 $1,070.00 $150 $10 $120 15 $1,200.00 $1,220.00 -$150 -$10 -$20 14 $1,190.00 $1,070.00 ($1,070) ($1,190) $120 Total Revenue to Total Cost In the scenario given for company A, the company maximizes its profit after producing the seventh and eighth additional widgets. This observation is based on total cost and total revenue alone because the difference between Company A’s total revenue and its total cost is the highest at the seventh and eighth additional widgets. Marginal Revenue to Marginal Cost Basing the profit maximization observation on marginal cost and its counterpart, marginal revenue, Company A maximizes its profit after the production of the seventh additional widget. This is because at this point, Company A’s marginal cost has the same value as the company’s marginal revenue. Marginal Revenue Calculation “Marginal revenue refers to the revenue that a company gains after producing one additional unit.” (Moffat, 2013, p. 3). In Company A’s scenario therefore, marginal revenue is calculated by taking the difference between the total revenue reached after producing an additional widget with the total revenue attained after producing the previous additional widget. For instance, the marginal revenue for producing the third additional widget can be obtained by subtracting the total revenue reached after producing the third additional widget with the total revenue reached after producing the second additional widget. That is, MR (3rd widget) = TR (3 widgets) – TR (2 widgets) (Moffat, 2013) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marginal Revenue Increases and Decreases In Company A’s scenario, marginal revenue increases if the discount given for the nth additional widget is less than the discount given for (n-1)the additional widget. If the discount given for the 2nd additional widget is less than that given for the 1st additional widget, then the marginal revenue increases for the 2nd additional widget. In the same way, Company A’s marginal revenue for producing the nth widget decreases if the discount offered on that widget is more than the discount offered on the (n-1)th. Similarly, the marginal revenue for Company A remains constant if the discount given for the nth additional widget is the same as that given for the (n-1)th additional widget. Marginal Cost Calculation “Marginal costs are the costs that a company incurs in producing one additional unit of a good.” (Moffat, 2013, p. 4). In Company A’s scenario, marginal cost is calculated by taking the difference between the total cost incurred after producing an additional widget with the total cost incurred after producing the previous additional widget. For instance, the marginal cost for producing the third additional widget can be obtained by subtracting the total cost incurred after producing the third additional widget with the total cost incurred after producing the second additional widget. That is, MC (3rd widget) = TC (3 widgets) – TC (2 widgets) (Moffat, 2013) Marginal Cost Increases and Decreases In Company A’s scenario, marginal cost for the nth additional widget increases if Company A spends more money on equipment maintenance while getting the supplies for producing that particular additional widget than it does while getting supplies for the (n-1)th additional widget. If the money spent on equipment maintenance while getting supplies for producing the nth widget is less than that spent while getting supplies for the (n-1)th widget, then the marginal cost decreases. If the equipment maintenance cost for making the nth widget is the same as that for making the (n-1)th widget, then the marginal cost remains constant (Moffat, 2013). We will write a custom Essay on Marginal cost and marginal revenue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Where Profit Maximization Occurs Profit maximization for Company A occurs after the production of the seventh additional widget. The reason for this is that at that at the seventh additional widget, the marginal cost is the same as marginal revenue. Marginal Revenue Greater Than Marginal Cost If Company A determines that its MR is greater than its MC, it should continue producing additional widgets until it reaches its point of profit maximization. That is, the company should continue producing until the seventh additional unit. Marginal Cost Greater Than Marginal Revenue If Company A determines that its MC is greater than its MR, it should stop production of additional widgets immediately because this is a sign that the company has passed its point of profit maximization. Reference List Moffat, M. (2013). Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost Practice Question. Retrieved from Vitez, O. (2013). What Is the Relationship Between Marginal Cost and Marginal Revenue? Retrieved from

Paine College Gender Conflict in The Workplace & Conflict Resolution Discussion

Paine College Gender Conflict in The Workplace & Conflict Resolution Discussion.

I am looking for a position paper that focuses on conflict and gender in the workplace. I am a woman if you want to integrate that it would be perfect. Gender roles and race can possibly be a good way to go if you likeabstractapa 7 formatscholarly referencesI can attach a sample paper some wrote last year the professor provided. If needed.Cite Northouse’s Leadership bookInclude Bloom’s taxologyrubric Show Descriptions Show FeedbackCreative expression of YOUR position on given topic demonstrating Bloom’s taxonomy.–Levels of Achievement:Novice 0 (0.00%) – 10 (10.00%)Competent 11 (11.00%) – 30 (30.00%)Proficient 31 (31.00%) – 40 (40.00%)Integration of relevant academic literature and assigned readings within position paper.–Levels of Achievement:Novice 0 (0.00%) – 10 (10.00%)Competent 11 (11.00%) – 20 (20.00%)Proficient 21 (21.00%) – 30 (30.00%)APA-Style–Levels of Achievement:Novice 0 (0.00%) – 5 (5.00%)Competent 6 (6.00%) – 10 (10.00%)Proficient 11 (11.00%) – 15 (15.00%)Writing style, grammar, punctuation–Levels of Achievement:Novice 0 (0.00%) – 5 (5.00%)Competent 6 (6.00%) – 10 (10.00%)Proficient 11 (11.00%) – 15 (15.00%)Name:Position Paper Rubric
Paine College Gender Conflict in The Workplace & Conflict Resolution Discussion

OSU Youth Sports & Contemporary Society Is Sport a Place for Youth Discussion

OSU Youth Sports & Contemporary Society Is Sport a Place for Youth Discussion.

Topics: Youth Sports, Youth in Sports, Is sport a place for youth?Read: *DO NOT OWN BOOK* Sport in Contemporary Society Ch. 4, 5, 6; Fair & Foul Ch. 6 (10th Edition)Author: D. Stanley EitzenWatch: How we can change youth sports culture Kids Quitting Sports of 450 words in length (about 1 ½ pages double-spaced)Essay Prompt:Many children will leave sport altogether, explain why this happens using information from BOTH the videos and the readings. What issues do children face in sport that push them to quit? What conflicts do children face within sport? Can sport change in ways that support the needs to youth athletes? If so, how so, and if not, why not? Use the readings and videos to support your discussion.
OSU Youth Sports & Contemporary Society Is Sport a Place for Youth Discussion