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Political Science homework help

Political Science homework help. Write 150 word response to bold question below, no title page, cite and referenceI am glad you are already noting the difference between what you have seen on TV and what is actually the law. Recently many prosecutors have noted something they call the “CSI effect” on their jurors that is leading to many non-convictions at trial. They say because of the proliferation of fictional shows like CSI people now think science can solve any crime without a doubt. And while this is true in some cases, it s not true in many. Most have to be made with circumstantial evidence.Think back to the Casey Anthony case. Many people were outraged when she was not convicted of murdering her daughter. Many people were upset and confused by the verdict in the case. As some of the jurors have now said, they based their decision on whether the prosecution could prove her guilty “beyond a reasonable doubt.” They cited things like the lack of a time of death, the coroner’s inability to say how the child died, the general lack of any scientific proof linking her to the crime, or even a solid motive on the part of the defendant. They have also said that did not mean they felt she was innocent.So, what does “reasonable doubt” mean? Does it mean any doubt? Does it mean a lot of doubts? Will any alternative theory cause a juror to think twice about a conviction? How can a prosecutor ever prove a case that doesn’t have an eye witness or video tape or DNA evidence – a circumstantial case like the Anthony one? Can a juror have a little doubt and still convict if they can sleep at night thinking they made the right decision? What if it is a death penalty case, as this was? Do jurors interpret the term more strictly? Why?Political Science homework help
Medical Error: Operation Room Essay. In ancient times healthcare was a trial and error process. No one fully understood the scientific basis of healthcare. There were a lot of superstitious practices involved in treating sick people. But when in the aftermath of the modern age, the man began a more scientific approach to life and healthcare. Hospitals were built, and doctors were trained not only to deal with minor healthcare issues but also more complicated tasks such as surgery. Nevertheless, breakthroughs in the field of medicine have not yet eradicated errors in medical care such as the activities performed inside the operating room. One of the best examples to illustrate the cause and effect of medical error in surgery is the case of Tampa surgeon Rolando Sanchez who wrongly amputated the left leg of Willie King. It was on February 20, 1995, when Dr. Sanchez was supposed to amputate the right leg of Mr. King but ended up amputating the left leg” (Banja, 205, p.9). It was not the simple case of having an incompetent doctor in the person of Dr. Sanchez; it was the result of errors made by many people (Banja, 2005, p.9). It was the result of a series of unfortunate events. It is clear from this case study that the negative impact of medical error can result in the pain and suffering of many people (Dhillon, 2003, p.10). Consider its impact on the quality of life of Mr. King, who ended up having both his legs amputated. He could have managed with one leg and walk using crutches but with both legs gone he had to get used to a life on a wheelchair. It was reported that Mr. King did no sue the hospital and Dr. Sanchez. However, documents were obtained showing that the hospital paid Mr. King $900,000 and the medical malpractice insurer of Dr. Sanchez paid an additional $250,000 (Banja, 2005, p.10). This goes to show the effect of medical error. It is not only the patient who will suffer but also the hospital and the healthcare system in general. Money is wasted on suing the doctors and hospitals, and even if there is no legal battle as seen in this case, nevertheless money was spent for the wrong reason when it could have been used to improve hospital facilities (Abele, 2004, p.8). Indirect Cause According to experts: “There is no isolated case of an accident… there are multiple contributors to accidents, only jointly are these causes sufficient in itself to create an accident” (Banja, 2005, p.10). In the case above study, Dr. Sanchez is a competent surgeon, but it was revealed later on that there were errors made in communication, recording, and the lack of checks and balances in the system. It has to be pointed out that the series of unfortunate events can happen before surgery. There is a great deal of preparation that has to be completed before a major operation. One of these is drug ordering and dispensing. If the drugs used in the operating table is not what the surgeon requested, then one can just imagine the adverse effect it can have on the patient. The chemical can cause serious harm to the body. Incorrect records can be a major source of error. The recording of data is important, and there must be a way to secure the records as well as having an efficient way to retrieve it when needed. The error can be in the data collection process wherein names are misspelled, and names of drugs and medicines are not correctly recorded. As a result, the nurses or doctors who relied on these records can easily make mistakes and endanger the lives of the patients. Communication Communication is important because healthcare givers should not assume that everything will go according to plan. It is important for nurses and technicians to communicate with each other. It is also important to have certainty that critical messages reached the intended recipient. However, nurses are sometimes hesitant to inform surgeons of a problem especially when it requires them to point out an error that has been committed by the surgeon. Most of the time, nurses will opt to go through the chain of command (Carroll, 2009, p.97). But this is not the practical course of action. Policy Problems An error can be the result of poor planning and also the creation of a policy that is full of flaws. The only reason why the error did not surface early on in the absence of triggering factors. One of the triggering factors is the sudden surge of patients. In small hospitals such as in rural areas, it is not expected to have multiple patients at the same time. But what will happen if a group of tourists converged in the area and encountered a vehicular accident? The result would be a sudden increase in the number of patients that can easily overwhelm the staff (Senders, 1991, p.38). This problem, however, is not limited to small hospitals. Even in well-equipped big city hospitals, a weakness in the system goes undetected until a series of events forces it to come to the surface. Consider for instance the effect of a blackout in the area. Does the hospital have the capability to deal with this problem? If not, then the system can be overburdened and the equipment in the operating room can be compromised by the lack of electrical power. Lack of Resources Common causes of errors can be attributed to the lack of resources as seen in the following observations: financially unstable hospitals are error-prone and dangerous for surgery; hospitals provide little money and effort when it comes to error prevention; hospitals are hesitant to use information technology such as computerized data management (Clifton, 2009, p.84). It is important to look into legislative changes that are needed to force hospitals to put up the money needed to upgrade their system. If the data shows that hospitals are not inclined to make investments to reduce the risk of errors, then something has to be done before it is too late. This can be achieved by working with local government to help them asses the situation and make recommendations (Jenicek, 2011, p.5). Checks and Balances It is important that the hospital review the specific responsibilities of all the people involved in the operating room including the support group such as nurses and technicians who will help in preparing the room for surgery (Seth, Morris,Medical Error: Operation Room Essay
‘The organization resource management may be defined as the composition of people and tools in any organisation for the attainment of the organisational goals.’ The organisation resource management in star bucks company has achieved greater heights by planning, organising and controlling the resources available within the organisation to achieve its goals. Starbucks is one of the best known and fastest growing companies in the world. Set up in 1971, in Seattle, the company grew slowly initially, but expanded rapidly in the late 1980s and the 1990s. By the early 2000s, the number of outlets reached to about 3000 from 9000 outlets . It was widely believed that the company’s success and rapid growth could be attributed largely to its committed and motivated workforce. This ensured that employees remained motivated, and Starbucks had a relatively low employee turnover However, in the early 2000s, the company faced the challenge of finding and retaining the right number and kind of employees to man its future growth. In January 2005, when Starbucks Coffee Company (Starbucks) was placed second among large companies in the Fortune “Best Companies to Work For” survey Despite the fact that employees, especially those on the frontline, are critical to the success of retail businesses, most companies do not have a strong relationship with their employees, and consequently suffer from a high rate of employee turnover (In the early 2000s, employee turnover in the retail industry was around 200 percent). In this scenario, Starbucks stood out for its employee-friendly policies and supportive work culture. The company was especially noted for the extension of its benefits program to part-time workers – something that not many other companies offered. As a result, Starbucks employees were among the most productive in the industry and the company had a relatively low employee turnover. However, by the early 2000s, three possible problems had to be considered – would the company be able to support its staff with the same level of benefits in the future, given the large increase in the number of employees; would the company be able to retain employees if it made any move to lower its human resource costs by cutting down on benefits; and would Starbucks be able to maintain its small company culture, an important element in its past growth. Starbucks realized early on that motivated and committed human resources were the key to the success of a retail business. Therefore the company took great care in selecting the right kind of people and made an effort to retain them. Starbucks’ recruitment motto was “To have the right people hiring the right people.” Starbucks hired people for qualities like adaptability, dependability and the ability to work in a team. The company often stated the qualities that it looked for in employees upfront in its job postings, which allowed prospective employees to self-select themselves to a certain extent. Having selected the right kind of people, Starbucks invested in training them in the skills they would require to perform their jobs efficiently. Starbucks was one of the few retail companies to invest considerably in employee training and provide comprehensive training to all classes of employees, including part-timers… Analysts said that Starbucks biggest challenge in the early 2000s would be to ensure that the company’s image as a positive employer survived its rapid expansion program, and to find the right kind of people in the right numbers to support these expansion plans. Considering the rate at which the company was expanding, analysts wondered whether Starbucks would be able to retain its spirit even when it doubled or tripled its size. By the early 2000s, the company began to show signs that its generous policies and high human resource costs were reflecting on its financial strength. Although the company did not reveal the amount it spent on employees, it said that it spent more on them than it did on advertising, which stood at $68.3 million in fiscal 2004. That the company was finding its human resource costs burdensome was reflected in the fact that it effected an increase of 11 cents on its beverage prices in mid-2004. Analysts wondered whether the company’s cost problems could be met by a price increase, as customers already paid a premium for Starbucks beverages. On the other hand, it would not be easy for the company to cut down on benefits, as it could result in a major morale problem within the company. A strategic HR plan lays out the steps that an organization will take to ensure that it has the right number of employees with the right skills in the right places at the right times. HR managers begin by analyzing the company’s mission, objectives, and strategies. Starbucks’ objectives, for example, include the desire to “develop enthusiastically satisfied customers” as well as to foster an environment in which employees treat both customers and each other with respect. Thus, the firm’s HR managers look for people who are “adaptable, self-motivated, passionate, creative team members Job Analysis To develop an HR plan, HR managers must obviously be knowledgeable about the jobs that the organization needs performed. They organize information about a given job by performing a job analysis job analysis Identification of the tasks, responsibilities, and skills of a job, as well as the knowledge and abilities needed to perform it. to identify the tasks, responsibilities, and skills that it entails, as well as the knowledge and abilities needed to perform it. Managers also use the information collected for the job analysis to prepare two documents: •A job description job description Outline of the duties and responsibilities of a position., which lists the duties and responsibilities of a position •A job specificationjob specificationDetailed list of the qualifications needed to perform a job, including required skills, knowledge, and abilities., which lists the qualifications—skills, knowledge, and abilities—needed to perform the job Training Regular training to the stuff was the most important key to the success of the company the employees were on a regular knowledge of the latest equipments used in the company. The company spends loads of sum on training of employees. This Mkes the employees more efficient and effective in their tasks. Advantages of training Staff become more competent at their jobs Staff become moer flexible Staff motivation increases Increased productivity Changes become easier to introduce Fewer accidents The organisation’s image improves eg when dealing with customers Reduced waste Disadvantages of training Once fully trained, staff may leave for better paid jobs Financial cost of training may be high Work time is lost when staff are being trained Quality of training must be high for it to have a positive effect
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8–10 slides with speaker notes of 200–250 words per slideYour boss recently attended an accounting seminar at which the balanced scorecard was discussed. He has asked you to prepare a presentation for the next manager’s meeting about the balanced scorecard and how EEC might adopt it. In your presentation, you should complete the following:Define the elements that might be presented in a balanced scorecard. Explain how the elements will be used. Make a recommendation of whether or not EEC should adopt the balanced scorecard. If adopted, how might it improve the company?
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Breach of Data Confidentiality in Healthcare Institutions Essay

Introduction This essay focuses on breach of data confidentiality as a potential source of problems in healthcare institutions. Ensuring data confidentiality in healthcare institutions is a form of creating accountability in care organizations (American College of Healthcare Executives, 2012). The paper looks at causes, consequences, and recommendations on effective management of data. Data confidentiality Poor handling of patients’ confidential data can cause serious problems in healthcare institutions. Therefore, preventing unauthorized access to and improper use of such data are mandatory parts of effective data governance in healthcare institutions. The goal of information confidentiality is to eliminate data security threats such as data loss and unauthorized access to, inappropriate use, and distribution of such data. This is a potential source of reputation and data privacy challenges in healthcare institutions. Causes and Prevention Healthcare institutions experience data confidentiality breach from unauthorized access, manipulation, usage, and distribution. Therefore, healthcare institutions must make sure that data are confidential by providing data security solutions that safeguard, restrict, and prevent unauthorized access to patients’ information. In addition, healthcare should stop any authorized access or use of such information using its internal structures for restrictions. Therefore, in order to ensure information confidentiality in healthcare institutions, there should be several measures to prevent confidentiality breach. First, healthcare institutions should use controlled access systems. This aims at preventing access to information by providing various access levels and authorization. Healthcare institutions should ensure that employees only get access to information relevant to their job categories. Second, healthcare institutions should have restrictions on gaining access to areas and systems with medical records of patients. Third, healthcare institutions should have identification and authentication procedures for their employees. This approach ensures that only people authorized to get access to data do so. It should also implement real-time identity procedures to ensure that only employees with authorization can get access to patients’ information. Fourth, healthcare institutions should have systems that conceal patient’s identity as a way of controlling access to patients’ information. Thus, people can gain access to and use such information without compromising their confidentiality (American Medical Association , 2012). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance of ensuring data confidentiality There are serious ethical and legal consequences of breaching data confidentiality. As a result, ethics and laws about information confidentiality have evolved to protect both patients and institutions. However, healthcare institutions face constant threats from computerized systems as they have changed how people gain access to and use confidential information. Given difficulties with information governance in healthcare institutions, healthcare institutions and their employees should ensure utmost protection of patient confidentiality. Employees in healthcare institutions must ensure that confidential data remain protected always. Therefore, it is the duty of caregivers to let patients know the limits of confidentiality. Thus, patients must make informed decisions about protecting their sensitive information by avoiding disclosure and choice for treatment. Patients also expect their caregivers and physicians to respect their privacy. In other words, caregivers and physicians can only release sensitive medical records with informed consents of patients. It is only important for physicians and caregivers to know laws that involve effective protection of confidentiality, and should not ignore any form of confidentiality breach. This is because even minor cases of confidentiality breach result to mistrust, potential lawsuits together with disciplinary action or dismissal from the job (American Medical Association, 2012). Recommendations for information confidentiality in healthcare institutions Healthcare institutions face many challenges due to confidentiality of information shared across many sections. Human problems and management practices are serious threatens to information confidentiality in healthcare facilities. Therefore, effective information confidentiality and governance should involve the following. Healthcare institutions must educate both their staff and patients about the importance of maintaining information confidentiality. This ensures that people who handle such confidential data understand possible consequences of confidentiality breach. Healthcare institutions must also create systems that guard against any form of breach in confidentiality. This implies that policies and access controls should focus on regulatory and legal benchmarks. This prevents threats to information confidentiality. We will write a custom Essay on Breach of Data Confidentiality in Healthcare Institutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If information governance procedures and access controls will have desirable impacts on healthcare provisions and management activities, then employees will adopt desirable practices when handling data. This improves quality of healthcare and satisfaction of patients. Different units should also align their procedures and information controls with those of the institution. This eliminates cases of unauthorized access to information. This requires all departments to collaborate and create aligned systems of gaining access to information. Healthcare facilities must also develop and implement procedures for reporting any case of breach in confidentiality of information. All parties know severe consequences of information misuse and loss, such as financial, trust, reputation and regulatory. Further, healthcare institutions must also avoid corresponding fines, lawsuits, loss of patients’ confidence, and misuse of information by adopting effective information governance. Therefore, any healthcare institution can reduce cases and impacts of breaches in data confidentiality by implementing appropriate methods of managing and reporting cases of confidentiality breaches. In case of any confidentiality breach, healthcare institutions should have appropriate response mechanisms to confidentiality breach and propose alternative measures to reduce impacts of such cases. References American College of Healthcare Executives. (2012). Top Issues Confronting Hospitals: 2011. Web. American Medical Association. (2012). Confidentiality: Computers. Web. American Medical Association. (2012). Patient Confidentiality. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on Breach of Data Confidentiality in Healthcare Institutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Delaware County Community College Building Relationships and Connecting Essay

custom essay Delaware County Community College Building Relationships and Connecting Essay.

Reading Reflections – You will write a 1-2 page reflection that includes the answers to the questions below for each chapter, section, or article of the course readings. Reflections are not just a summary of what you read but instead answer the following questions.What was the most interesting thing about each chapter in this week’s reading?What implications does each chapter have on teaching and learning?Provide an example of how this might be applied in an early childhood setting for each chapter.What differences did you notice between the two different sections for the different grade levels?Reading Reflection: The First 6 Weeks of School pages 106-142; 162-196; + 2 of this week’s resourcesResources -https://inventionlandinstitute.com/innovation-labs…https://www.edutopia.org/article/funding-your-flexible-classroom
Delaware County Community College Building Relationships and Connecting Essay

Shuzworld Company Evaluation Essay

Workflow at Shuzworld (Discussion and Recommendations) Shuzworld’s case embraces the aspects of workflow. This section of the paper discusses the workflow provisions and provides appropriate recommendations applicable in this context. This will ensure credible workflow augmentation in the Shuzworld Company with specific reference to Chinese plants. For example, the workflow in the production system is not efficient enough to serve growing demands for several types of shoes globally. It is notable that the company takes nearly 46 minutes to produce one Rugged Wear Workboots product. There are recommendation on how this timeframe can be reduced (per process) to ensure efficiency, quality, and enhanced output. Workflow recommendations and Justifications Firstly, it is recommendable for the company to use sound management principles and decision analysis in order to make sense of the available options. Although it is impossible to merge some of the processes due to protocol disparities, it is recommendable to restructure the production line as Catherine Pang drew it on the white board. The company will save time and money as demanded by any proficient workflow. This is a critical provision when considered critically. It is notable that the workflow can either proceed to B or C after passing through process A. Process E and F can also be selected for viability and time factor. Supportively, Shuzworld should use process ACDEGH, which will consume only 36 minutes instead of the current 46 minutes. Thus, it is appropriate to assert that the company should restructure its production line/processes as shown the subsequent output forms. Shuzworld’s Rugged Wear Workboot Assembly Schedule Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Another recommendation is that the company can increase the number of its workstations within china in order to curb the workflow challenges. Additionally, it can purchase more machines that will be able to handle numerous tasks simultaneously. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relying on fewer machines might distract the production system especially when one machine breaks down. Another recommendation is for the company to hire proficient and reliable workforce capable of operating the machines faster and accurately. This will help in enhancing the workflow and other related concerns. Additionally, Shuzworld ought to improve the efficiency of its plants by enhancing competence and providing the correct number of workstations. The company should also schedule the production of new products coherently in order to enhance the workflow. It is also important to enhance the reliability of the three machines meant to produce casual deck shoes. One production process should not interfere with others. Notably, the company has been grappling with the reliability of machines. If one machine breaks down, the production is highly affected. Indeed, no shoes are produced if one machine has a problem. Therefore, there is the need for the company to improve the reliability of the machines in the plant by acquiring other reliable ones. These should be put on standby waiting to replace the broken ones. This will obviously enhance operations and the ultimate output of the concerned operators. Alternatively, the company can hire new employees, train them appropriately, and nurture their workmanship in order to enhance the workflow, productivity, and profitability of the company. This decision will reduce delays, lower labor costs and improved output. With regard to frequent machine breakdowns, the company can acquire new machine models or hire qualified machine repairers then distribute them to different plants for reliability and efficiency. Another recommendation is to assign operators on jobs they know best. We will write a custom Essay on Shuzworld Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of having four operators, whose labor costs shift from one process to another, the company can facilitate the specialization of employees on single jobs. For instance, job machine operator C ought to handle process 1 owing to reduced amounts of costs. Indeed, the company can save at least $3 dollars in this process. Second, Machine operator B ought to handle process 2 due to the cost efficiency as well. Process 3 should be the work machine operator D while the last process should be the work of operator A. Job Machine Operator A B C D 1 $10 $12 $10 $11 2 11 9 11 11 3 9 8 11 9 4 10 8 9 10 Justification Output By improving the company’s workflow, the company will increase its output. At the outset, there will be an apparent and a marginal reduction of labor costs ($4) associated with machine operators. Besides, specialization improves the quality and the flow of work due to the improved skills for the specialists as depicted by Ryan (2009). Second, the company will also enhance its ability to meet its customers’ needs without having by increasing its machines and hiring some skilled professionals. Although the company will incur significant costs by hiring more laborers to handle the new sandal line, it will break even within the second month of operation. Therefore, no customers will be waiting in the line. Below is the output form after the required changes. Copy of the prospected output Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Output for machine operators Job Preferred operator Cost 1 A $10 2 D $11 3 B 8 4 C 9 Work Flow Analysis Tool The Shuzwolrd case demand a viable workflow analysis tool, which addresses all the issues fronted to the new employee ranging from the assembly line issues to inventory challenges. The decision analysis tool was chosen because it was comprehensive and could tackle all the issue that faces the company. Additionally, it could give quick and well-analyzed resolutions to the issue faced within the company and the industry at large. Concurrently, the tool could be used specifically in some areas to address particular issues raised by Cynthia Crowninshield, Alistair Wu, Catherine Pang, and Gloria Rodriguez among others. For example, when analyzing the mall store sales, the tool can prefers on employing one efficient cashier for cost effectiveness. Another reason behind this choice is the ability to attain precise decisions on critical matters. It is important to claim that the analysis tool used in scrutinizing the mentioned workflow and other relevant provision is viable, feasible, and applicable in various contexts. It is from this concern that the entire workflow concerns rest. Not sure if you can write a paper on Shuzworld Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Precisely, the tool used is practicable, considerable and comprehensible indicating its applicability in this context. This is an important consideration. Cost Analysis Analysis of the initial and ongoing costs The entire costs that the company incurs include the costs associated with inefficiencies evident in highlighted workflow analysis ranging from assembly line issues to transportation factors among other provisions. The Maui Sandal Project presents the company with a huge opportunity to improve its global appeal and ultimately its revenues. The production costs of women’s shoes are quite varying. This depends on the four machine operators with regard to which job type each one of them assumes (Fischer, 2008). It is important to assign each operator on a job, which he does best. This will help in reducing the costs indicated upon analysis. Additionally, the transportation costs assumed by each plant while serving each of the three warehouses vary considerably. It is notable from analysis that the cost incurred by Shuzworld F (on a per unit basis) is higher when shipping products to warehouse 3 ($6 per unit). Nonetheless, it is cheaper to move from Shuzworld F to warehouse 1 ($2 per unit). Concurrently, the Shanghai plant incurs a considerable cost when transporting products to warehouse 1 ($4 per unit). It is crucial to note that the three plants can reassign their operations such that each plant ships its products to less costly destinations. Additionally, the plan by the Shanghai plant to increase its capacity from 1300 units to 2800 units translates to additional costs despite the benefits. Nonetheless, demand for more products has not increased as stated by Alistair Wu. The inventory costs are equally infuriating. Shuzworld utilizes 300,000 pairs of shoelaces annually. The cost is estimated at $125 each time an order is made to the supplier. Since the cost of storing shoelaces in inventory is 10 cents a pair, it is improper to stock or purchase more than necessary. This is costly for no apparent reasons. The company will also have to incur set up costs since the batches of sandals will have to begin after setting up the machines. Besides, the costs of designing the efficient processes that will oversee the production of singular units notwithstanding the pairs of sandals that is in a batch (Sharp

Dialogue Definition History Intercultural Dialogue Theology Religion Essay

Dialogue Definition History Intercultural Dialogue Theology Religion Essay. “Like never before, global challenges have local impacts. Local events can have global impacts. This compels us to strengthen cooperation – expand the space for dialogue – and replace barriers of distrust with bridges of understanding.” (Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon) The word dialogue is a combination of the two Greek words: dia, meaning “through,” and logos, interpreted as “word or meaning.” To engage in dialogue is therefore to engage in making meaning through the spoken/written word. The societies cultural environment is changing quickly and becoming more and more diversified. Cultural diversity is an essential condition of human society, brought about by cross-border migration, the claim of national and other minorities to a distinct cultural identity, the cultural effects of globalisation, the growing interdependence between all world regions and the advances of information and communication media. More and more individuals are living in a “multicultural” normality and have to manage their own multiple cultural affiliations. Cultural diversity is also an economic, social and political plus, which needs to be developed and adequately managed. On the other hand, increasing cultural diversity brings about new social and political challenges. Cultural diversity often triggers fear and rejection. Stereotyping, racism, xenophobia, intolerance, discrimination and violence can threaten peace and the very essence of local and national communities. Dialogue between cultures, the oldest and most fundamental mode of democratic conversation, is an antidote to rejection and violence. Its objective is to enable people to live together peacefully and constructively in a multicultural world and to develop a sense of community and belonging. 2.1.1. Definition In political parlance, the term “intercultural dialogue” is still only loosely defined. There is no accepted definition for Intercultural Dialogue. The term is an adaptation from other terms, all of which remain current, such as multiculturalism, social cohesion and assimilation. One of best formulation at the moment is perhaps the terminology used by the Council of Europe in its White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue, which states: “Intercultural Dialogue is understood as an open and respectful exchange of views between individuals and groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds and heritage […] that leads to a deeper understanding of the other’s global perception” In this definition, “open and respectful” means “based on the equal value of the partners”; “exchange of views” stands for every type of interaction that reveals cultural characteristics; “groups” stands for every type of collective that can act through its representatives (family, community, associations, peoples); “culture” includes everything relating to ways of life, customs, beliefs and other things that have been passed on to us for generations, as well as the various forms of artistic creation; “world perception” stands for values and ways of thinking. In a general sense, the objective of intercultural dialogue is to learn to live together peacefully and constructively in a multicultural world and to develop a sense of community and belonging. Intercultural dialogue can also be a tool for the prevention and resolution of conflicts by enhancing the respect for human rights, democracy and the rule of law. More specifically, the following goals have been outlined by the Council of Europe: To share visions of the world, perceptions of the world, to understand and learn from those that do not see the world with the same perspective; To identify similarities and differences between different cultural traditions and perceptions; To achieve a consensus that disputes should not be resolved by violence; To help manage cultural diversity in a democratic manner, by making the necessary adjustments to all types of existing social and political arrangements; To bridge the divide between those who perceive diversity as a threat and those who view it as an enrichment; To share best practices particularly in the areas of intercultural dialogue, the democratic management of social diversity and the promotion of social cohesion; To develop jointly new projects, new pratices, new concepts, new filosofies; Easier than a definition is a description of the conditions, the “enabling factors” that characterize a true, meaningful intercultural dialogue. Based on existing experience, the Council of Europe propose at least six crucial conditions that must be fulfilled from the very outset, or achieved during the process: Equal dignity of all participants; Voluntary engagement in dialogue; A mindset, on all sides, characterised by openness, curiosity and commitment, and the absence of a desire to “win” the dialogue; A readiness to look at both cultural similarities and differences; A minimum degree of knowledge about the distinguishing features of one’s own and the “other” culture; The ability to find a common language for understanding and respecting cultural differences. But It should be remembered which is in the root of the concept of intercultural dialogue, it is based on human dignity, thinking and democracy. It privileges human beings and considers humanity at a central point. It enhances the role of each individual in the structure of the world, despite their differences in, among many things, language, race, color, tribe, religion, and nationality, they enjoy a variety of potential capabilities and talents that complement each other. [1] Today’s society has a new dynamic in itself. It is characterized by cultural diversity and proximity between cultures. There is no more cultural isolation, every culture is near each other, they interact with each other, they share ideas and thoughts, and is through that, though the contact with the other that the self can describe himself. The encounter is inevitable, and in every encounter there is communication, expression of the inner world, of the attitude towards the other. And it is not limited to the verbalization, but all the different and unique languagues that people use to contact to each other in every encounter: with the face, the reaction, the gesture, the way we look. Before the first word is said, a inner world is been exteriorised, transmitted to the other. (Banús, Enrique) The world is much closer right now. Every moment of life, every daily-life situation can be transformed, or not, in intercultural dialogue. In a certain sense, every contact is an intercultural contact – because culture is essentially linked to the human being (Banús, Enrique). Culture is preserved by articule 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [2] , but not only that, it is a natural element of human life: is the way people express themselves, the way they think, they love, they hate – it’s in every aspect of the human existence. It’s “the «cultural world» of everyone, a «cultural world» made by a very complex – a very rich – mixture of elements, coming from different traditions and from our own way of life, our own biography. The «cultural world» is a very personal one.” (Banús, Enrique) The comunication is a the base of human behaviour, the social space, is the space of communication, the space of normal social life, which is made by the net of messages we are sending and receiving, we are coding and decoding. And because we are carrying our «cultural world» with us, all these messages are cultural messages, and all the dialogues are intercultural dialogues. (Banús, Enrique) The contact with other human beings is a integral part of the everyday life, and in that contacts, our «cultural world» is meeting other «cultural worlds». And there a fullness of communications is established: greetings, looks, conversations. These contacts are sometimes more cordial, sometimes cool, according to the part of the space everyone shares with this concrete «other». (Banús, Enrique) “Intercultural dialogue is maybe not only an art, but also a change of paradigm, because it means to overcome the normal procedures, the normal strategies for mental survival in a complex world.” (Banús, Enrique) And, by the necessity of contact, of communication, prejudices and stereotypes are built naturally, by experiencing/confirming «our» – collective – identity in antagonism to «the other». This is a very common procedure to experience collective identity.(Banús, Enrique) Intercultural dialogue is in this sense a change of paradigm, the recognition that «the other» is not only a threatening antagonist, but a necessary complement; in the dialogue the identity is experienced, precisely in the capacity to establish a dialogue everyone is realising his or her «being himself or herself» – and, of course, he or she is clarifying his or her thoughts when expressing them to «the other»(Banús, Enrique). All the mentioned tendencies of seeing antagonisms between «identity» and «alterity» are paradoxically reinforced in societies, like nowadays, in which the dominant presence of the state is crumbling away15, with (partially strong) regional/national movements within the states and with a globalisation and interrelation which also diminish the state’s power. (Banús, Enrique) Moreover, the societies are also becoming diverse in themselves, in their inner structure: squares and places are not only «ours», but reflect the world plurality. The local level is approaching the global level. This can create uncertainty, and new forms of collective identity have become popular – so that aforementioned «cultural identity», which seems to forget that «culture» is at first a personal right and a personal quality, and sometimes gives priority to the constituency of the group and not to the personal realisation of a human being. (Banús, Enrique) Intercultural dialogue seems to suggest that culture is always and every time a positive manifestation of the human spirit. After the 20th century with its Auschwitzs and Gulags a naive exaltation of culture and also of dialogue is no more possible. The culture includes the best and the worst made by the human being – and all that what lies between the best and the worst.(Banús, Enrique) So, talk about intercultural dialogue include discussing the transmission of the necessary critical sense to avoid cultural relativism and to combine tolerance and intolerance, to reinforce the capacity to overcome distances and build bridges. History On the stage of international politics, intercultural dialogue first made appearance in explicit reaction to Huntington’s theory, Clash of Civilization. It was by the then President of Iran, Mohammad Khatami, who used the term of “dialogue among civilisations” [3] in a speech to the General Assembly of The United Nations On the 4th November 1998, the General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution that designated 2001 as the Year of the ‘Dialogue among Civilizations’. In the same year, on 11 September, with the attacks to the United States, leaving forgotten the “Year of the Dialogue among Civilizations”, on the contrary, it gave more visibility to the future wrote by Huntington, what rest of that year was an atmosphere of fear, mistrust and war. Several years later, on 2004, a new UN initiative was launched under the title “Alliance of Civilizations”, composed of mostly states, and also several international organizations, was established to support an initiative in fostering global cooperation on cross-cultural issues and to promote initiatives aimed at encouraging dialogue and building bridges among societies and communities. In the meanwhile, the question has become a major focal point for the activities of UNESCO. UNESCO see’s the cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue is one of the main pillars of UNESCO’s action. ‘Safeguarding and promoting cultural heritage as a shared resource for dialogue and sustainable development, fostering creative diversity, countering ignorance and intolerance, strengthening intercultural competences: all play a determinant role for intercultural dialogue. Within this larger framework, which also encompasses interreligious dialogue, special focus is placed to encourage cultural pluralism at the local, regional and national level as well as regional and sub-regional initiatives, highlighting the importance of transfers and exchanges between cultures.’ [4] And by reaffirming the importance of culture, UNESCO adopted ‘The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity’ at the UNESCO General Conference in November 2001(UNESCO, 2002) and reaffirmed more recently by the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (UNESCO, 2005). It views cultural diversity as the common heritage which unites humanity, a source of individual but also collective wealth. It is “as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature”, is part of the democratic framework of society, and one of the roots of economic as well as personal development (UNESCO, 2002, Articles 1, 2Dialogue Definition History Intercultural Dialogue Theology Religion Essay

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