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This task is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents and is based on the accompanying documents (1–6). Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account both the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Directions: Read the documents in Part A and answer the questions after each document. Then, read the directions for Part B and write your essay.

Historical Context: The idea of revolution spread worldwide during the first global age. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and geography, write an essay in which you discuss the political, economic, and social conditions that led to political revolutions in the first global age. PART A: SHORT ANSWER [pic] Document #1 “Simon Bolivar sent a joyous letter to a fellow general on January 8, 1822, displaying his belief in a unified America. He wrote, “America’s greatest day has not yet dawned.

We have indeed driven out our oppressor, smashed the tablets of their tyrannical laws, and established legitimate institutions; but we have yet to lay the foundation … that will make of this part of the world a nation of republics. ” Bolivar was confident that this unified America would impress Europe.

The levying of money for … the use of the crown … without grant of Parliament … is illegal. The raising and keeping of a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace unless it be with the consent of Parliament is against the law. The speech and debates … in Parliament ought not to be … questioned in any court or place out of Parliament. … Excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. ” —Bill of Rights, England (1689) “Men are born free and remain equal in rights. … Law is the expression of the general will.

Every citizen has a right to participate personally or through his representative in its [the law’s] formation. … All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law … no person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. No one shall be disquieted [attacked] on account of his opinions, including his religious views. … Every citizen may speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. ” —Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, France (1789)

“Congress shall make no law respecting [having to do with] an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging [taking away] the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government. … No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner. … … Nor shall [any person] be compelled … to be a witness against himself … … the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury … ; to be confronted with witnesses against him.

“The reason men enter into society is to protect their property. And the reason they choose a government is to make laws to guard that property. … Certainly society does not want to give the government the power to destroy the very property which it was chosen to protect. Therefore, whenever government tries to take away and destroy the property of the people, or reduce the people to slavery, it puts itself in a state of war with the people. The people are freed from any further obedience to that government … and have the right to establish a new government.

Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690) “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government.





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White Privilege and Colorism

America has made great strides toward racial equality since the end of slavery. However, several racial problems persist, and they include white privilege. White people continue to have an advantage over certain opportunities compared to people of color. This essay will discuss the issue of white privilege and colorism in America. This will be achieved by defining the terms and giving examples to illustrate the problems in society.

White privilege refers to the advantages possessed by white people based on their race in a society plagued by racial injustice and inequality. Collins (2018) note that white privilege is described using Peggy McIntosh’s essay published in 1988. This essay illuminated white privilege by making the problem tangible and personal. Indeed, white privilege is a concept that has become a victim of its connotations. The term contains two words that have a double whammy, which instigates pushback. The first word “white” creates discomfort among people who loathe being defined by their race. The second word, “privilege,” make rural and poor white people feel like the term doesn’t belong to them (Collins, 2018).

A white person’s whiteness comes with an array of benefits not shared by people of color. Examples of being denied privilege due to color can be illustrated by the relationship between the community and the police. The whites have the privilege of not fearing the cops while people of color fear them. When white people see the police, they are filled with relief and gratitude as police ensure that they are safe and their rights protected. However, people of color have a strained to a fatal relationship with law enforcement. Edwards (2018) note that police officers have killed 52 unarmed black men. This number contains cases that were highly publicized by the media and the internet. This number shows the privilege enjoyed by white people as they can run towards law enforcement officers to seek help while people of color have to hide when they see then.

Collins (2018) posit that the ability to accumulate wealth has an element of white privilege created by systemic and overt racism in the private and public sector. He references the report by Pew Research Center in 2014. The report showed that white households had an average net worth of $141,900, blacks $11,000, and Hispanics $13700. The disparity indicates that whites have a higher earning power compared to other people of color. White privilege gives white people an advantage in the job market, and this is reflected in their net worth.

Some privileges change with social context as one moves from one place or social setting to the other. For instance, most restaurants and schools have embraced equity. Everybody in these places is accorded equal treatment, and white who are used to living a privileged life has to adapt to the new dynamic in these places.

Colorism is a term that was first coined by Alice Walker in 1982. She defined the tern as “prejudicial or preferential treatment of same-race people based solely on their color” (Norwood, 2015). An example of colorism is when a firm that only hires black people of lighter complexion.

In conclusion, colorism and white privilege continue to be a significant problem in many parts of the world. White people continue to have many advantages that stem from their skin color while people of color struggle to make ends meet. Indeed, certain skin tones are preferred, and this is why people are spending a lot of money on skin lightening and skin tanning to achieve a particular shade. Colorism has idealized that certain skin shades are better than others, which has resulted in discrimination.


Collins, C. (2018) What is White Privilege Really? Available at:

Edwards, H. (2018). The White Privilege of Not Fearing the Police. Available at:

Norwood, K. J. (2015). If you is White, you’s alright: Stories about colorism in America. Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev., 14, 585.