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Policy Position on Energy Development Compare and Contrast Essay

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to contrast the policy positions of President Barrack Obama and Mitt Romney on energy development. In the 2012 US presidential campaigns, these leaders have promised to implement various policies in the energy sector if elected as the next president. Following his election in 2008, President Obama focused on developing clean energy. This strategy was meant to reduce the use of oil in the US and to improve the quality of the environment. In 2011, Obama developed a master plan that will enable the US to double its production of renewable energy. According to this master plan, 80% of the country’s electricity will be produced through clean energy sources such as nuclear and natural gas (Jindal, 2012). The president has also offered grants and tax credits to support the development and use of alternative energy. In early 2012, Obama modified his energy policy by opting to exploit all sources of energy. Romney’s policy, on the other hand, focuses on reforming regulations in the energy sector. Furthermore, he advocates for increased production of energy at the local level. Romney has promised to streamline rules that are used to control pollution in the fossil fuel industry. Unlike Obama, Romney has called for increased production and use of oil and gas. He argues that the fossil fuel industry has the potential of creating more jobs (Murray, 2012). Despite these differences, the two candidates agree that dependence on oil imports should be reduced. Additionally, they agree that the energy sector should be expanded in order to facilitate economic growth. Since energy development is a broad topic, this paper will focus on the candidates’ positions on the Keystone pipeline project and ANWR. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Keystone Pipeline Project The Keystone pipeline is a transport system through which crude oil will be transported from Canada to various locations in the United States. The oil will be transported through a pipeline that connects the two countries. The transport system will cover approximately 3,461 kilometers. Figure 1 shows the proposed route of the pipeline, whereas figure 2 shows a section of the completed phase. The project was adopted in 2010 by the government of the US and Canada to facilitate economic growth through expansion of the energy sector. Concisely, Canada will benefit by increasing its oil exports to the United States (Jindal, 2012). Additionally, it will be able to use various ports in the US to export its oil to other countries. The United States, on the other hand, will benefit by accessing enough oil to satisfy its growing energy needs. Furthermore, transporting oil through the pipeline is considered to be relatively safe. The project is also expected to create jobs in both countries. In the United States, the project has temporarily been stopped due to economic, political and environmental concerns. The policy positions of the two presidential candidates on the project are summarized in table 1. Figure 1: Map of the Keystone Pipeline Route Figure 2: Completed Section of the Pipeline We will write a custom Essay on Policy Position on Energy Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Table 1: Positions on Keystone Pipeline Obama Romney Has opposed the project by suspending its implementation Has strongly supported the implementation of the project Argues that the project has potential environmental impacts such as air and water pollution, as well as, destruction of wildlife and their habitats Argues that the potential environmental impacts can be addressed effectively. Thus, the project should not be stopped due to the expected environmental effects Believes that developing alternative energy sources can create more jobs than the Keystone project Believes that the Keystone project is likely to create more jobs than the clean energy sector Believes that the project will increase USA’s dependence on imported oil Believes that the project is necessary since USA’s demand for energy is increasing. Thus, more oil will still be imported even if the project is abandoned Argues that the project is likely to serve the interest of Canada at the expense of the US Argues that the US will be the gainer since it will access reliable supply of oil and create more job opportunities President Obama’s Position President Obama has postponed the implementation of the project due to rising concerns about its potential impacts to the environment. Environmentalists believe that the project is likely to cause air and water pollution. Additionally, the construction of the pipeline will lead to the destruction of wildlife and their migratory routes. According to the original plan, the pipeline will pass through wetlands such as the Sand-hills in Nebraska. It will also cross important reservoirs such as the Ogallala Aquifer which supplies water to more than two million citizens. Thus, any oil spills will lead to massive water pollution. These fears are exacerbated by the fact that the pipeline will pass through regions which are susceptible to high intensity earthquakes. An oil spill is likely to occur if the pipeline is destroyed by earthquake or seismic activities. The process of mining tar sands will also lead to the destruction of ancient forests. Besides, the process will create large pits which are health hazards. Empirical studies indicate that using the oil is likely to cause acidic rain which is harmful to both wildlife and the human population. Moreover, acidic rain will affect fisheries if it finds its way into lakes and oceans. Obama and his fellow democrats believe that the project will only serve the interest of Canada. In a nutshell, transporting the oil to the Gulf Coast will lead to its exportation to Asian markets. Consequently, it will not help the United States to improve its fuel independence. Selling the oil in the United States is expected to increase the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. This contradicts Obama’s initial energy policy which focuses on replacing the use of fossil fuels with clean energy. Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Position on Energy Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, Obama believes that alternative programs such as implementing the new automobile mileage standards will be desirable. These programs will not only reduce carbon emission, but will also create more job opportunities in the automobile industry. According to Obama, a thriving alternative energy sector is likely to create more jobs than the Keystone project. Additionally, developing the clean energy sector is the best way of ensuring reliable energy supply. Fuel price is not expected to reduce after the construction of the pipeline since oil prices are controlled by forces of demand and supply in the global market. In this regard, the project will have little contribution in the process of economic growth and job creation. Engineers in the energy sector have warned that the project can lead to over capacity in the oil industry. After completing the project, most pipelines in the United States are expected to operate at half capacity. Constructing a pipeline that is expected to be underutilized is a sign of resource misallocation. Consequently, the country’s scarce resources should be used for other viable projects rather than the Keystone pipeline system. Romney’s Position Romney acknowledges the fact that the project is likely to cause environmental pollution. However, he argues that the best solution is to find ways of addressing the pollution rather than abandoning the project. In this context, he has promised to streamline regulation in the oil industry in order to promote safe production and use of fossil fuels (WSJ, 2012). The communities which are likely to be affected by the project will be compensated. For instance, land owners will receive compensations for their properties. Thus, the project will not cause losses to the affected communities. According to Romney, abandoning the project will expose the United States to higher environmental risks. More oil has to be imported in order to meet the growing demand. However, the existing pipelines are facing capacity constraints. Thus, abandoning the project will necessitate transportation of oil through trains and trucks. These alternative transportation methods are likely to cause high pollution through greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, transporting oil by road or railway systems is likely to cause more accidents than the pipeline. Transport economists argue that transporting oil through a pipeline costs less than using trains and trucks. Hence, the project will lead to significant cost savings which will promote economic growth. Romney’s support for the project is also based on the premise that Canada is the most reliable supplier of oil to the United States. Oil supplies from Venezuela, Mexico, as well as, Nigeria is expected to reduce in the next decade due to declining production. However, oil production in Canada is expected to increase in the next decade. Consequently, it will be in the interest of the United States to secure oil supply from Canada. This will help in avoiding future oil shocks. Romney and his fellow republicans have dismissed claims that the pipeline will serve the interest of Canada at the expense of the United States. The project is expected to create more construction jobs than any project in the energy industry (Murray, 2012). Given the current economic decline, the jobs will help thousands of Americans and businesses to fulfill their financial dreams. Romney argues that the oil from Canada will still be exported to Asian markets even if the project is abandoned. Canada has the potential of using alternative routes to export its oil to overseas markets. Thus, constructing the pipeline will enable the US to generate revenue by allowing Canada to export oil through the Gulf Coast. The revenue will be generated through the fees that Canada will pay for the use of USA’s portion of the pipeline and other facilities such as ports. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) ANWR is located in the northern part of Alaska. It is a protected wildlife refuge that supports thousands of plant and animal species. Figure 3 shows part of the refuge. Some of the most common animal species in the refuge include polar bears, lemmings and caribou. The refuge is one of the most important tourist attractions in America. Apart from providing habitats for wildlife, the refuge also holds large amounts of oil deposits. Over two billion barrels of crude oil can be obtained in this region. The presence of oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge has generated debate on the future use of the land in which it is located. Some industrialists and political leaders believe that the oil should be drilled in order to meet the country’s energy demands. However, drilling oil in the refuge will lead to destruction of wildlife and environmental pollution. It is against this backdrop that most environmentalists oppose any attempts to drill oil in the region. The positions of President Obama and Romney on ANWR are summarized in table 2. Figure 3: Part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Table 2: Positions on ANWR Barrack Obama Mitt Romney Has opposed oil exploration in ANWR in his 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns Has openly supported exploration and drilling of oil at the ANWR in his presidential campaigns Argues that alternative energy sources such as wind, solar and nuclear should be used to enhance USA’s energy independence Argues that drilling oil in ANWR will help in achieving his ‘no regrets’ energy plans. In a nutshell, it will help in improving America’s energy independence Supports the view that oil exploration in ANWR will lead to destruction of wildlife and cause environmental pollution Acknowledges the fact that oil exploration in ANWR has negative environmental effects. However, he intends to introduce measures such tax incentives on fuel efficient cars in order to protect the ecosystem Supports the implementation of policies that encourage protection of the environment including the ANWR Has promised to eliminate regulations that hamper exploitation of fossil fuel resources including oil exploration in the ANWR Argues that oil reserves at the ANWR are not sufficient for long term supply. Hence, he recommends long term solutions Argues that oil supply from ANWR will supplement other oil and energy sources. Thus, it will help in reducing oil imports Obama’s Position President Obama has always opposed oil exploration at the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge due to the following reasons. The president supports the view that drilling oil in the refuge will cause serious environmental problems such as air pollution and destruction of the ecosystem. It is apparent that oil exploration activities in the refuge will cause destruction to wildlife and their habitats. Environmental studies have revealed that oil exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will cause irreversible damage. This means that rehabilitating the refuge after the depletion of the oil deposits will not be possible. Thus, stopping the exploration is the best way to protect the refuge. According to Obama, oil production in the ANWR has little economic value. The refuge can not produce enough oil to support economic activities in the United States for a long time. Besides, the oil will not have any effects on the international oil prices. Thus, the United States will still experience difficulties in production due to high oil prices. In this regard, drilling oil in the ANWR will not help in solving America’s energy problems. Whereas the economic benefits of the oil are expected to be little, the cost of the exploration is expected to be very high. The government will spend billions of dollars to extract the oil. Additionally, the damage costs resulting from the pollution that will be caused by the exploration are expected to be high. Hence, drilling oil at the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will be a net loss to the society. Obama has always proposed the use of alternative energy sources instead of drilling oil at the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Since 2008, the president has promoted the use of ethanol, as well as, liquid coal. The president has been implementing policies that facilitate conservation of the environment such as using energy efficient cars. These measures are expected to help the US to manage the effects of global warming such as climate change. According to Obama, America can only sustain its economic prosperity if it focuses on the use of sustainable energy sources. Thus, his opposition to short term solutions such as drilling oil at the ANWR becomes apparent. Energy economists argue that short term solutions will worsen the country’s energy problem. This argument is based on the premise that short term solutions enable the country to solve its current energy problems. However, they deny the country the opportunity to focus on long term solutions which are commercially viable and sustainable. Romney’s Position Romney’s support for oil exploration in the ANWR is underpinned by his ‘no regret’ policy on energy development. According to Romney, reliable and adequate supply of energy can be achieved if all energy sources are exploited. Thus, his energy plan focuses on the development of both renewable and non-renewable energy. Additionally, he argues that dependence on oil imports can be reduced or eliminated by increasing investments in domestic energy production. Importing oil is undesirable since the government has little control over the supply. Besides, Americans can be exploited through high prices if the country continues to depend on imported oil. It is against this backdrop that Romney argues for the oil exploration in the refuge. According to Romney, most states are grappling with unreliable and inadequate oil supply. In the last decade, industrial activities have increased in most states. Additionally, the growth in population has led to an increase in the number of vehicles in the United States. These trends are partly responsible for the limited availability of oil in America. Oil supply from the refuge will, at least, help in meeting the current demand. He also points out that most states, especially, in the northern part of America have been unable to use alternative energy sources such as wind due to legal, political and economic reasons. Hence, it will be in the interest of such states to access oil from domestic sources such as the ANWR. Romney has promised to streamline regulations in the energy sector in order to facilitate oil drilling in the ANWR and any other part of the country. His regulatory reforms include fast-tracking the process of issuing permits to oil companies. This will help in reducing any delays in oil production. He is intending to repeal legislations that hamper oil production in various parts of the country (Murray, 2012). The targeted legislations include the Clean Air Act, as well as, the Clean Water Act. Finally, Romney agrees with environmentalists on the environmental impacts of drilling oil in the ANWR. However, he argues that the exploration should be done in a safe and responsible manner in order to avoid the expected negative effects (Murray, 2012). According to Romney, protecting the environment should not jeopardize economic development. Hence, the government should focus on drilling oil at the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The expected effects on the environment can be addressed through policies that encourage safe production and use of oil. For instance, only accredited companies should be allowed to drill the oil in order to minimize pollution. Conclusion President Obama’s policy on energy development focuses on the production of clean energy. Obama supports the production and use of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. His position has been informed by the need to protect the environment from the adverse effects of energy production (Jindal, 2012). Consequently, he has opposed the construction of the Keystone pipeline. He has also opposed oil exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Romney, on the other hand, focuses on promoting energy independence in the United States. His energy development policy advocates for the exploitation of all energy sources. This strategy will help in increasing access to cheap and reliable energy. Consequently, he supports the construction of the Keystone pipeline and oil exploration in the ANWR. Despite these differences, the two leaders agree that energy production in the US should be increased. Moreover, reliance on imported oil should be reduced. References Baumeister, C.,
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online homework help create an outline. I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better.

Imagine you are conducting an educational group session for families that have experienced domestic violence, abuse, or neglect.
Create an outline of a 1-hour session that details your counseling plan for this session. Include the following:

A desired client outcome from the session
A detailed outline of how you will use the time
Information you will present in the session, along with bullet points of specific topics

A 175- to 350-word justification for the information you will present and how it will help you obtain the desired client outcome. Use a peer-reviewed journal article or the text book to substantiate your decisions.

A description of any interventions and activities that will occur in the session

A 175- to 350-word justification for the interventions or activities and how each will help you obtain the desired client outcome. Use a peer-reviewed journal article or the text book to substantiate your decisions.

A brief description of how you will close the session

Include a minimum of 2 peer-reviewed references.
Format references in your outline according to APA guidelines.
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Critically Evaluating Hocketts Definition Of Language English Language Essay

There are 2 main disciplines that study the phenomenon that is language; linguists and psycholinguists. Language can have many meaning and therefore is hard to specifically define. For some language may be specific to humans, for other language could describe any communicative system between the same species. Hockett (1960) attempted to avoid this dilemma of defining language by defining a list of features which all human languages have. (Harley, 2001). The first feature is that a language uses the auditory vocal channel in order to broadcast a message to others. This is a feature we share with many other animals, for example vervet monkeys use alarm calls to communicate with others (Hauser, 1998). However a major criticism of this feature is that people can use sign language order to compensate for their inability to use the auditory vocal channel; we cannot simply discount this as language. Written language is also excluded by this feature, and by many others that Hockett defined, despite the fact that written language is a huge part of what makes humans so distinct to animals (Lock

Child Abuse Types and Features: Literature Review

Child Abuse Types and Features: Literature Review. An ugly word that has manifested into action and has resided in the homes of many today (specifically in north America) is abuse. Abuse takes many forms and leaves its mark in many different ways. In addition to this, abuse also often occurs between people who are close to each other (within the family), which would say that domestic abuse is most common in our society. Although abuse is certainly not restricted to the family, this paper will examine the different ways that abuse takes place within the context of children being the victims. The biggest issue that takes place is child abuse is that fact that a child seeks after security. Proof of this is seen how children cling on to a security blanket, or a teddy bear or rag doll that they drag around with them wherever they go.1 In other words, children who have been or who are being abused receive the exact oppose of what they truthfully desire and need. With this, the focus will be centred towards the physical and emotional effects of physical abuse and sexual abuse amongst children. This topic is certainly a sensitive topic for many, and this paper will even contain personal stories of individuals that have become victims to all kinds of abuse. To understand abuse, we must firstly understand how abuse actually works. It is common for people to find themselves in an abusive relationship. Although, it is interesting to note that people who are in abusive relationships tend to either stay in that relationship or leave and find themselves in the same situation with another individual. Why does this occur? Why do people stay with those who are abusive towards them? This is commonly seen in marital relationships, but it is interesting to note that it is applicable to a parent-child relationship, because there is a cycle, and it’s referred as the cycle of abuse. When dealing with physical abuse, this occurs in a cycle of three phases. It begins with a tension-building period, then an acute battering incident, and concluding with a reconciliation/loving phase. Nevertheless, generally speaking, the abuse tends to have a pattern of getting worst and worst.2 Although, it all begins at the first stage. Tension building said to have been done by both members (the abuser and the victim). Let’s say that the incident is between a husband and a wife, the wife can try to please her husband by working to keep him calm through the way she converses with him; in other words, to not provoke him to anger. Although, it is important to remember that the abuser is always responsible for his/her actions. Although the point that the victim provokes the anger of the abuser is often used from the abuser to the victim.3 This is how the tension arises. The second phase is when the physical assault actually occurs. Although, only about half of the instances of physical abuse actually result in visible injuries, while the rest of injuries go unnoticed to the eye.4 On this phase, it is interesting to note that these abusive relationships that do not terminate in divorce are at high risk to terminate due to the untimely death of someone.5 During the third phase, this is where any physical tension or physical or physical abuse is absent. Thus, this is usually where the ‘lovey’ phase of the relationship takes place. Although, in many cases of studies, it was difficult to find any positive behaviour, but there was at least no form of tension building or physical assault taking place.6 This is a general point of how abusively occurs, it is foundational to the remainder of this topic because of abuse cycles around these phases. Continuing forwards with physical abuse, it is important, yet difficult to draw the line between abuse and discipline. A Decima poll was taken up and found that one in three Canadian parents “admit to slapping and spanking, and parents of young children under six are twice as likely to use physical punishment as parents of older children.”7 Although, experts find difficulty in finding where they are to draw the line between disciple and abuse when examining this poll. Therefore, a further examination by a 1991 Gallup poll found that one in six Canadians (17 percent) exclaim that they have “personal awareness of a serious instance of physical abuse of children by a parent.” With this, another study was done that showed that about 37% took no action whatsoever to make efforts to intervene.8 These numbers show that abuse in Canada is surely not a foreign concept, but seems to have made its home here. Although, there is more to understand when dealing with studies on abuse. Very little attention is given to the specific impact of child abuse on the children themselves. This research is crucial for two main reasons. Firstly, research has been showing that the temperament of infants has a profound effect on the interaction between the caretaker and infant.9 Further studying on these children would help to determine the characteristics in the infant that contribute the difficulties of the parents which leads their frustration to abuse. The second reason would be to examine more precisely the distorting on the infant’s development, and by how much these distortions can be treated by remedial measures.10 Nevertheless, studies have been done, showing that physical abuse has had effects. These can be seen through neurological damage, growth failures, and psychological damage. During a study conducted in 1974, a sample of abused children was examined for neurological damage. The study showed that 53% of the children pertained some level of neurological abnormality. In addition to this, a third of this 53 % children had a severe abnormality.11 This can surely be linked to physical assault to the head of the child, but violent shaking leads to this as well. Nevertheless, the evidence from this study concluded that the nervous system of abused children can also be a risk from environmental and psychological stresses that the children are exposed to.12 These neurological abnormalities can certainly be caused by living within an abusive environment. Studies have shown that children with immersion burns, pattern burns, head and internal injuries may point towards this sort of abuse, making these signs an indication for physical abuse.13 It is sad to say, but it is often the case that growth retardation accompanies child abuse. With the use of many studies, it is clear that poor physical growth and poor nutrition is found in about 25-35% of abused children.14 Continuing on growth failures, it is clear that children who are undernourished (being a form of abuse) and physically abused have a much poorer mental function.15 These statistics make sense because, during the growth of children, the brain and other vital organs are growing. So, if they are not met by proper nutrition or take multiple blows to the head, or receive aggressive shaking, then, logically, this statistic must make sense. Nevertheless, there are also signs of psychological damage when speaking of abuse done to children. Several studies done in the mid-1970s examined the behaviours of 50 children, 4 and a half years after they had been abused. These studies showed that over half of the children had poor self-concepts, they were sorrowful individuals, and they exhibited behaviours that made peers, parents, and teachers reject them.16 In fact, there were nine characteristics that caused this. These characteristics are imparted capacity to relax/enjoy life, psychiatric symptoms (such as tantrums, hyperactivity, and bizarre behaviours0, low self-esteem, academic learning difficulties, withdrawal, opposition, hypervigilance, compulsivity, and pseudo nature behaviour.17 These figures are staggering because it shows that abuse certainly has a long-term effect on children; not just in terms of growth issues or neurological damage (as said above), but even with how they behave and acts towards others. It seems that the issues that come out of abuse will be issues that they face for their lifetime. Emotional abuse is very interesting, because unlike physical abuse, you cannot see it or point it out as easily. This is why it’s interesting to see that abuse can and does take place in many different forms. Knowing this should keep the eyes of parents, teachers, and leaders in general peeled for these different forms of abuse. Luckily, there are signs for all sorts of abuse, even emotional. Although, it’s significant to note that even people who “have normally healthy interactions with no display of physical or sexual violence can engage in emotionally abusive interactions form time to time.”18 Moving forwards, infants who are not met with their sufficient level of emotional care are linked with an uninvolvement with their parents (through basic interactions). An effect of this emotional abuse is found in multiple things, such as their play time. The infants that are not met by their emotional needs are seen to be lacking in their persistent and creative qualities than of those infants who have their needs met; also, their play seems to be disorganized compared to the other children.19 In addition, these children have been found to have “depressive qualities of listless metric retardation and lack of energy.”20 Another test was done that composed of the mothers of the emotionally abused infants, and a complete stranger. Now, it would certainly be uncommon for an infant to react more positively towards a stranger than their mothers. Although, this was the case; about 20% of the responses towards the strangers was more positive than towards the mothers.21 With this study, 40% of children responded the same way towards both the strangers and their mothers, while the last 40% of these children were clearly more positive towards their mothers.22 This study is very interesting for the fact that it seems that the parents should be heartbroken. The fact that children who are not met by their emotional needs from their parents react more positive to strangers than towards their actual parents, seems to indicate that these children are just seeking an emotional bond from an older, more authoritative figure. Whether that is their parents or not, they desire to have that need met as a primary need; a need of top importance. Nevertheless, some of the children (40%) still react more positive to their parents rather than a stranger. Reading this sounds like as though these children are still giving their parents (specifically in this study, their mothers) another chance to be their primitive source of emotional care, rather than looking towards a stranger for that need to be met. Sexual abuse appears to be the one form of abuse that is least reported. Emotional abuse or even physical abuse can be hard to detect, but sexual abuse may even be the hardest to detect for the fact that people do not like to confess what has been done to them. Firstly, it is important to understand what is sexual abuse can range from. Which can be from sexual exposure things (such as pornography from a young age) to the touching or fondling of another, or even sexual intercourse. Examples of this can be an adult showing his/her genitals to a child, an adult asking a child to undress, an adult touching the genitals of a child, asking a child to touch the genitals of the adult, forced masturbation,23 and the list goes on. Although, a fair question to ask is “How can most people get away with sexually abusing children?” One of the main reasons is given by Hancock, when she says, “As a child, you don’t feel like you have any right to question what an adult is doing. You’re brought up to respect adults and think that they know what is best. I found myself saying, ‘Well, I guess it must be O.K. … He’s a grown up.”24 It’s true. As children are brought up, they are taught to listen to their elders, and that older people are right because of their age and wisdom of life, which isn’t always true. Nevertheless, people who have done through sexual abuse don’t want to speak up about their troubling past experiences because they believe that It’s nobody else’s business, or that they undermine what occurred, or even because they don’t want their parents to figure out because there’s a sense of shame for what happened.25 Nevertheless, there are symptoms that can be seen for those who have been sexually abused as children. These symptoms can range from symptoms of PTSD and depression, drug abuse and alcoholism, suicidal thoughts and tendencies, underachievement at school and at work, and even issues with intimate relationships.26 It’s helpful to have these symptoms because knowing and understanding them could change, or even save a life from brokenness. Sexual abuse is certainly more of an issue for women than it is for men, because even have a tendency of wanting to exercise a level of dominance over women, but it is important to know that men can and are sexually abused. In fact, a study done in 2003 showed that U.S. male adults, about 14.2% of them, were sexually abused before the age of 18.27 This shows that it isn’t just an issue with women, but also for men. Overall, abuse is a vague, yet common word seen manifest into actions in north America. Whether it is physical abuse, emotional abuse, or even sexual abuse, it is a common issue that seems to be getting more attention as studies are done on it. As seen, the outcomes of those who have been sexually abused must be taken seriously in order to show to other victims that they can speak up and receive justice for the acts that have been committed against them. Whether it is those who have been physical abusive by a parent or sexually abused by and uncle, all victims should feel safe and secure to open up to people who can work to find justice being done for those who have been robbed of their childhood, and even their lives. 1 John M. Drescher. Seven Things Children Need. (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press), 1976, 35. 2 Anne L. Horton. Abuse and religion: when praying isn’t enough. (Lexington, Mass. u.a.: Lexington Books), 1988, 18. 3 Ibid, 19. 4 Ibid, 19. 5 Ibid, 19. 6 Ibid, 19. 7 John Frederick, Conway. The Canadian family in crisis. (Toronto: J. Lorimer), 2003, 90. 8 Ibid, 90. 9 Neil Frude. Psychological approaches to child abuse. (Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield), 1981, 120. 10 Ibid, 120. 11 Ibid, 154. 12 Ibid, 155. 13Karel Kurst-Swanger, and Jacqueline L. Petcosky. Violence in the home: multidisciplinary perspectives. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press), 2003, 65. 14 Neil Frude. Psychological approaches to child abuse. (Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield), 1981, 156. 15 Ibid, 156. 16 Ibid, 156. 17 Ibid, 157. 18 Karel Kurst-Swanger, and Jacqueline L. Petcosky. Violence in the home: multidisciplinary perspectives. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press), 2003, 113. 19 Neil Frude. Psychological approaches to child abuse. (Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield), 1981,126. 20 Ibid, 126. 21 Ibid, 125. 22 Ibid, 125. 23 Maxine Hancock, and Karen Burton. Mains. Child sexual abuse: hope for healing. (Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers), 1997, 6. 24 Ibid, 5. 25 SiteWizard. “Lucy Faithfull Foundation.” Child sexual abuse facts. Accessed March 24, 2017., para 4. 26 “The 1 in 6 Statistic.” 1in6. January 1, 2017. Accessed March 24, 2017. in-6-statistic/? gclid=CjwKEAjwh9PGBRCfso2n3ODgvUcSJAAhpW5ouQSjBwcKyLP9OXyXNvkR4iuZVypisYN 9E6MePsf9oRoCOpPw_wcB, para 2. 27 Ibid, para 2. Bibliography Conway, John Frederick. The Canadian family in crisis. Toronto: J. Lorimer, 2003. Drescher, John M. Seven Things Children Need. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1976. Frude, Neil. Psychological approaches to child abuse. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield, 1981. Hancock, Maxine, and Karen Burton. Mains. Child sexual abuse: hope for healing. Wheaton, IL: Harold Shaw Publishers, 1997. Horton, Anne L. Abuse and religion: when praying isn’t enough. Lexington, Mass. u.a.: Lexington Books, 1988. Kurst-Swanger, Karel, and Jacqueline L. Petcosky. Violence in the home: multidisciplinary perspectives. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2003. SiteWizard. “Lucy Faithfull Foundation.” Child sexual abuse facts. Accessed March 24, 2017. “The 1 in 6 Statistic.” 1in6. January 1, 2017. Accessed March 24, 2017. VypisYN9E6MePsf9oRoCOpPw_wcB. Child Abuse Types and Features: Literature Review