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Policy Making Processes in South Africa

Policy Making Processes in South Africa. The National Government is accountable to the law making process regarding the rights and commitments of its citizens and delivery of services. The Constitution of South Africa provides in Section 43, three spheres of government in South Africa, namely, the National Government, Provincial Government and Local Government. In Section 40(1) of the Constitution it states that these spheres of government are distinctive, inter-related and inter-dependent. All three areas work under the Constitution as well as the laws and policies created by Parliament. Elected members sanction policies and laws as well as supervise the work of the departments. The department and public services are liable for the work delegated by government and are accountable to the Executive. In the Provincial Legislature, the Premier and Executive Council is responsible for the managerial executive and the administration is done by the Heads of Department and their staff. The local government or council are managed by the Mayor and the Mayoral Committee and the administration is taken care of by the Municipal Manager, Heads of Department and their staff. The law making process The National Legislature is the authority that passes new laws, amend existing laws or repeal old laws. This same power exists for provincial legislatures in making provincial laws and municipal laws in respect of municipal by –laws. The process is as follow: Firstly, a draft bill is drawn up by the MEC, MPL or the standing committee. This is then published in the provincial gazette as well as other papers to notify the public. The public has 14 days to respond to the proposed drat. If there were any public comment, the department will make the changes. Secondly, the speaker will introduce the proposed Bill to the legislature. Thirdly, the legislature committee debates the bill. Public hearings can be hold and if there are any changes to the draft, it is referred back to the legislature. Fourthly, the Legislature debates the bill and a vote is then passed. The Bill is passed once a majority vote is in favour. If not, the Bill is rejected. Fifthly, the Premier of the Province signs the Bill into an Act. Lastly, the Act is published in the Provincial Government Gazette. The Role of the NCOP When a Bill is passed by the National Assembly it is given a number and referred to the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The Bill is subject to the amendment proposed or rejected by the Council. The NCOP first needs to distinguished if the Bill contains issues that affects provinces (Section 76 Bill) or contains issues that do not affect the provinces (Section 75 Bill). If the Bill contains issues affecting provinces (Section 76 Bill) Members of the Select Committee approach their own provinces to review the Bill. Each provincial legislature gives a provincial mandate to make changes or leave it as it stands. Provincial representatives report back to the NCOP on their provincial decision. Then the selected committee negotiates the final version of the Bill, to report their decision or suggested changes to the NCOP. The NCOP considers the report, vote on the Bill and each province has a vote. It there are any proposed changes to the Bill, the NCOP refers it back to the National Assembly for approval. If the Bill contains issues that do not affect the provinces (Section 75 Bill) The NCOP considers the Bill, can either accept, reject or propose changes by the Select Committee. Each member of the NCOP votes according to their party decision. If the NCOP makes any changes to the Bill, it is then referred back again to the National Assembly for approval. If there are still differences in the agreement of the Bill, it can follow a mediation process. If this fails, the National Assembly can refer the Bill (Section 76 Bill) to the president to obtain a two thirds majority. If this does not happen the Bill falls away Once both houses accepts the final version of the Bill, it is then send to the President to be signed into an Act and law and then published in the Gazette. Once a law has been passed by the National Parliament it is up to the Provincial and Local Government on the implementation thereof The Role, Powers and Function of the Local Government in law-making According to Section 156(2) of the Constitution: “A municipality may make and administer by-laws for the effective administration of the matters which it has the right to administer”. The elected members to the municipality decide on the policies and by-laws for their area that needs to be approved and executed by law. The executive committee of the local council is accountable to present the by-laws. A by-law can only be passed if a majority vote in the municipal council was achieved, all members received reasonable notice and it was published in to elicit public comment. It must be understandable to the public. A by-law can only be imposed if it was published in the provincial gazette. Municipalities can prepare by-laws on matters that refer to Schedule 4B and Schedule 5B of the Constitution which gives Local Government the power to create and pass laws. Municipalities can also make laws on issues allocated by the National or Provincial Government. These issues depend on the category of the municipality to make these by-laws. A category ‘A’ municipality is referred to as a metropolitan municipality, a category ‘B” municipality is identified as a local municipality and a category ‘C’ is known as a district municipality. A metropolitan municipality makes by-laws on all affairs as listed per Schedule 4B and 5B of the Constitution and has the ability to make by-laws delegated by the Provincial or National Government. These affairs include by-laws affecting for example, air pollution, building regulations, local tourism and municipal planning, to name a few. These affairs are identified as Schedule 4B affairs. By-laws with regards to Schedule 5B is affairs that include display of billboards, keeping of cemeteries, licensing of dogs, markets and local abattoirs, to name a few. Local and district municipalities share the power to create by-laws. This has been controlled by the Municipal Structures Act. Section 84(1) of the Municipal Structures Act, states the powers and functions of the district municipality and obtained from Schedule 4B and Schedule 5B of the Constitution. According to Section 84(2) of the Municipal Structures Act, the local municipality has authority over all other local government matters not mentioned in section 84(1) in its jurisdiction. Examples are for instance on air pollution which is a Schedule 4B competency. A district municipality under section 84(1) has no power but the local municipality under section 84(2) has full power in the area of jurisdiction. The district municipality has no powers under Section 84(1) with regards to beaches and amusement facilities under Schedule 5B, but the local municipality under section 84(2) has full powers in the area of jurisdiction. THE ROLE, POWERS AND FUNCTION OF THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT IN LAW MAKING All nine provinces have their own legislature ranging from 30 up to 80 members depending on the number of votes received by the political party. The provincial legislature is accountable for making and passing laws for its province. The provincial government tables provincial Bills under Schedule 5B of the Constitution. These Bills must be accepted by the executive council and then published in the Provincial Gazette for public commentary. The provincial laws requires two thirds majority of the vote and are only operative in that specific province. An example is the ban on cell phones while driving in the Western Cape. A Bill is presented by the Speaker of the provincial legislature. The Standing Committee can invite public hearing and after consultation send a report to the provincial legislature. A vote is taken after the debate and the legislation is passed when a majority vote has reached. The Premier of the province has to sign the Bill into law. The Act then gets published and takes effect on the determined date. Provincial laws can be changed or interceded by Parliament if they challenge the interest of national or other provincial governments. According to the Constitution, provinces can have legislative and executive powers simultaneously with the national government over areas such as agriculture, cultural affairs, environmental issue, health services etc. Also, provinces has absolute proficiency over areas such as ambulance services, liquor licenses, provincial roads, planning and cultural matters Policy Making Processes in South Africa

Teaching Emotive Language Critical Essay

Teaching Emotive Language Critical Essay. Introduction Regardless of the audiences, public speakers and writers use “some form of emotive language to grab the attention of the listeners” (Carnine, 2007, p. 347). The speakers use captivating words like “tyranny” and “savagery” to trigger a reaction from the audience. The primary objective of using emotive language is to elicit an emotional response, thus making the audience more amenable to what is being said. Humans have a tendency to endorse or censure things based on emotional attachment. Thus, for one to win the approval of the audience, they have to be calculative in choosing their words. Besides, the speakers have to be cautious of the connotation. They have to avoid using ambiguous words that the audience might misconstrue and result in squabbles. Summary of Observation Notes The tone plays a significant role in emotive language. The tone of the speaker determines the level of attention of the audience. Tone entails numerous factors that include pitch and the speed of the speaker’s voice. Tone does not “necessarily correlate to the message, and if the speaker is not careful, their delivery can result in a confused audience” (Carnine, 2007, p. 349). Debbie O’Connell’s tone is apposite for the target audience. She uses a low tone and does not shout to the audience. Such a tone does not startle the learners, therefore ensuring that they pay attention. Apart from using a low tone, the teacher does not speak very fast. O’Connell uses a moderate pace when talking to the learners. The primary objective of using an average speed is to ensure that the learners get every word that comes from her mouth. With such a rhythm, it is easy for the students to understand what the instructor is saying as well as internalize it. To stir the emotions of the audience, a speaker has to demonstrate confidence and be friendly. O’Connell exudes a lot of confidence in what she is saying. Her voice and pronunciation are clear, therefore ensuring that the students understand everything that she teaches. Besides, she does not use sarcastic terms or phrases that might confuse the learners. Word choice is of great importance in emotive language. Speakers must choose words that are easy to understand and attract attention (Carnine, 2007). The speakers must ensure that they use words with favorable connotation. O’Connell uses words that are not only easy to comprehend but also have favorable connotation. For instance, she uses the term “jagged” to describe the nature of the rocks. The word helps the learners to visualize and understand the environment or the habitat of the lion. Besides, she uses the term “innocent” when describing the cab as a way to evoke sympathy. By using the term “innocent”, she manages to trigger the emotions of the learners and make them commiserate with the cab. In so doing, the students understand the meaning of a sentence. Speakers are supposed to use words that communicate a feeling. For instance, O’Connell uses the phrase “staring hungrily” to signify the strong attachment between the lion and its cab. In return, the students can figure out why a lion guards its cabs fiercely. Nonverbal communication like gestures is vital in emotive language. Gestures not only help to keep students attentive but also understand what the instructor is teaching (Kinnucan-Welsch, 2007). Debbie uses gestures to describe the nature of rocks as well as the lion. The gestures act as a teaching aid to make the learners understand. Debbie pauses as she reads the sentence to allow the students understand how they can use better words to make a sentence understandable. By the time she finishes the lesson, the students can identify the ordinary words that if replaced may lead to an appealing sentence. The students apply the thinking aloud technique that enables them to follow what the teacher is saying and understand. The primary objective of the lesson is to help learners understand the importance of replacing ordinary words in a sentence with better words. Moreover, the teaching aims at nurturing creativity in students by inspiring their imagination. Reflection From O’Connell’s video, it is clear that for one to give instructions effectively, they must adhere to certain principles. One has to purge all possible interruptions that might distract the audience. Besides, it is imperative to maintain eye contact when giving instructions. Maintaining eye contact helps to ensure that the audience remains attentive. Failure to maintain eye contact may lead to the audience not taking you seriously, therefore ignoring whatever you are saying. The use of a firm voice makes the audience pay attention. A speaker should not use a commanding or shrill voice. Instead, the voice should be appealing to the listeners. One should be clear about what they want the listener to do. O’Connell is not only clear about the objective of the lesson but also uses an appealing voice and maintains eye contact with the students. When asking questions, one should ensure that they do not use ambiguous words. The use of words with unfavorable connotation may attract negative answers or confuse a student. Hence, a question should be clear and well structured. A well-structured problem is easy to understand and answer. Summary of Year 5 Class Activity Direct Instruction The class activity entails investigating the idea of probability using marbles. The teacher places a box in front of the class and fills it with marbles of different colors. The teacher instructs one of the students to shake the box to ensure that the marbles get mixed up. The objective of shaking the box is to make sure that no marbles of the same color are close to one another. It increases the chance of picking marbles of different colors every time the students dip their hands into the box. In the beginning, the students mix a small number of marbles of each color. The teacher ensures that the students do not put the same number of marbles of each color into the box. After finishing the first experiment, the teacher instructs the students to increase the number of marbles of each color and repeat the experiment. The teacher assists the students to represent the probability of picking a marble of each color on a line. Besides, the students are asked to express the probability as percentages and fractions. After determining the probabilities, the students are requested to create column graphs and pie charts to represent the different possibilities. Purpose of Direct Instruction The primary objective of the direct instruction is to help students understand the likelihood of a particular event happening. Students encounter dilemmas in their daily life. In an event where a student has to choose between multiple options, it becomes difficult to make a viable choice. Having the knowledge of probability may go a long way towards helping a student to weigh between the existing options. Therefore, the objective of the direct instructions is to equip learners with skills in how to assess the possible repercussions of their decisions. Besides, the direct instructions aim at helping the students to learn how to express probabilities as percentages or fractions as well as interpret them. Students are asked to draw pie charts and column graphs to help in determining which type of marbles was dominant in the box. Besides, the students learn how to interpret probabilities using graphs and pie charts. Monitoring the Response of Students Teachers can tell if students have understood a concept by giving them simple exercises. A teacher is not supposed to introduce a new concept if a majority of the learners are not conversant with a previous theory. To know whether students have understood an activity, it is imperative to let them practice the exercise under supervision. Therefore, to monitor the response of the students, the instructor will ask the students to complete a class work that entails determining the probability of picking marbles of distinct colors. Besides, the teacher will give the students different possibilities and ask them to create column graphs and pie charts. Later, the students will interpret the graphs and pie charts to determine if they have understood the concept. The teacher will be keen to determine the accuracy of the answers that the students give. Research indicates that new “behaviors are learned most rapidly when correct responses are immediately reinforced, and incorrect responses are eliminated” (Baumann, 2005, p. 95). Consequently, the teacher will help learners to identify their mistakes and make the necessary adjustments. Assumptions about Teaching A teacher’s or student’s assumptions about teaching contribute to the success of a coursework. Both teachers and pupils have assumptions that they believe if upheld would facilitate the creation of a favorable learning environment (Baumann, 2005). Prior to this semester, students had many assumptions about teachings. While some of the assumptions were right, others were wistful and hard to accomplish or implement. One of the assumptions that were uncovered during this semester is the perception that hands-on experience amounts to effective teaching. There is no doubt that hands-on experience is an integral constituent of effective teaching. Nevertheless, it is important to note that experience cannot work alone (Emerson, 2014). The semester confirmed the importance of encouraging students to think aloud and use imagination. Students should use the experience gained in class to enhance the knowledge by articulating their thinking. The knowledge acquired during the semester confirmed that students cannot rely on experience alone. Instead, they ought to reflect on the experience and develop skills. As a teacher, one is supposed to train students in how to make good use of the experience they acquire both in class and outside. They can do this by establishing a participatory environment that challenges students to think (Emerson, 2014). Some teaching guides discuss the concept of the habit of mind. The guides emphasize the importance of pupils using facts to substantiate their claims. In other words, the experience that students gain in class should help to develop their creativity. The activities of this semester confirmed the importance of going beyond hands-on and emphasizing on a “minds-on” way of teaching. The second assumption that was uncovered during the semester is the notion that a teacher should never leave students to fend for themselves. Previously, a majority of learners assumed that teaching entails a teacher helping students in everything that they do (Garrison, 2006). The assumption may hold in some instances. However, it is imperative to allow students to work independently as this instills creativity and confidence. A teacher should only monitor the students and help them when necessary. Failure to let the students fend for them may hamper the capacity to assume responsibilities in future (Garrison, 2006). The activities of the semester revealed that students cannot take responsibility for their studies if they are not given time to work independently. Therefore, teachers should come up with a program that enables them to “carefully and gradually release responsibilities to the students when they are ready” (Giannakidou, 2006, p. 578). The activities confirmed the importance of allowing students to operate independently. The success of learning and teaching environment depends on the abilities of the teacher. Much of what “the teacher does is not instantly apparent to those who think that education involves an adult doing most of the talking at quiet students” (Hess, 2009, p. 452). Encouraging students to do research independently goes a long way towards enhancing teaching. For effective teaching, a teacher should be well-informed, considerate, and intentional. Moreover, teachers should work with learners and delegate responsibilities to students based on their capabilities. In other words, effective teaching comprises delegating duties to pupils in a gradual manner. The third assumption that was uncovered during the semester is the opinion that an effective teaching involves covering the entire coursework. Most teachers believe that for students to learn, they must cover the entire syllabus. There is no problem in covering the curriculum or sharing as much information as possible with students. However, a teacher is not assured that the students will understand all that is covered. Mostly, students tend to forget if they are fed with a lot of information (Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick,Teaching Emotive Language Critical Essay

Miami Dade College Covid 19 and Health Disparities Literature Evaluation

assignment helper Miami Dade College Covid 19 and Health Disparities Literature Evaluation.

Assignment 5COVID-19 and Health DisparitiesPART I Evaluate the literatureFor this module, I have identified five very recently published articles/readings that provide an overall view of the association between COVID-19 and health disparities or health inequities. Select two and read them carefully. You need to search for them. They are open access.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.023 (Farley, J. H., Hines, J., Lee, N. K., Brooks, S. E., Nair, N., Brown, C. L., Doll, K. M., Sullivan, E. J., & Chapman-Davis, E. (2020). Promoting health equity in the era of COVID-19. Gynecologic oncology, S0090-8258(20)31092-1. Advance online publication.)https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00348-3 (Gautam, M., Thakrar, A., Akinyemi, E., & Mahr, G. (2020). Current and Future Challenges in the Delivery of Mental Healthcare during COVID-19. Sn Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 1–6. Advance online publication.)https://www.nature.com/articles/s41575-020-0330-8.pdf?proof=t (Gray, D M. II et al. COVID-19 and the other pandemic: populations made vulnerable by systemic inequity. Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 1–3. 15 Jun. 2020)https://academic.oup.com/tbm/article/10/3/516/5857963 (Wang ML, Behrman P, Dulin A, et al. Addressing inequities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality: research and policy recommendations [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 16]. Transl Behav Med. 2020;I baa055).https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2766098 (Webb Hooper M, Nápoles AM, Pérez-Stable EJ. COVID-19 and Racial/Ethnic Disparities. JAMA. Published online May 11, 2020). For each one of the two selected, state your “take away messages”. After reading the selected ones, state which one you would recommend for Pharmacy students. State why. Be specific.PART II Asses Nationwide COVID Cases, Hospitalizations and Deaths by Race and Age. (CDC Strategy, find PDF attached document)Study the CDC COVID-19 Response Health Equity Strategy: Accelerating Progress towards Reducing COVID-19 Disparities and Achieving Health Equity. (CDC Strategy, find PDF attached document) Pick a population__________________. Write a paragraph describing why you pick this population. Used the statistics provided to frame your explanation. (CDC Strategy, find PDF attached document) Pretend you are a pharmacy manager and discuss with your corporate supervisor three possible strategies that you could implement in the pharmacy to address the issues related to the population you selected and COVID 19 Be creative. Use the CDC recommended strategies to generate your ideas. Offer three concrete ideas and briefly explain each one. (CDC Strategy, find the PDF attached document)PART III Exploring Disparities using potential differences in the burden of deaths due to COVID-19 according to race and ethnicity:Health Disparities: Race and Hispanic Origin Provisional Death Counts for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/health_disparities.htmWrite your own 4 comparative statements illustrating health disparities by race, age, and or by region. It is your choice. Explore the site in order to write accurate statements.Reflect on the value of this tool.Example of statements…1. Using national death (%) data, standardized by age, the % of death among Hispanics due to COVID 19 is larger than the % of Hispanics in the US population, unveiling a racial disparity.2. In Florida, using death (%) data, standardized by age, we can assert that death due to COVID 19 among non-Hispanic Blacks is higher that the % of that population in the state, unveiling a disparity.3. In the United States, the difference between the % of COVID 19 death and % of the population is 7.6 for non-Hispanic Blacks and 2.2 for Hispanics. This indicates health disparities within these two racial groups, especially when compared to the difference for non-Hispanic Withes (-7.2). These figures as age adjusted.PART IV Wrapping up the classProvide an evaluative and critical comment about the course. I will use your comments to improve the course.
Miami Dade College Covid 19 and Health Disparities Literature Evaluation

This is an ACCESS assignment Achieving Operational Excellence: Building A relational Datatabase for Inventory Management.

This is an ACCESS assignment Achieving Operational Excellence: Building A relational Datatabase for Inventory Management..

My expectation on your Business Software Assignment#2 are listed below: for Q1-Five Most Expensive Bicycles a Query object named as Five Most Expensive Bicycles in which contains 5 fields (Product Number, Product Name, Selling Price, Quantity on Hand, and Profit Margin) and 5 records of most expensive bicycles. a Report object named as Five Most Expensive Bicycles which is generated from the above query.for Q2- Suppliers and Products a Query object named as Suppliers and Products in which contains 5 fields (Company Name, Product Number, Product Name, Quantity on Hand, and Record Level) and 24 records sorted alphabetically by Supplier name. a Report object named as Suppliers and Products which is generated from the above query and has to be sorted alphabetically by suppliers and within each supplier category, the products should be sorted alphabetically.for Q3-Bicycles Low in Stock a Query object named as Bicycles Low in Stock in which contains 8 fields (Product Name, Product Number, Supplier Number, Company Name, Street Address, City, State, and Zip Code) and 7 records of bicycles low in stock. a Report object named as Bicycles Low in Stock which is generated from the above query.The above Objects of your answers for Q1-Q3 should be included in your Business Software Assignment 2 ACCESS file. Your answer for Q4–how database can be enhanced–can be posted on the Note of this Assignment in Moodle.
This is an ACCESS assignment Achieving Operational Excellence: Building A relational Datatabase for Inventory Management.

University of Central Florida Using Oral History in Museums Discussion

University of Central Florida Using Oral History in Museums Discussion.

First, read Barbara Allen Bogart’s article (ATTACHED) , “Using Oral History in Museums.” Although the article is a tad dated–for instance, museums would incorporate oral history by using listening rooms or listening stations with headphones–it offers an excellent discussion of what oral history is and how museums use it to connect to and engage diverse audiences within their community. Next, read an oral history interview from each of the oral history repositories listed below.Finally, write a 500-word reflection (two double-spaced pages) on the value of oral history in public history. Comment specifically on how you would incorporate oral history into a virtual exhibit on your topic ( MY TOPIC IS BLACK LIVES MATTERS) Visit the Library of Congress Civil Rights History ProjectListen to two oral history interviews of your choice from the Civil Rights History Project.Visit the Bancroft Library’s Suffragists Oral History ProjectRead the transcript of the interview with Jeannette Rankin.Visit the Southern Oral History Program online exhibit, Going ViralRead the transcript of the interview of your choice on the 1918 influenza pandemic.
University of Central Florida Using Oral History in Museums Discussion