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Please read the HBR article “Mastering the Management System” and answer the following questions.

Please read the HBR article “Mastering the Management System” and answer the following questions.. I’m studying and need help with a Business question to help me learn.

Each answer should be between a half to 1 page (single spaced, 12 pt font, 1″ margins) in length. Grading will be based on content but good grammar, spelling and punctuation are expected in order for you to convey your thoughts clearly.
1) Briefly discuss two connections you find most important between this article and concepts in your Foundations of Strategy course (Mgt3659) or your Corporate Strategy course (MGT3664).
2) Using the simulation as your exemplar, which process steps do you think are the most useful and why?
3) How is the balanced scorecard integrated into the closed-loop system discussed in the article? Does this seem logical based on your experience with the simulation thus far?
Please read the HBR article “Mastering the Management System” and answer the following questions.

LCC are summations of cost estimates from inception to disposal for both equipment and projects as determined by an analytical study and estimate of total costs experienced in annual time increments during the project life with consideration for the time value of money It can also be defined as; Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an economic evaluation technique that determines the total cost of owning and operating a facility over period of time. Life cycle cost is the total cost of ownership of machinery and equipment, including its cost of acquisition, operation, maintenance, conversion, and/or decommission The visible costs of any purchase represent only a small proportion of the total cost of ownership. In many departments, the responsibility for acquisition cost and subsequent support funding are held by different areas and, consequently, there is little or no incentive to apply the principles of LCC to purchasing policy. Therefore, the application of LCC does have a management implication because purchasing units are unlikely to apply the rigours of LCC analysis unless they see the benefit resulting from their efforts. There are 4 major benefits of LCC analysis: • Evaluation of competing options in purchasing • Improved awareness of total costs • More accurate forecasting of cost profiles • Performance trade-off against cost. Option Evaluation: LCC techniques allow evaluation of competing proposals on the basis of through life costs. LCC analysis is relevant to most service contracts and equipment purchasing decisions. Improved Awareness: Application of LCC techniques provides management with an improved awareness of the factors that drive cost and the resources required by the purchase. It is important that the cost drivers are identified so that most management effort is applied to the most cost effective areas of the purchase. Improved Forecasting: The application of LCC techniques allows the full cost associated with a procurement to be estimated more accurately. It leads to improved decision making at all levels, for example major investment decisions, or the establishment of cost effective support policies. Additionally, LCC analysis allows more accurate forecasting of future expenditure to be applied to long-term costing assessments. Performance Trade-off Against Cost: In purchasing decisions cost is not the only factor to be considered when assessing the options. There are other factors such as the overall fit against the requirement and the quality of the goods and the levels of service to be provided. Advantages/ Disadvantages of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) Advantages of LCCA: Helps you compare projects “apples to apples” financially even if they have different timing and magnitude of costs and savings. Provides you with a more complete financial picture by considering first cost, and all costs and benefits over the entire lifetime of the project. Enables you to compare different combinations of measures and choose the one that will maximize your savings and financial return. Allows you to present the financial benefits of your proposal in terms used by your CFO – for example, net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and cash flows. Reduces your investment risk by projecting a more complete picture of the future. Disadvantages of LCCA: Is harder to learn and apply. Getting input data can be challenging. Principles The cost of ownership of an asset or service is incurred throughout its whole life and does not all occur at the point of acquisition. The Figure gives an example of a spend profile showing how the costs vary with time. In some instances the disposal cost will be negative because the item will have a resale value whilst for other procurements the disposal, termination or replacement cost is extremely high and must be taken into account at the planning stage. • Acquisition costs are those incurred between the decision to proceed with the procurement and the entry of the goods or services to operational use • Operational costs are those incurred during the operational life of the asset or service • End life costs are those associated with the disposal, termination or replacement of the asset or service. In the case of assets, disposal cost can be negative because the asset has a resale value. A purchasing decision normally commits the user to over 95 per cent of the through-life costs. There is very little scope to change the cost of ownership after the item has been delivered. The Process LCC involves identifying the individual costs relating to the procurement of the product or service. These can be either “one-off” or “recurring” costs. It is important to appreciate the difference between these cost groupings because one-off costs are sunk once the acquisition is made whereas recurring costs are time dependent and continue to be incurred throughout the life of the product or service. Examples of one-off costs include: • Procurement • Implementation and acceptance • Initial training • Documentation • Facilities • Transition from incumbent supplier(s) • Changes to business processes • Withdrawal from service and disposal Examples of recurring costs include: • Retraining • Operating costs • Service charges • Contract and supplier management costs • Changing volumes • Cost of changes • Downtime/non-availability • Maintenance and repair • Transportation and handling The Methodology of LCC LCC is based on the premise that to arrive at meaningful purchasing decisions full account must be taken of each available option. All significant expenditure of resources which is likely to arise as a result of any decision must be addressed. Explicit consideration must be given to all relevant costs for each of the options from initial consideration through to disposal. The degree sophistication of LCC will vary according to the complexity of the goods or services to be procured. The following fundamental concepts are common to all applications of LCC: • Cost breakdown structure • Cost estimating • Discounting • Inflation Cost breakdown structure (CBS) CBS is central to LCC analysis. It will vary in complexity depending on the purchasing decision. Its aim is to identify all the relevant cost elements and it must have well defined boundaries to avoid omission or duplication. Whatever the complexity any CBS should have the following basic characteristics: • It must include all cost elements that are relevant to the option. • Each cost element must be well defined for better understanding. • Each cost element should be identifiable • The cost breakdown should be structured to allow analysis of specific areas. • The CBS should be designed to allow different levels of data within various cost categories. Cost Estimating Having produced a CBS, it is necessary to calculate the costs of each category. These are determined by one of the following methods: • Known factors or rates: are inputs to the LCC analysis which have a known accuracy. • Cost estimating relationships (CERs): are derived from historical or empirical data. • Expert opinion: it is often the only method available when real data is unobtainable. Inflation Inflation for all costs is approximately equal, it is normal practice to exclude inflation effects when undertaking LCC analysis. However, if the analysis is estimating the costs of two very different commodities with differing inflation rates, for example oil price and man-hour rates, then inflation would have to be considered. SIMPLE PAYBACK V/S LIFE -CYCLE COST ANALYSIS: SPB is how long it will take for cumulative energy savings and other benefits to equal or “payback” your initial investment. For relatively less expensive, simpler projects and measures, calculating the simple payback (SPB) can be enough to make a sound decision. Advantages of Simple Payback: A simple way to screen relatively low-cost measures based on payback (or return on investment (ROI) Easier to communicate to a non-technical audience Disadvantages of Simple Payback: You can’t compare complex projects and measures where costs and savings vary in both magnitude and timing (e.g. a condensing boiler and a standard boiler). It does not account for (1) maintenance, interest on loans, and disposal costs; (2) time value of money, and (3) volatility of utility costs. It can actually make economically sound improvements and project efficiency look economically unviable. The same can be shown by the below given example: The figure above compares the savings for a small and a large energy-efficiency project both with 20-year lives. The small project costs $200,000 and saves $100,000 annually (two-year simple payback) for five years before an additional investment of $200,000 is needed. The large project costs $700,000 and saves $184,000 annually (3.8-year simple payback) for 20 years, with replacement costs of $200,000 every five years. Which is a better investment

stages of child development

stages of child development. I don’t understand this Science question and need help to study.

Lifespan Course Presentation – Stages of Child Development Picture This: You land a great job in a fabulous hospital that has just built a state-of-the-art maternity ward. You are given the task to develop a power point presentation to educate new parents about childhood development. This presentation will focus on the main themes surrounding physical, cognitive, and social development, as well as skills and risks that occur throughout various stages of childhood. The presentation is due Wednesday of Week 4. This deadline is firm due to the amount of grading time required. Here is what your final presentation should include:

Part 1 – The First Two Years: At least 5 slides made up of the following

Highlight Physical Development
Highlight Cognitive Development
Highlight Social Development
Highlight Skills the Child will Develop
Highlight Major Risks

Part 2 – Early Childhood, Ages 2 to 6: At least 5 slides made up of the following

Highlight Physical Development
Highlight Cognitive Development
Highlight Social Development
Highlight Skills the Child will Develop
Highlight Major Risks

Part 3 – Middle Childhood, Ages 7 to 12: At least 5 slides made up of the following

Highlight Physical Development
Highlight Cognitive Development
Highlight Social Development
Highlight Skills the Child will Develop
Highlight Major Risks

Part 4 – Adolescence, Ages 13 to 18: At least 5 slides made up of the following

Highlight Physical Development
Highlight Cognitive Development
Highlight Social Development
Highlight Skills the Child will Develop
Highlight Major Risks

This presentation is worth 20% of your grade. Here are the steps to upload your power point. Follow these steps: click on Course Presentation to submit your final PowerPoint presentation on Stages of Child Development, which was created using PowerPoint and saved to your computer as “Lifespan Course Presentation”. This document will then be uploaded by clicking on “Browse my Computer”. Grading Grid

Item Description
Percent

Part 1 – The first two years
15%

Part 2 – Early childhood, ages 2 to 6
15%

Part 3 – Middle childhood, ages 7 to 12
15%

Part 4 – Adolescence, ages 13 to 18
15%

Following order of presentation – please follow the above order
10%

Creativity and graphics
10%

Written content
10%

APA Format, including 1-3 cited sources, correct spelling and grammar
10%

Total
100%

stages of child development

Impact and Implications of International Trade Agreements

help writing It also requires from its signatories to extend most-favoured-nation (MFN) status to other trading partners participating in the WTO. MFN status means that each WTO member receives the same tariff treatment for its goods in foreign markets as that extended to the “most-favoured” country competing in the same market, and in consequence eliminating any possible preferences or discriminatory activities. In 1995 the GATT became the World Trade Organization (WTO), which now encompasses more than 140 member countries, oversees four important international trade agreements: the GATT, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and agreement on trade-related intellectual property rights and trade-related investment, which are called respectively TRIPS and TRIMS. Furthermore, GATT permits the formation of free trade areas and customs unions among WTO members. Free trade areas are characterized by elimination of all of tariffs on trade with each of the member countries, with simultaneously remaining autonomous in terms of determining their tariffs with non-members. One of the examples for such an area is included in the objectives of European Free Trade Association (EFTA), which is composed primarily of Scandinavian countries. A customs union constitutes a group of countries that eliminate all tariffs on trade among themselves but maintain a common external tariff on trade with countries outside the union. A good example of a formation of a customs union was the European Economic Community (EC) that came into force with the Treaty of Rome signed in 1957 by France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux. The Treaty provided for the establishment of a common market, a customs union and common policies[1]. Nowadays it is known as the European Union (EU), it includes twenty-seven European countries and it has gone beyond simply reducing barriers to trade among member states and forming a customs union. EU has achieved its greater economic integration by becoming a common market, which coordinates and harmonizes each country’s tax, industrial and agricultural policies. Many members have also formed a single currency area by replacing their domestic currencies with the euro. Nevertheless, many trade agreements not including duty reduction schemes are later on completed with the objective to arrange an FTA in the future. In cases of agreements including non WTO members, it is usually specified in the agreement that MFN rates will (continue to) be applied. Among many agreements without duty reduction schemes we can enumerate, for instance, the already mentioned Bilateral Investment Agreement (BIT), which set forth actionable standards of conduct that applies to the nation’s government in their treatment of foreign investors, including i.a. fair and equitable treatment, protection from expropriation and free transfer of means with full protection and security[2]. The amount of signed BIT’s has been constantly increasing, since 1990s from 446 signed agreements to over 2500 active BITs in 2007, according to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)[3]. To other agreements without duty reduction schemes we can include Foreign Investment and Protection Agreements (FIPA), Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA), Economic Framework Agreement, or Partnership Cooperation Agreement. The growing trend of signing international trade agreements is irreversible in any region of the globe, and is becoming a dominant factor influencing immensely all of the international economic relations nowadays. The more of them are signed, the more urgent the need to assess their actual impact. Thus, it is crucial to correctly evaluate the potential impact of the agreements, especially during theirs negotiation phase. In the recent years there has been a large demand for impact assessment studies of trade agreements, both before and after negotiations. Conducting solid studies concerning their impact is considered to be particularly important for developing countries, because they need to adjust their policies in a way to diminish or completely avoid the possible negative effects and maximize potential benefits. Nevertheless, accurate impact assessment methodology it is not easy from the technical point of view, mainly because of the lack of economic theories which specialize in developing countries. Thus, due to insufficient appropriate knowledge and support, it is difficult for the governments of developing countries to conduct a relevant policy from the economic studies[4]. Furthermore, in conducting an impact assessment analysis of the International Trade agreements it is important to be able to evaluate all of the potential gains, difficulties and implications. Economic theory since the middle of the 18th century has implied numerous advantages in lowering tariffs for most parties in most situations, and economists view the commitment to trade liberalisation as a welfare-maximizing pursuit. The main gain from trade was considered to derive from specialization on the basis of comparative advantage. Income is considered to be growing more rapidly in countries open to international trade than in those more closed to trade. This phenomenon is dramatically illustrated in China’s rapid growth after 1978, and India’s after 1991. These dates indicating when major trade reforms took place in those countries[5]. However we have to keep in mind, that although trade liberalisation in the form of international trade agreements may contribute to the overall national welfare, it is also responsible for disruptive consequences within societies by producing losers and gainers, such as import-competing industries and consumers respectively. Besides economic gains and losses, trade agreements also provide important political outcomes to the parties involved, as a consequence of facilitated international cooperation, institutionalized rules of reciprocity, monitoring and enforcement. It is especially important in terms of conducting impact assessment analyses of trade agreements for developing countries as I have previously written, for which they constitute an important institutional context within which they can build up their coalitions and improve their bargaining position in the global market. Moreover, developing countries prefer more defined rules and greater enforcement capacity. The main reason for this is the fear of marginalization or peripherality, namely the inability of developing countries to take advantage of trade liberalisation and emerging as full players in the international system[6]. Due to their international as well as domestic weaknesses, usually caused by their colonial past, these countries are more of the rule-takers rather than agenda-setters. As an illustration, countries like Brazil and India despite taking part in many negotiations they have repeatedly complained about their concerns being disregarded. The same applies to smaller developing countries which have found it difficult to even take part in key decision making meetings. In addition, there even exist a phenomenon called “Third World Schizophrenia”, which was used by Mohammed Ayoob in his article “The Third World in the System of States: Acute Schizophrenia or Growing Pains?”[7] It illustrates the behaviour of developing countries trying to bring about systemic changes and aiming at adjusting to an international order, but as a result of their vulnerabilities and their past they also have the incentive to preserve the existing system of rules that ensures their very survival. As a consequence of these two pressures, decision-making centres of these countries are faced with conflicting demands, and thus this situation is referred to either as schizophrenic, or similar to the growing pains of adolescence. International trade agreements and the liberalisation process that follows them, besides being economically beneficial, it is also very often politically feasible. Due to the fact that some countries are legally binded by multilateral trade organizations and agreements, their lack of commitment may have punitive consequences of various types, depending on the nature of the agreement and its enforcement mechanism. Thus, governments tend to hide behind the possible consequences of lack of obedience that could range from the international disapproval to compensation of all the costs incurred as a result of this country’s actions. By claiming that their international commitments bind them to act freely, they are able to justify especially unpopular actions that are supposed to have longer-term benefits, and not solely in trade manners. This is why many of the programmes of economic and restructuralization reforms from the 1980s and 1990s, in particular those involving both controversial and possible distributive consequences for the society, were hidden in the shadow of international economic agreements and organizations[8]. Thus, it comes as no surprise that historically, countries have been reluctant to reduce trade barriers and enthusiastic to raise them, even though the classical trade theory states that gains from trade accrue to any country that lowers their trade barriers, irrespectively of what other countries do. Despite this promise of economic benefits coming from free trade, many states have chosen the path of protectionism throughout history. An example can be found in the case of the Great Depression period, when following the stock market crash of 1929, the US Congress adopted the Smoot Hawley Tariff Act in 1930 that raised US tariffs to an average of nearly 60% interest[9]. Explanation of this behaviour comes from the economic theory and the notion of “optimal tariff”, which tells us that it may be in the interest of a large economy to restrict trade at a certain “optimal” level, as it will be a change of the terms of trade in its favour. This obviously does not apply to small economies, for which liberalisation of trade or lack of it may bring different results, conditioned by many economic, political and social factors. For large economies this situation looks different, thus the optimal tariff may appear as a good solution to some of them. However, is it really an efficient one? The interpretation of this problem in terms of the game theory would imply that even though it is in each country’s interest to impose restrictions, the outcome of such action might be inefficient, especially in the long-term calculation. Once one large country will impose restrictions, the other might as well follow this behaviour, which would result in the overall decrease of global market efficiency and economic welfare. Thus, the best way of preventing such a mutually destructive situation from happening is by ensuring mutual reciprocity in trade commitments, which increases the economic gains as well as the output. In any case, mutual reciprocity being a foundation for most of the concluded trade agreements all over the world does not always guarantee their success. Multilateral trade agreements and organisations, such as the WTO, have been accused of inefficiency due to the problem with maintaining and extending the liberal world trading system, slow pace of trade liberalisation negotiations, and inadequate requirements for consensus among the members, which immensely limits the possible scope of reform of trade agreements. Moreover, some sectors such as trade in agriculture, textiles and apparel have not experienced any significant cuts in tariffs, and thus they had much less success, especially in comparison with, for instance, industrial goods. According to UNCTAD data, non duty-free trade still faces an average tariff of about 7% in manufacturing and about 18% in agriculture. All these arguments have raised many concerns, and in consequence many countries have turned away from the multilateral process toward more preferential agreements such as bilateral, or regional ones. An example of such an agreement is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which went into effect in January 1994. Under its terms United States, Canada and Mexico collectively agreed to phase out all tariffs on merchandise trade and to reduce restrictions on service trade as well as foreign investment over a decade[10]. Besides that there exist numerous trade agreements between particular countries, or group of countries, and their number is constantly increasing. It has been particularly observed in terms of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). As of early 2014, there were more than 300 PTAs in force, about half of which also covered services. In 2013, almost half of world trade was taking place between countries that had signed a PTA and almost a third was regulated by deep trade agreements[11]. This increase in PTAs is mostly attributed to the greater promotion of trade among the parties that are signing a PTA, but it is also a good alternative for countries when multilateral negotiations run into difficulties. Moreover, it contributes to the emergence of “competitive liberalisation”, wherein countries are challenged to reduce trade barriers to keep up with the rest of the world. For instance, after NAFTA was signed and implemented, the EU aimed at signing an FTA with Mexico, in order to ensure that European goods would not be at a competitive disadvantage in the Mexican market. On the other hand, there are still many disadvantages associated with PTAs, such as discriminatory exclusion of certain countries, or the inability to reform certain issues, such as agricultural export subsidies on the bilateral or regional level[12]. Predominantly, it appears that international trade is increasingly more regulated and influenced by policies and instruments reaching beyond tariffs. As of 2013, technical measures and requirements coming from free trade liberalization and international trade agreements regulated about two-thirds of the world trade[13]. Both multilateral and preferential agreements will remain the future of the global economy, shaping its flows and regulating the distribution of wealth. There will always be pressures to include more standards and regulations, and there will always be those that argue that such agreements serve the interests of multinational corporations and not regular citizens. Nevertheless, keeping in mind that free trade contributes to the transfer of technology and knowledge, which is especially important for the developing countries in terms of improved economic welfare, we can not simply despise this concept without accurately evaluating all of its losses and gains. International trade agreements do provide us with a greater measure of certainty in international relations, and they do provide developing countries with one of the few safeguards that they have against the powerful high-income countries. However, it is safe to say that they will continue to generate controversy, and there will always be an intense public discussion surrounding them, and the impact they make. [1] Europa, Summaries of EU legislation. Available from: . [6 January 2015]. [2] Legal Information Institute, Bilateral investment treaty. Available from: . [6 January 2015]. [3] United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Quantitative data on bilateral investment treaties and double taxation treaties. Available from: . [6 January 2015]. [4] Plummer M. G., Cheong D., Hamanaka S., ‘Methodology for Impact Assessment of Free Trade Agreements’, Asian Development Bank 2010, pp. 7-9. [5] Library of Economics and Liberty, International Trade Agreements. Available from: . [6 January 2015]. [6] Narlikar A., ‘The World Trade Organization: A Very Short Introduction’, Oxford University Press Inc., New York 2005, pp. 7-8. [7] Ayoob M. ‘The Third World in the System of States: Acute Schizophrenia or Growing Pains?’, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 1, 1989, pp. 67-79. [8] Narlikar A., ‘The World Trade Organization: A Very Short Introduction’, Oxford University Press Inc., New York 2005, pp. 6-7. [9] Narlikar A., ‘The World Trade Organization: A Very Short Introduction’, Oxford University Press Inc., New York 2005, pp. 3-7. [10] Library of Economics and Liberty, International Trade Agreements. Available from: . [6 January 2015]. [11] ‘Key Statistics and Trends in Trade Policy 2014’, Trade Analysis Branch (TAB), Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities (DITC), UNCTAD Secretariat, pp. 10-11. [12] Library of Economics and Liberty, International Trade Agreements. Available from: . [6 January 2015]. [13] ‘Key Statistics and Trends in Trade Policy 2014’, Trade Analysis Branch (TAB), Division on International Trade in Goods and Services, and Commodities (DITC), UNCTAD Secretariat, pp. 10-11.

Inflation and Analyses of Monetary Policies

Inflation and Analyses of Monetary Policies.

Purpose of Assignment This assignment will introduce students to the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data and provide students with the skills to calculate inflation and interpret the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Note: The BLS is the primary source of information on inflation, but their data is re-posted in other sources, such as the St. Louis Federal Reserve FRED site, among others. Assignment Steps Resources: Tutorial help on Excel® and Word functions can be found on the Microsoft® Office website. There are also additional tutorials via the web offering support for Office products. Use an internet search or the University Library to locate information on the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Internet sites you might find useful include the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the Federal Reserve of St. Louis FRED web site although you are allowed to use other sources. Develop a minimum 700-word analysis of inflation by including the following:Choose a product or service you currently consume/use, such as apparel or educational services, that is included in the CPI’s “market basket.” Find the annual CPI index numbers for your chosen good or service for the years 1995, 2005, 2010, and 2015. Enter those index numbers in an Excel® file and calculate the percent change (inflation rates) in those index numbers from 1995 to 2005, from 1995 to 2010, and from 1995 to 2015. Analyze the trends in overall inflation over the last five years and whether your income has kept pace with inflation. How has inflation over the last five years affected you and/or your family?Discuss how a business manager, such as a human resources manager, might use CPI statistics. Cite a minimum of three scholarly, peer-reviewed references. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Inflation and Analyses of Monetary Policies

Pluralism, Assimilation, and Diversity in America Essay

I hail from an underdeveloped country. So, there are not many openings (profession wise) for educated and ambitious people. As such, after completing my studies, I applied for jobs in various countries and was lucky enough to get a job in an American company. But I had to live and work in the United States and as such I was a little hesitant due to the difference in our cultures. But since I was badly in need of a good job, I could not afford to lose the opportunity. It was after settling down in America when I realized that all my fears about difference in cultures and ethnicity were baseless. Actually today, youngsters all over America are promoted and persuaded to work as a team with all people, not considering the ethnicity, caste

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