please follow instructions and complete the work on time APA.
Complete the following assignment in one MS word document:Chapter 12 –discussion question #1-3 & exercise 1 & 12 & 16When submitting work, be sure to include an APA cover page and include at least two APA formatted references (and APA in-text citations) to support the work this week.All work must be original (not copied from any source).Some people say that chatbots are inferior for chatting. Others disagree. Discuss.Discuss the financial benefits of chatbots.Discuss how IBM Watson will reach 1 billion people by2018 and what the implications of that are.12. Research the role of chatbots in helping patients with dementia.16. Microsoft partners with the government of Singapore to develop chatbots for e-services. Find out how this is done.
1. Introduction 1.1 Ibuprofen, a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly used and therapeutically effective groups of drugs in the medicinal field. They suppress inflammation in a similar way as steroids. They are also better than steroids in such a way that they cause less side effects of sedation, addiction and respiratory depression. NSAIDs act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2. This type of inhibition results in reduced productions of precursors such as thromboxane, prostaglandin and leukotriene that are involved in the inflammatory pathways. NSAIDs are poorly water-soluble drugs (Hassan et al., 2009). Often, they are microencapsulated using the emulsion solvent diffusion method (Leo et al., 2000) to modify and retard drug release from pharmaceutical dosage form. Further, encapsulation of NSAIDs into polymeric nanoparticles, followed by their encapsulation into polymeric microparticles has proved to reduce the release rate and suppress the undesired initial burst. For instance, Ibuprofen-loaded PCL (Poly-epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles inside ethylcellulose/Eudragit RS polymeric microparticles was successfully encapsulated, which effectively exhibited a control of both the release rate and burst effect (Hassan et al., 2009; Socha et al., 2007). Ibuprofen, an NSAID, was selected as the model drug in this study. The low solubility (0.03-2.5mg/ml) (Khang et al., 2007) and short plasma half-life of approximately 2 hours of Ibuprofen makes it an ideal choice to prepare a controlled release dosage form. Ibuprofen is commonly used to relieve the symptoms of mild and moderate pain and inflammation in conditions such as migraine, dental pain, dysmennorhea, headaches, back pain, muscular pain, rheumatic pain, cold and flu symptoms. Also, it is used to treat chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis in which a controlled release dosage form is desired for symptom relief (Leo et al., 2000). Although parenteral Ibuprofen formulation has been produced recently, there is no controlled release dosage form available in the pharmaceutical market. Considering that Ibuprofen is a anti-inflammatory agent used widely, this study of preparation of a biodegradable and controlled release parenteral Ibuprofen dosage form, based on nanoparticles will definitely of great interest. For example, the intraarticular administration of Ibuprofen would offer an effective management of chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Also, it will serve an alternative to corticosteroid administration to avoid the devastating side effects (Hassan et al., 2009; Fernandez-Carballido et al., 2004). Besides, two types of parenteral formulations of Ibuprofen are now available in the pharmaceutical market. One of them is Pedea which is used for the therapy of ductus arteriosus in preterm newborns (Hassan et al., 2009, Aranda and Thomas, 2006). Its use in human pre-mature newborns was also demonstrated to be able to improve the cerebral blood flow regulation and potentially offer some degree of neuroprotection (Aranda and Thomas, 2006). It is a normal aqueous solution dosage form which is injected into the bloodstream, allowing fast therapeutic activity. Another parenteral Ibuprofen formulation is marketed by Cumberland Pharmaceuticals recently– the injectable ibuprofen formulation named Caldolor which is used for the treatment of pain and fever. Caldolor has also proved to have the advantage of reducing pain and fever significantly within 30 minutes. Although rapid attainment of therapeutic effect can be achieved, the short plasma half-life of Ibuprofen would have resulted in frequent administration in order to maintain plasma therapeutic levels. For instance Caldolor needs to be administered intravenously every 6 hours in order to maintain efficient plasma therapeutic levels. Therefore, controlled drug delivery systems would be a better yet excellent alternative to multiple injections. And, in such case, polymeric nanoparticles will be the best candidate for parenteral drug delivery. This polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery system would be potentially used to increase bioavailability, provide prolonged therapeutic plasma levels and reduce administration frequency. 1.2 Controlled Drug Delivery and Drug Targetting To deliver drugs from the administration site to the target site, a delivery system is needed as drugs could not deliver by themselves (Davis and Illum, 1998; Bala et al., 2004). An ideal drug delivery system will possess both the properties of targeting and controlling the drug release (Thassu et al., 2007). Targeting ensures high effectiveness of the drug and at the same time reduces the possible devastating side effects that may be experienced. This is particularly beneficial when dealing with drugs for instance, drugs used in cancer therapy to ensure that only affected cancer cells but not healthy cells are killed (Brannon-Peppas and Blanchette, 2004). The reduction of side effects can also be attained through controlled release dosing systems. This study will focus on the parenteral controlled-release dosage forms. 1.2.1 Rationale for Parenteral Controlled-release Drug Delivery Parenteral controlled-release dosage forms have been proved to be useful for treating disease (Kydonieus, 1992). However, there is no single controlled-release technology that has proved to be effective in treating disease because of the diversity of drug properties, dosing levels, treatment durations as well as patient acceptability and cost. Therefore, an excellent controlled release technology is needed to be selected for each drug and associated disease treatment. The distribution of drug in the body after parenteral administration well depends entirely on the physicochemical properties of the drug. Conventional drug delivery is typically illustrated by drug administered via bolus injection, in which the most of the therapeutic agents in the drug are released immediately after the administration, causing a rapid increase of the plasma drug concentration levels (Uhrich et al., 1999). Drug concentration is then seen to fluctuate between the side effect level and the minimum therapeutic level, resulting in alternate periods of toxicity and ineffectiveness (Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009). As a consequence, higher dosage drug is needed to be administered repeatedly to maintain the therapeutic drug concentration at steady state level. Problems, hence, arise as multiple injections are not favoured by most patients. Therefore, in order to improve efficacy, patient compliance and convenience, a controlled-release parenteral dosage forms that can last for longer period of time after a single administration will be more beneficial. This controlled release over an extended time is also of great benefits for drugs that are rapidly metabolized and eliminated from the body after administration. This is because controlled release maintains drug concentration at steady state level for a sufficient duration at the target sites, where the rate of drug release is equivalent to the rate of drug elimination, thus keeping the drug concentration within the ideal therapeutic window as well as avoiding substantial fluctuations. As a result, frequent injections can be avoided. 1.3 Nanotechnology for Controlled Drug Delivery In the endeavour to design a parenteral controlled release dosage form, a number of drug delivery systems, such as emulsions, micelles, liposomes and nanoparticles have been developed (Kydonieus, 1992; Hassan et al., 2009). In fact, injectable, biodegradable nanosphere products are the most recent technology developed for parenteral controlled-release dosage forms. This termed nanoparticulate drug delivery system, which comprises of colloidal particles of nanosize range, provides a suitable mean of delivering not only small molecular weight drugs but also macromolecules such as hormones, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids (Bala et al., 2004; Panyam and Labhasetwar, 2003). Furthermore, the nanoparticulate drug delivery system evidences the successful development of the nanotechnology. The prefix “nano” is derived from the Greek word dwarf (Thassu et al., 2007). One nanometer (nm) is equivalent to one-billionth of a meter. Materials in the nanometer size range can have substantial properties compared with the same materials at a larger size, for instance materials in the micrometer size range (Hans and Lowman, 2002). The term “nanotechnology” was coined in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi, a professor of the Tokyo Science University, Japan to describe materials in nanometers (Kydonieu, 1992). In recent years, nanotechnology has gained much attention that there has been an increasing investment trend from governments and private sector business in many parts of the world to expand research in nanoscale science and technology. Generally, nanotechnology means any technology performed on a nanoscale that involves both science and engineering (Bhushan, 2004). It encompasses the manufacture and application of biological, chemical and physical systems at scales that range from individual atoms or molecules to nanoscale dimensions. Also, it integrates the resulting nanostructures into larger systems (Bhushan, 2004). Controlled drug delivery nanotechnology has become one of the most advancing areas of science that contributes to human health care. This field of pharmaceutical technology has grown and expanded rapidly these days. And it is believed that such delivery system will definitely bring abundant advantages compared to conventional drug delivery system. 1.4 Natural and Synthetic Polymers in Pharmaceutical Systems Polymers are high molecular weight substances that are made up of repeating monomer units. In order to develop a successful nanoparticulate delivery system, it is essentially important to select an appropriate polymeric matrix. Polymers nanospheres employed to deliver drugs in a sustained release manner can be either biodegradable or non-biodegradable (Uhrich et al., 1999). The controlled release can be achieved by combining the biodegradable polymer with a drug so that the active agent is released from the system in a predesigned way. Despite the fact that controlled drug delivery has various advantages, the possible drawbacks cannot be overlooked: the undesirable by-products from degradation, potential toxicity or non-biocompatibility of the materials used, any surgery involved to remove or implant the system, the likehood of patient discomfort from the delivery device, and the higher cost involved compared with traditional pharmaceutical formulations (Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009; Brannon-Peppas, 1997). Several polymers, including both natural and synthetic polymers have been investigated for formulating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. These include polylactide (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which are biodegradable and biocompatible. Among these polymers, PLGA is the most commonly used due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility as well as flexible degradation kinetics (Sahana et al., 2007). In fact, PLGA has been approved by FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for a number of clinical applications (Bhardwaj et al., 2005) such as synthetic resorbable sutures, surgical clips and other surgical implants (Kydonieus, 2005). 1.4.1 Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as Polymers PLGA is a copolymer of PLA and PGA. It is synthesised by co-polymerisation of two different monomers, the cyclic dimmers of glycolic acid and lactic acid. During polymerisation, successive monomers of both glycolic and lactic acid are linked together by ester bonds, producing a linear polyester of PLGA. Different forms of PLGA can, thus, be yielded by altering the mixing ratio of lactide to glycolide used in the polymerisation process. A basic insight of physicochemical and biological properties of the PLGA polymer is vital as it allows the study of the mechanism and rate of drug release from the nanoshperes. PLGA degrades in vivo by hydrolytic cleavage of the ester linkage in the presence of water (Bala et al., 2004; Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009). However, the degradation process of polymers is affected by a number of factors. The polymer nature (polydispersity and copolymer composition), the degree of crystallinity, the glass transition temperature of the polymer, organic solvents, type and concentration of stabiliser used are all the common factors (Bala et al., 2004). The degradation profile of nanoparticulate systems, on the other hand, relies on the hydrophilicity of the polymer. The more hydrophilic the polymer, the higher its rate of degradation (Bala et al., 2004; Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009). In fact, the hydrophilicity of the polymer is determined by the crystalline to armorphous ratio, that is consecutively affected by the composition of the copolymer (Bala et al., 2004). Owing to the fact that lactide is more hydrophobic than glycolide, PLGA copolymers with high content of lactide units will be less hydrophilic, thus experiencing slower degradation process. For this reason, the rate of degradation and release profile of PLGA can be modified easily by varying the ratio of lactide to glycolide (Sahana et al., 2007). It is noted that PLGA copolymer with composition of 50:50 ratio shows the fastest degradability rate about 1-2 months in both in vitro and in vivo conditions (Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009; Nair and Laurencin, 2007). Extensive investigations were then carried out on different forms of PLGA by changing the ratio of lactide to glycolide. The results showed that the PLGA copolymers of 65:35, 77:25, and 88:15 lactide/glycolide ratios have progressively longer in vivo degradation times, with the 88:15 one lasting about 5-6 months in vivo (Bala et al., 2004; Jain, 2000). During the preparation of PLGA loaded nanoparticles in this study, lactide-rich copolymers will be of great interest in order to formulate a nanosphere with controlled release properties. PLGA is undoubtedly the ideal choice of polymer selected to be used in designing a controlled release nanoparcticulate delivery system. Because of its biodegradability, no surgical procedures are needed to remove the system when the drugs are depleted. Besides, it is degraded in vivo, by random, nonenzymatic, hydrolytic cleavage of ester linkages to toxicologically safe by-products (the original monomers- lactic and glycolic acid) that are either excreted renally or elimininated as carbon dioxide gas and water via Krebs’ cycle (Bala et al., 2004; Galindo-Rodriguez et al., 2005). Furthermore, PLGA has a glass transition temperature above physiological temperature (45-55°C) that provides it adequate strength to be formulated as a successful controlled drug delivery system (Bala et al., 2004). Because PLGA have proved to be biocompatible and to have extensive toxicological documentation, their approvals for use in fabricating nanospheres will be less costly and more straightforward than approvals of new polymers for fabrication in the pharmaceutical industry. For this reason, PLGA copolymers are selected as the colloidal carrier for parenteral controlled-release dosage forms in this study. 1.4.2 Therapeutic Uses of PLGA Polymers in Contemporary Clinical Formulations The use of the PLGA polymer for the development of new parenteral controlled drug delivery dosage forms appears to be very promising. Nanospheres with various release patterns can be prepared by altering the polymer species, molecular weight or monomer mixing ratio. FDA has approved PLGA for a number of medical applications. For instance, Lupron Depot®, a controlled release formulation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer, was the first PLGA product cleared by FDA (Bala et al., 2004). The effective dose this formulation, which contains leuprolide acetate encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres of 75:25 lactide/glycolide polymer, was reduced 1/4 – 1/8 of that required in the conventional drug formulation (Sahana et al., 2007). Another successful development of controlled drug delivery systems includes anticancer drug, Doxorubicin formulated into PLGA nanoparticles, that exhibited controlled release over 1 month (Bala et al., 2004). In the following research work, Ibuprofen loaded PLGA nanoparticles are intended to be prepared with a view to possess the identical desired controlled release properties. 1.4.3 Preparation of PLGA loaded nanoparticles Several approaches have been proposed for the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles. However, the choice of preparation method well depends on the type of the polymer and drug used, the intended use as well as the duration of the treatment. The standard procedures of emulsion-diffusion evaporation, salting-out and nanoprecipitation method are all widely used to prepare PLGA particles in the nanosize range. The first step of these methods often involves emulsification of a solution of drug in a solution of organic polymer (Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009). The dispersion formed is then processed in accordance with one of the aforestated methods. During both emulsion-diffusion evaporation and salting out approaches, the polymer PLGA is dissolved in an organic solvent such as chlorinated solvent, dichloromethane and chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, acetone or ethyl acetate. The mixed organic solution of both polymer and drug is later mixed with an aqueous solution containing both stabiliser and emulsifying agents. The emulsion formed is then exposed to a high-energy source for example an ultrasonic device, homogenizer or colloid mill to form a stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. The organic solvent is later evaporated under reduced pressure or continuous stirring, resulting in the formation of fine dispersion of nanoparticles containing therapeutic drugs. Factors such as homogeniser stirring rate, concentration of polymer, presence of surfactants and stabilisers will influence the size of the particles formed (Bala et al., 2004; Stevanovic and Uskokovic, 2009). Therefore, it is important to standardise these parameters in order to produce particles of desired size range. The nanoprecipitation method, on the other hand, is based on the interfacial deposition of a polymer following displacement of a semi-polar solvent miscible with water from a lipophilic solution (Bala et al., 2004; Govender et al., 1999). The PLGA polymer and drug are then dissolved in a semi-polar water-miscible solvent, either acetonitrile or ethanol, forming the organic phase. The organic phase is then mixed with an aqueous solution containing stabiliser and stirred magnetically at room temperature to allow rapid solvent evaporation. The nanoparticles are finally purified using ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, gas chromatography, dialysis procedures to remove stabiliser residues or any free drug. This purification process must be carefully carried out to avoid any loss of biologically active ingredients. 1.5 Aims and Objectives Realising the benefits and importance of controlled drug release in clinical applications, the objective of the present study is to prepare and characterise Ibuprofen loaded PLGA nanoparticles for parenteral delivery, with a view to prolong the ibuprofen blood residence time after injection. The objective will be achieved by the following specific aims: 1. Preparation of Ibuprofen loaded PLGA nanoparticles. 2. Characterization of the nanoparticles for size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. References Aranda JV, Thomas R, 2006. Systemic review: Intravenous Ibuprofen in preterm newborns. Elsevier: Seminar in Perinatology. Bala I, Hariharan S, Ravi Kumar MNV, 2004. PLGA nanoparticles in drug delivery: The State of the Art: Critical Review in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 21(5), 387-422. Bhardwaj V, Hariharan S, Bala I, Lamprecht A, Kumar N, Panchagnula R, Ravi Kumar MNV, 2005. Pharmaceutical aspects of polymeric nanoparticles for oral delivery. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology. 1, 1-23. Bhushan B, editor, 2004. Springer handbook of nanotechnology. New York: Springer. Brannon-Peppas L, Blanchette JO, 2004. Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 56, 1649-1659. Brannon-Peppas L, 1997. Polymers in controlled drug delivery. Medical Plastics and Biomaterials Magazine. Davis SS, Illum L, 1998. Drug delivery systems for challenging molecules. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 176, 1–8. Fernandez-Carballido A, Herrero-Vanrell R, Molina-Martinez IT, Pastoriza P, 2004. Biodegradable ibuprofen-loaded PLGA microspheres for intraarticular administration. Effect of Labrafil addition on release in vitro. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 279, 33-41. Govender T, Stolnik S, Garnett MC, Illum L, Davis SS, 1999. PLGA nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation: drug loading and release studies of a water soluble drug. Journal of Control Release 1999. 57, 171–185. Hans ML, Lowman AM, 2002. Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug delivery and targeting. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science. 6, 319-327. Hassan AS, Sapin A, Lamprecht A, Emond E, Ghazouani FE, Maincent P, 2009. Research paper: Composite microparticles with in vivo reduction of the burst release effect. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. Jain RA, 2000. The manufacturing techniques of various drug loaded biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) devices. Biomaterials. 21, 2475–2490. Jiang BB, Hu L, Gao CY, Shen JC, 2005. Ibuprofen-loaded nanoparticles prepared by a co-precipitation method and their release properties. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 304, 220-230. Khang G, ChanYang J, TaeKo J, SooPark J, SukKim M, Rhee JM, BangLee H, 2007. Preparation and characterisation of ibuprofen using self-emulsifying drug delivery system in vivo. Key Engineering Materials. 342-343, 541-544. Kydonieus A, editor, 1992. Treatise on controlled drug delivery. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Leo E, Forni F, Bernabei MT, 2000. Surface drug removal from ibuprofen-loaded PLA microspheres. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 196, 1–9. Nair LS, Laurencin CT, 2007. Biodegradable polymer as biomaterials. Progress in Polymer Science. 32, 762-798. Panyam J, Labhasetwar V, 2003. Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissue. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 55, 329–347. Sahana DK, Mittal G, Bhardwaj V, Ravi Kumar MNV, 2007. PLGA nanoparticles for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs: Influence of organise solvent on nanoparticles formation and release behaviour in vitro and in vivo using Estradiol as a model drug. Wiley InterScience. Socha M, Hasan AS, Lamprecht A, Ghazouani FE, Sapin A, Hoffman M, Maincent P, Ubrich N, 2007. Effect of the microencapsulation of nanoparticles on the reduction of burst release. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 344, 53–61. Stevanovic M, Uskokovic D, 2009. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-based Micro and Nanoparticles for the Controlled Drug Delivery of Vitamins. Current Nanoscience. 5, 00-00. Thassu D, Deleers M, Pathak Y, editors, 2007. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. Vol 166. New York: Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences. Uhrich KE, Cannizzaro SM, Langer RS, Shakesheff KM, 1999. Polymeric systems for controlled drug release. Chemical Reviews. 99, 3181-3198.
Grand Canyon University Right Ways of Administration of Patient Care Response.
please follow instructions and complete the work on time APA
I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need support to help me understand better.
***Make a comment in APA***One barrier that relates to challenges with population health includes strengthen patient engagement. To effectively manage chronic diseases, patients must understand their condition and how to control it. This means being in consistent contact with the provider, and having access to family and community support to assist them in maintaining their health. Patients are strongly encouraged to be involved in their health management program. Barriers that can lead to patients not being consistent in their care may include a lack of transportation, lack of childcare, not being able to take time off work to attend their appointment, confusion on medication regimen, and payment expense concerns, (Bresnick, 2017). T2 and T3 translational research methods could be used in determining which patient populations are less complainant, finding interventions and recommendations to help that particular population be more successful in their health care plan. This also can include what the health care professional can do to aid in the patient being more compliant in their care.Health care professionals should be able to sit down and work out a personal plan for each individual patient, to ensure their needs are met, and assess where any gaps in care may be occurring. There is not a “one size fits all” when it comes to a patient needs assessment. Evaluating what the patient needs to ensure they are successful in their care is one of the first places to start. It is important to ask the patient what they need and what their expectations are in their care plan. Including the patient can help to ensure they are more compliant in their care. To follow up what methods are successful for the patients, there would need to be consistent audits, follow-up question assessments, continuing education, and evaluating target goals. Strengthening patient engagement does not solely rely on the patient, but the entire care team as well. It is a group effort for all parties to participate and follow up to ensure a more successful outcome for the patient.
Grand Canyon University Right Ways of Administration of Patient Care Response
This course project requires you to modify six security policies. Then you will be need to search the SANS website to add three additional security policies to your project plan. You are tasked with modifying the six preselected policies. This will requi
This course project requires you to modify six security policies. Then you will be need to search the SANS website to add three additional security policies to your project plan. You are tasked with modifying the six preselected policies. This will requi.
This course project requires you to modify six security policies. Then you will be need to search the SANS website to add three additional security policies to your project plan.You are tasked with modifying the six preselected policies. This will require you to add your own language and words that apply to your organization. Then you are required to add three new policies of your choice using the same format from the preselected templates. You can use SANS website as your resource to compile your additional three security policies. If you decide to use another site, please work with your instructor prior to creating the templates.
This course project requires you to modify six security policies. Then you will be need to search the SANS website to add three additional security policies to your project plan. You are tasked with modifying the six preselected policies. This will requi
“A Day Without a Mexican” Mockumentary by S. Arau Essay (Movie Review)
best assignment help Pre-Viewing Title of the film: A Day Without a Mexican Date of production: May 14, 2004 Producers: Sergio Arau Writers: Sergio Arau, Yareli Arizmendi, Sergio Guerrero and Sarah Polley I selected this film due to its relevance to the contemporary American society. It addresses the importance of Mexicans to the American community despite the discrimination they face from American citizens. A mysterious fog strikes the state of California, and all Mexicans disappear. Scientists, politicians, farmers and all other citizens of America miss their services. Before I watched the movie, these were the expectations I had: I expected a movie that shows how Americans celebrate the disappearance of Mexicans. The title suggests that the Americans have been longing for the day when there would be no Mexicans. I also anticipated a film full of violence against Mexicans. I expected that the movie would describe the best ways for eradicating all Mexicans from California and the other parts of the US. Viewing This film describes a social concern. It tells the American society that Mexicans are helpful to their nation, and are not entirely bad as they always think. It reminds them that in case the Mexicans left, the whole of the US would miss them. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film uses twenty-two soundtracks to reinforce its main theme. Most of these tracks are by Sergio Arau. Among the songs are a Day Without a Mexican, My Husband is a Mexican and California Dreaming. The themes of these songs are evident in their titles. They all talk about the implications of Mexicans’ departure from the US. The director of the movie allows the characters’ voices to dominate the film. A narrator with a male voice narrates the occurrences with a serious tone in some parts of the film. The dominance of direct speech from characters helps convince the audience that Mexicans are important to the economy of California and the entire American society. The male narrator’s serious tone further reiterates this message. The producer uses characters in specific contexts and eliminates unnecessary noises in the background. Mexicans make noises in both Spanish and English in the background. Their shouting is mainly a demonstration against mistreatment. The filmmakers do not interview anybody. They mostly use dramatization of events. Dramatization helps viewers see the importance of Mexicans through creating an imaginary situation, where all Mexicans disappear. No one remains behind to work for the natives of America. Emotional Quality The male voice that narrates the events in the movie creates a serious mood. It leaves a big impression on viewers who used to mistreat their workers. When the Mexicans leave, all the American citizens remain in a state of confusion. They do not know what to do. Post-Viewing The central message in this film is the importance of Mexicans in California and other parts of America. When the Mexicans disappear, Americans remain without workers. A tractor moves on its own, causing an accident after the departure of its driver and a young girl prepares food for the family after the departure of their cook. Most of the people who participated in making this film were Mexicans. So, they designed it from the perspective of a native of Mexico. The message represents what the Mexicans in the US feel about their treatment. We will write a custom Essay on “A Day Without a Mexican” Mockumentary by S. Arau specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The film is very effective in passing its message. Its strength is the ability to convince viewers. It first shows how Mexicans work hard to please their American bosses, who do not acknowledge their services. It then shows the suffering of the Americans after the sudden departure of Mexicans. Showing the reality in America; that there are very many Mexicans in the US, is the other strength of this film. On the other hand, the weakness of this film is the involvement of many Mexicans and non-native Americans in its production. Therefore, it lacks the power to convince viewers because it is subjective. The filmmakers wanted the American audience to react by treating their Mexican servants in a humane manner. It succeeds in making me feel sympathetic to the plight of Mexicans living in the US. The film also helps me see the need to acknowledge the duty of servants in society. Question to the filmmaker Why did you not look at the negative implications of having Mexicans in the US such as an increase in the level of insecurity and overpopulation?
St Thomas University Cultural Self Assessment Discussion
St Thomas University Cultural Self Assessment Discussion.
The purpose of this paper is to conduct a cultural self-assessment.Discuss and conduct a personal cultural self-assessment as it relates to the Purnell Model for Cultural CompetenceRemember to answer these questions from your personal perspective. At all times, explain why you do or do not adhere to the dominant cultural practices and beliefs of the ethnic group(s) with which you primarily identify.If you do not wish to self-disclose a specific area from the Organizing Framework, indicate so instead of just not addressing it; of course, this should not happen very often.Your paper should be formatted per APA and references should be current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions)Submission Instructions:The paper is to be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation and misspelling.The paper is to be no shorter than 3 pages; nor longer than 5 pages in length, excluding the title, abstract and references page.Incorporate a minimum of 3 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work. Journal articles and books should be referenced according to APA style (the library has a copy of the APA Manual).
St Thomas University Cultural Self Assessment Discussion
HS 230 Purdue University Global Your Future as A Coding Professional Discussion
HS 230 Purdue University Global Your Future as A Coding Professional Discussion.
HI255: Medical Coding IIDiscussion Topic: Your Future as a Coding ProfessionalINSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per postCLASSMATE POST #1There are several different coding certifications. I have narrowed them down to 3 to talk about. The three certifications I did research on were RHIA, AAPC, and AMCA. The RHIA stands for Registered health information administrator. RHIA for members is $229 and $299 for nonmembers to take the exam. If you hold one credential recertification the fee is $218.If you hold more than one credential recertification fee is $218, and $50 for each additional certification. To get an RHIA credential you would have to complete an on-campus, online, or a hybrid bachelors’ program in health information management or health information technology that is accredited by the commission on accreditation for health informatics and information management education. Next is AAPC for an online proctored exam it is $299 for a physical proctored exam it is $399. Costs for upkeeping for AAPC is a $180 renewal fee. The amount of continuing education is a maximum of 16 CEUS for the first presentation per core credential, per two-year renewal period. The AAPC recommends having an associate’s degree but it is not required. Lastly, we have the AMCA. The AMCA charge is $109 and the study material is included. To renew for recertification, it is $79 per 5 credits. You would need 10 continuing education credits every two years to keep the AMCA certification current. Qualifications include you must be 18 years of age, have a high school diploma or GED, and must also meet 1 of the following requirements. Graduating from a training program, pass the exam, and have a minimum 1-year experience directly related to the credential. My plans for certification after graduation is to take a few of these tests and possibly further my education as well as have a job pursuing my career in the medical field.~Chasity~CLASSMATE POST #2AHIMA has many options to earn your first credential. For professional coders the credentials they offer include Certified Coding Associate (CCA), Certified Coding Specialist (CCS), Certified Coding Specialist-Physician-based (CCS-P). The credential that interests me the most to earn first would be the CCA. The CCA is an entry-level coding certification. This credential shows you have the understanding with all settings, including hospitals and physician practices. The cost for this exam is $299 for non-members, $199 for members. Requirements the students must have before taking this exam are, they must have their high school diploma or equivalent and 6 months of coding experience directly applying codes. The recertification process ensures that certified professionals stay up to date in the constantly evolving medical field. A professional must have a specified number of Continuing Education Units, CEUs during a 2-year certification cycle. Once you have one AHIMA credential you must earn either 20 or 30 CEUs depending on the which credential you already have, before you recertify. You can earn these by the hours you work in HIM domain or participation in continuing education activities. The recertification fee is $218 for holding one credential. If you have more than one already it will be $218 plus $50 for every credential you hold.AAPC offers professional coders the Certified Professional Coder (CPC), Certified Outpatient Coding (COC), Certified Inpatient Coder (CIC), and Certified Risk Adjustment Coder (CRC). The certificate that interests me the most would be the CPC certification this credential has a high excellence reputation. The price for this exam is $299 online and $399 at a physical location. Proof of education or experience isn’t technically necessary to take this exam, but if you do not have it then you will be designated Certified Professional Coder-Apprentice (CPC-A). AAPC membership is required to be renewed annually and 36 CEUs must be submitted every 2 years for verification and authentication of expertise. You don’t need to recertify for a CPC certificate as long as you enter your CEUs.AMCA offers two certifications for medical coding and billing, Medical Coder and Biller Certification (MCBC) and Billing Coding Specialist Certification (BCSC) which is $109 for both exams. Luckily, I am already scheduled for my BCSC exam in my last term of college. A Billing Coding Specialist can be known as multiple titles, Reimbursement Specialist, Coding Specialist, or health information technologist.My plans for certification after graduation is earning my CPC first. It seems the most reasonable for myself as an entry-level. I have been thinking a lot about holding more than one credential in my future. I’ve just changed my careers and have been looking for anything in the medical field, but no luck just yet. Once I have a little more hands on experience I definitely plan to move forward in the field.~Kelly~HS230: Health Care AdministrationDiscussion Topic: Course Wrap-upINSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per postCLASSMATE POST #3Wow week 10 and final week already! Time flies when you are having fun! Health Care Administration was a great class and widened my knowledge on what to expect as healthcare administrator. I learned so much and it really makes me excited to work as one in the future. I really gained a lot of information on how the United States healthcare field is and the policies, laws, rules that come with working in this field. The skills needed for healthcare administration is a lot more than I thought but I think I will definitely enjoy this field! I wish you all the best for the remainder of your degree! Thank you all for a great term.~Carson~CLASSMATE POST #4Hello everyone. Congrats on making it to the final week! I believe this class has better prepared me for the next steps towards this career path. I feel like I have learned something new every week of this class and it has shown me that I might want to consider changing my studies to Health Administration instead of Medical Office Administration. Also, I feel like the professor kept me interested the entire seminar each and every time. There was always great discussion and I did not feel like it was just being read off the screen. Overall I would say yes this class helped a lot and would definitely loved to learn more. ~Brandy~
HS 230 Purdue University Global Your Future as A Coding Professional Discussion