The Timeless Theme Of Luther John Osborne
John Osborne’s Luther, which debuted in London in 1961, is a drama with a historical setting and a timeless theme. As Osborne told an interviewer in 1961 (as quoted in Alan Carter’s John Osborne), ”I wanted to write a play about religious experience and various other things, and this happened to be the almost incidental.” The play focuses on Martin Luther, the sixteenth-century monk who publicly spoke out against age-old practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, thus beginning the Protestant Reformation. Osborne, however, focuses on Martin Luther’s intensely personal reaction to his religion, his faith, and his God; the transformations he wrought in Europe exist more as an aside in this drama. As he did in earlier works, such as his groundbreaking Look Back in Anger, Osborne profiles an individual in conflict with authority, which in Martin Luther’s case is the vast authority of the Roman Catholic Church. In posting his 95 theses, Luther risked inevitable excommunication and brought the wrath of the highest church leaders, including Pope Leo X, upon him. He did this despite his uncertainty about what would come next, for, as he tells Cajetan at the Diet of Worms (a city in Germany) about the Roman Catholic Church, ”A withered arm is best amputated, an infected place is best scoured out, and so you pray for healthy tissue and something sturdy and clean that was crumbling and full of filth.” Osborne dramatically depicts how Martin Luther followed his convictions in the face of great doubts, and so transformed Christianity forever. Plot overview Act 1 Luther is set in Germany during the 1500s and follows several important events in the life of Martin Luther, the religious reformer, instigator of the Protestant Reformation, and founder of the Lutheran faith. Act 1 opens at the convent of the Augustinian Order of Eremites in Erfurt, Germany, in 1506. In the presence of the other members of the convent and his disapproving father, Luther is received into the order. After the oath has been sworn, Luther’s father, Hans, complains of his son’s choice. Later, after his father has left, the monks gather for their meal; Luther has the job of waiting on the others. A reader lectures the men on their duties to God, doing His good works, and the rules they must follow. The men then make their confessions, but while most of the monks confess to trifling sins, Luther continually castigates himself harshly, calling himself a ”worm,” and sharing visions that are filled with images of sex and violence. At the end, Luther has a fit and has to be dragged away by two other monks. Scene 2 takes place one year later as Luther is about to perform his first mass. Beforehand, he talks with Brother Weinand about his doubts, revealing that he still feels envy and impatience, and that he believes that God hates him. Weinand says it is not God who is angry with Luther but Luther who is angry with Him. Scene 3 focuses on the meeting between Luther and his father, Hans, following Luther’s mass. Hans still cannot understand why Luther would give up earthly pleasures such as fortune and family life to become a monk. Hans suggests that Luther only became a monk through fear, the result of a promise made during a thunderstorm. Act 2 Act 2 opens at the marketplace in Jûterbog in 1517, where John Tetzel is selling indulgences. Scene 1 is Tetzel’s monologue exhorting people to buy the indulgences and ensure their swift assent to heaven. Scene 2 shifts to the Eremite Cloister in Wittenberg, where Luther talks with his mentor, Johann Von Staupitz. Through the conversation, Luther’s scholarly success (he has earned a doctorate in theology) is revealed, as are his continuing doubts and discontent. Luther has become obsessed with the rules of his order, according to Von Staupitz, because it protects him from admitting that he cannot submit to anyone’s authority but his own. Stauptiz points out that Luther demands from himself an ”impossible standard of perfection” and notes that he has been unable to keep all his vows but that God should still grant him salvation because of his love of Christ. Von Staupitz also talks about the Duke’s annoyance with Luther’s sermons against indulgences. Scene 3 shows Luther arriving with his 95 theses at the Castle Church in Wittenberg. In a monologue, he gives a sermon to the crowds, telling the common people there is no security in the purchase of indulgences and repudiating the idea that doing good works leads to personal salvation. ”The works are just if the man is just,” he says. ”If a man doesn’t believe in Christ, not only are his sins mortal, but his good works.” Scene 4 takes place at the Fugger Palace in Augsburg in October 1518 as Cajetan, a church leader, confronts Luther about his actions. Cajetan explains to Luther the pope’s three demands: he must retract his sermons, not spread his ideas in the future, and stop causing disturbances among the church. Despite Cajetan telling Luther that his actions threaten the unity of Christendom, Luther will not retract. Cajetan has no choice but to refer this difficult matter to the pope. Scene 5 takes place in a hunting lodge in northern Italy in 1519. Pope Leo X reads a letter he has received from Luther in which Luther says he will not retract his theses. The pope sends a letter to Cajetan that excommunicates Luther and banishes him from Germany. Scene 6 takes place at the Elster Gate in Wittenberg in 1520. In this brief monologue, Luther reveals that he has been served excommunication papers. He burns this paper, called the papal bull. Act 3 Act 3 opens on April 18, 1521, at the Diet of Worms, where Germany’s Christian princes have called Luther to ask if he will retract the beliefs he espouses in his books dissenting with church doctrine. Luther explains that his writings fall into three categories: the first deal with certain values of faith and morality that both his supporters and his enemies agree are harmless; the second group attack the power that has tyrannized Germany; the third criticizes the enemies of his religion, even if they are ”holy” individuals, and defends the teaching of Christ. Luther declares that he cannot retract any of these works, for to retract the first group would be to condemn the things that those in favor and those against Luther agree upon; to retract the second group would be to invite more tyranny on Germany; to retract the third group would be to allow such situations to continue. Luther asks if anyone can expose his errors through Scripture; if this can be done, he will retract his books. Von Eck refuses his proposal. ”Do reasons have to be given to anyone who cares to ask a question?” he asks. ”Why, if anyone who questioned the common understanding of the church on any matter he liked to raise, and had to be answered irrefutably from the Scriptures, there would be nothing certain or decided in Christendom.” Von Eck further points out that Luther’s disobedience threatens the stability of the church by casting doubt upon it, yet Luther refuses to recant. Scene 2 takes place in Wittenberg in 1525. Luther and the Knight speak of the Peasants’ Movement, a revolt which had begun the previous year and which was quickly suppressed. The peasants had been encouraged by Luther’s ideas of independence, but the Knight’s speech reveals that Luther opposed the peasants. The Knight tells Luther that he could have brought freedom and order if he had stood on their side, but Luther explains his lack of involvement because ”[T]here’s no such thing as an orderly revolution.” The Knight accuses Luther of siding with the princes and killing the spirit of independence he had helped foster. Luther, growing angry, says that the peasants deserved to die because they ignored authority. At end of the scene, with the Knight watching, Luther marries former nun Katherine Von Bora. Scene 3, the final scene of the play, returns to the Eremite Cloister, twenty-four years after Luther joined the order. It is no longer a monastery but Luther’s home, where he lives with his wife and six children. Von Staupitz joins them for a meal, and the two men discuss all that has happened since Luther posted his theses: the development of Germany and the German language, and the accessibility of Christianity to the common people. After hearing Luther’s repudiation of the Peasants’ War, Von Staupitz asks Luther not to believe that he is the only one who is ever right. Von Staupitz departs, and Katherine enters the room, carrying their young son, Hans, and Luther takes him from her. THEMES Themes Loss of Faith Martin Luther’s religious crisis-and the resulting Protestant Reformation-stemmed from his loss of faith in the teachings and practices of the church. Osborne does not analyze the social, political, and economic causes of the religious reformation that swept Europe in the 1500s; instead, he focuses on Luther’s personal struggle. Luther takes action, posting the 95 theses, that makes him the first protestant, but even before this, his doubt is evident. The man who joins the monastery is prone to despair, histrionics, and self-castigation. His anxiety arises from his uncertainty about the vows that he upholds. Eventually, Luther’s doubts about Roman Catholic doctrine, as well as his disgust for the moral laxity of church leaders, lead him to reject both. Yet, even when doing so, Luther is not certain of his actions. As he reveals to Von Staupitz decades later, he waited a day to answer the questions posed at the Diet of Worms because he was not sure: ”I listened for God’s voice, but all I could hear was my own.” It is important to remember, however, that Luther’s rejection of the church does not equate with a rejection of God. When called to the Diet of Worms to recant his beliefs, Luther refuses to do so because his ”conscience is captured by God’s own word.” Upon receiving the papal bull excommunicating him, Luther asks God for help. ”I rely on no man, only on you,” he says. ”My God, my God do you hear me? Are you dead? Are you dead? No, you can’t die. You can only hide yourself, can’t you?” Luther’s doubts in God’s ability to help him in his isolation are clearly expressed here as are his belief in God’s eternal presence. By the end of the play, which takes place toward the end of Luther’s life, Luther demonstrates far less doubt about his relationship with God. In sharing the story of Isaac and Abraham, he emphasizes man’s obedience to God. In a conversation with Von Staupitz regarding the rebellion of the Peasants’ War, he declares, ”for there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resistant that power resistant the ordinance of God. ” In these words, Luther implies more certainty than in previous years, for if he had actually showed the obedience that he exalts, he never would have rebelled against the church and its practices and leaders. Father-Son Relationships Martin Luther’s relationships with the various father figures in his life each present their own set of complexities. His attitude toward these ties is best summed up by his words in act 1: ”I suppose fathers and sons always disappoint each other.” His father, Hans, is a driving force in his life. The play suggests that one reason that Luther became a monk was to get away from his father’s domination. Hans wanted his son to become a lawyer or a magistrate, anything but a priest, a profession that takes him away from the material world. Hans believes that his son chose to become a monk because he has given up and needs to run away from life. Luther, however, tells his father, ”All you want is me to justify you,” clearly showing that he feels like a pawn for his father, one with the purpose of fulfilling the older man’s expectations. This relationship remains difficult throughout Luther’s life; as he reveals to Von Staupitz in the final scene, ”He [Hans] was never pleased about anything I did. . . . Only when Katie and I were married and she got pregnant. Then he was pleased.” This revelation suggests that Hans is also concerned with the continuation of his family line, which can only be carried on by Luther since his other two sons died in the plague. Luther’s relationship with his spiritual Father is as difficult if not more so. At various points throughout the play, Luther entreats God for guidance and casts himself as a helpless child. After his excommunication, Luther sees himself as a lost child, a stillbirth, and pleads with God to ”[B]reathe into me . . . yes, my mighty fortress, breathe into me. Give me life, oh Lord. Give me life.” In this instance, God takes on the role of the father, creating the son. At other times, Luther rebels against God, much as he rebels against his earthly father. To this Luther, God is an angry being, one who ”demanded my love and made it impossible to return it.” Another father figure exists for Luther: Von Staupitz. Like a father, the older theologian tries to set Luther on an easier path than the one he consistently seeks for himself. By the play’s final scene, Luther openly refers to Von Staupitz as ”Father” and asks questions that children are likely to ask of their parents, such as ”Are you pleased with me?” The play ends on yet another representation of the father-son relationship: Luther is holding his young son, appropriately named Hans. Resistance to Authority As Luther resists the authority of his father, he also resists the authority of the church but with far greater consequences. The church leaders, parroting the beliefs of the pope-the highest religious authority expect complete allegiance; Luther must not question church doctrine. ”I ask you:” says Von Eck at the Diet of Worms, ”don’t throw doubt on the most holy, orthodox faith . . . This faith has been defined by sacred councils, and confirmed by the church. It is your heritage, and we are forbidden to dispute it by the laws of the emperor and the pontiff.” While in earlier scenes, Luther has been seen adhering too strictly to the rules of his order, as Von Staupitz points out, in the words of Herbert Goldstone writing in Coping with Vulnerability, Luther ”actually ridicules authority to set himself up as the only authority capable of determining his relationship to God.” In doing so, Luther challenges the church hierarchy that forces regular people to deal with God through the mediation of a priest; in the case of a priest, the pope and other high church officials are the mediators. In his letter to Pope Leo X, Luther shows his own sense of self-importance when it comes to religious matters. Luther alone dares protest the complaints that the German people hold about the ”avarice of the priests.” While everyone else is too filled with terror at the pope’s reaction, Luther strives to protect the glory of Christianity by publishing his 95 theses on the Castle Church in Wittenberg. ”And now, most holy father, the whole world has gone up in flames,” he writes, but, a mere few lines later, Luther asks the pope for his help because Luther is ”far too insignificant to appear before the world in a matter as great as this.” Luther’s words are seemingly disingenuous, particularly so for a man of his superior intellect and sensitivity, as he has recently elected him as the one person to stand up and defend God and His purity. Luther grows more conservative in his views, particularly by 1525, when he critiques the failed Peasants’ War, which his religious rebellion helped spark. However, he still flouts the authority of the clergy by marrying, notably, a former nun. He also nostalgically looks back on his former actions, telling his young son, ”You should have seen me at Worms. . . . ‘I have come to set a man against his father,’ I said, and they listened to me.” STYLE Epic Theater Most critics agreed that Luther aimed at being epic drama along the lines of the work of German playwright Bertolt Brecht. Epic theater is a form of drama that presents a series of loosely connected scenes. Often, a narrator figure will address the audience with analysis or argument. As practiced by Brecht, epic theater sought to use ”alienating” effects to cause the audience to think objectively, not emotionally, about the play and its characters. In technique, Luther shows a strong Brechtian influence, notably, that of his play The Life of Galileo. Like Brecht’s drama, Luther is a series of short scenes, most of which could function as stand-alone units. The stage decorations, which Osborne clearly describes, are evocative and imbued with symbolism and iconography. A choral figure, in this case the Knight, announces the time and setting of each scene and narrates background details particularly concerning Luther’s role in the Peasants’ War. Osborne, like Brecht, also wanted to portray contemporary social problems and realities on stage; in Luther, the title character is the Angry Young Man of 1960s British society, a young man who feels rage at the established sociopolitical system in which he lives. While many critics saw Luther as epic theater, scholar Simon Trussler staunchly disagreed with this assessment. In his Plays of John Osborne, applying Brecht’s criteria that epic theater appeals ”less to the feelings than to the spectator’s reason,” he contended that the play is ”dramatic” rather than epic, for Luther’s ”primary appeal is indeed emotional rather than rational.” Symbolism Perhaps the most notable symbolism that Osborne uses in Luther is Luther’s poor physical health. He suffers from seizures, insomnia, boils, and chronic constipation. His pains express his mental battles, and his inability to purge himself bodily represents his difficulty breaking free from the church’s beliefs. Luther himself views his religious upheavals in terms of the physical body. For example, in his discussion with Von Staupitz, just before he posts his 95 theses, Luther likens himself to ”a ripe stool in the world’s straining anus, and at any moment we’re about to let each other go.” When he finally formulates his own doctrine (that salvation is based only on faith in God and not on good works), it is while experiencing another bout of constipation; with the realization that ”The just shall live by faith,” Luther recalls, ”[M]y pain vanished, my bowels flushed and I could get up.” On another level, however, as Alan Carter pointed out in John Osborne, ”To show Martin’s constipation, his indigestion, his excessive perspiration, is to show him as an ordinary human being. A man who would appeal to the earthy German peasantry, and who would be able to incite them to action. He is a direct contrast to the effeminate, sophisticated Latin churchmen of the period.” This ”common folk” appeal is important for, as the Knight points out, Luther helped the people begin to believe in an image as Christ ”as a man as we are . . . that His supper is a plain meal like their own . . . a plain meal with no garnish and no word.” Narrative Luther does not have a strong narrative drive in the traditional sense; encompassing several decades, it does not tell the complete story behind Luther’s protest. Alan Carter wrote in John Osborne that because Osborne is ”weakest as a story-teller,” he ”makes the play resemble a medieval historical pageant, full of vivid theatrical moments.” The play in its entirety shows explicit change in Luther’s development of a more personal relationship with God and implicit change in the references to the transformation his beliefs have brought to Germany. The narrative drive focuses more on Luther’s interior battles with his own lack of faith than exterior battles with church leaders. CRITICAL OVERVIEW Critical overview Luther was Osborne’s second consecutive historical play, and English audiences who had, for the most part, failed to respond to the first (A Subject of Scandal and Concern) were very curious to see how it would fare. For the most part, it was declared a success by the public and the critics alike, creating as much of an impact as Look Back in Anger had. Kenneth Tynan, writing for The Observer (quoted in Alan Carter’s John Osborne), described the play as ”the most eloquent piece of dramatic writingto have dignified out theatre since Look Back in Anger. While some reviewers contended that the play was not historical enough, other critics welcomed Osborne’s more universal portrayal of Luther as a rebel to whom audiences of any period could relate. Carter, as well, wrote in his study John Osborne that while Luther had a historical setting, its theme was quite modern. In 1963, Luther went on to a welcoming reception in the United States, where it was widely hailed and appreciated for its universal themes. It won several awards, including a Tony for best play of the 1963-64 season. Luther also solidified Osborne’s international reputation. Since its debut, and as Osborne’s stature continued to rise, many scholars have examined Luther with regard to how it fit in with themes and characters in the playwright’s body of work. Herbert Goldstone wrote in Coping with Vulnerability that Luther ”presents still another variation on success failure” as seen in one of Osborne’s earlier plays, The Entertainer. He also compares Luther to Jimmy Porter, the hero of Osborne’s pivotal Look Back in Anger, in both characters’ need to be different from others. However, Goldstone also pointed out that, unlike Osborne’s earlier characters, Luther attempts ”to cope with his feeling of helplessness and despair in realizing himself . . . openly and forcefully, both privately and publicly.” Katharine J. Worth wrote in her 1963 article ”The Angry Young Man” that Luther was also the ”first of Osborne’s heroes to be shown in conflict with his intellectual equals.” She forecast that the play ”marks a new phase in Osborne’s dramatic art. Its increased range and flexibility suggest interesting possibilities for his future development.” In 2001, Luther was re-produced on the London stage; even forty years later, Osborne’s words were stirring and powerful. ”This is a big, angry, eloquent play,” wrote John Peter in the Times (London). ”Seeing it again after so long, what impresses me is how deeply Osborne had immersed himself in his subject without making his play ponderous.” Like their predecessors, several critics also noted the timelessness of the piece, which showed that Osborne was, in the words of Michael Billington writing in the Guardian, ”far more than a chronicler of contemporary anger.”
essay help online British airways. Executive Summary: British Airways is one of the International Airlines that provides its flights to 570 destinations in 133 territories. It mainly operates from the Heathrow and Gatwick. It faces many problems like 531 million pounds loss in revenue because of lack of international market study, employee relationship (strike problem) and many more. Hence an effective strategy is the only chance to overcome these problems. The strategy of British Airways includes the innovation in technological accessories, customers relationship, employee relationship, safety and security of stake holders and so on. Introduction: Any business has challenges from different elements like globalisation, information and technology, socio and cultural factors, political factors and so on. To meet these challenges a clear strategy is very crucial for any organization. A strategy is a clear vision of what the organisation will be based on a sustainable competitive advantage. Actually, strategy is a road map for future directions and scope. It is a long range plan for five years and more. It develops mission, objective and goals for an organisation. To develop an effective strategy any organisation must set an account with different factors. Environmental analysis, present analysis, strength, weakness, opportunities and so on are the factor through which a strategy can be developed. Part 1 1) Identify the mission, Values and key objectives of an organisation within its environment. The mission statement of British Airways is “To be the undisputed leader in world travel for the next millennium”. The values of British Airways: Honest. Reliable On time Good service Objectives of British Airways: British Airways based in London is the largest airlines in the United Kingdom and provides daily flights to more than 400 cities world-wide. Like most large corporations the airline must focus on a variety of goals and objectives both for short-term and long-term survival in the competitive global market. General objectives of British Airways: With an objective of becoming the world’s largest leader in global premium airline, British Airways will continue to focus on customer service at every level of passenger’s journey. The overall Objectives are divided into three areas. Global (appeal to all passenger’s, whether for leisure or business travel in order to create repeat customer’s). Premium (ensure that passenger’s receive the highest quality of service where ever they encounter the airlines). Airline (maintain the focus on aviation with the largest equipment, products and services). Strategic objectives of British Airways: British Airways provides four strategic objectives: Airline of choice (remain the top choice for International flights for premium customers as well as cargo, economy and shorter flights). Top-quality services (provides the best customer service for passengers on all routes and classes of travel and improve online service). Global city growth (continue to expand the list of top-tier countries through airline partnership). Meet customer’s needs (exploring the latest options and products to enhance customer loyalty. A stakeholder is a person or organisation that has an interest in a business, for example benefit from it. As a customer you are a stakeholder in British Airways. Even if someone is working part time they are stakeholders in their employers business. You can be a stakeholder as a customer, in all shops you buy from and anywhere you spend leisure money, it could be going to the cinema or supporting your football match. Stakeholders of British Airways are: Groups Relationship with business Customer Buy product or services Suppliers Rely on business for orders Employees Rely on business for employment Owner’s Have invested money in the business Local and national communities Directly affected by the actions and operations of the business. Influences of stakeholders: Groups The influences of stakeholders Customers Are looking to buy products or services, they are looking for a wide range of products and services. They also want easy accessibility and hope to buy good quality products and services at a competitive price. They are really important as they provide money for the business in order to be successful. Suppliers Suppliers stock the business with the supplies the business needs, if they are late then it will cause a conflict between business and suppliers. Therefor it is vital that all the business suppliers are on time. Suppliers are probably the third important part in a business, they provide the products/services and if they are not in time it poses to be a threat to the financial state of the business. On the other hand, suppliers aren’t that important in decision making because they are scared of losing their contract with British Airways. Employees May want an increase in pay rise. Staffs have a very big interest in British Airways, they have an interest in the business in the form of wages, bonuses, discounts, and holiday pension. Owner’s In contrast it may want a decrease in pay rise for their employees you could say that the owners probably one of the most important people in a business. Local and national communities Give planning permission depending on the business a person wants to do. Part 2 2) Investigate the economic, social, and global environment in which organizations operate. What is an economic system: An organised manner in which a state or a nation allots its resources and allocates goods and services in the national community. An economic system is loosely defined as a countries plan for its services, goods, and the exact way in which its economic plan is carried out. Basically there are three major/different types of economic systems prevailing around the world and they are: Market Economy: In a market economy, national and state governments play a minor role. Instead consumers and their buying decisions drive the economy. In this type of economic system, the assumptions of the market play a major role in deciding the right path for a country’s economic development. Market economies aim to reduce or eliminate entirely subsidies for a particular industry, the pre-determination of prices for different commodities, and the amount of regulation controlling different industrial sectors. The absence of central planning is one of the major features of this economic system. Market decisions are mainly dominated by supply and demand, the role of the government in a market economy is to simply make sure that the market is stable enough to carry out its economic activities properly. Planned Economy: A planned economy is also known as a command economy. The most important aspect of this type of economy is that all major decisions related to the production, distribution, commodity and service prices, are all made by the government. The planned economy is government directed, and market forces have very little say in such an economy. This type of economy lacks the kind of flexibility that is present a market economy, and because of this, the planned economy reacts slower to changes in consumer needs and fluctuating patterns of supply and demand. On the other hand, a planned economy aims at using all available resources for developing production instead of allocating the resources either for advertising or marketing. Mixed Economy: A mixed economy combines elements of both the planned and the market economies in one cohesive system. This means that certain features from both market and planned economic systems are taken to form this type of economy. This system prevails in many countries where neither the government nor the business entities control the economic activities of that country – both sectors play an important role in the economic decision – making of the country. In a mixed economy there is flexibility in some areas and government control in others. Mixed economies include both capitalist and social economic policies and often arise in societies that seek to balance a wide range of political and economic views. http://www.economywatch.com/world_economic-indicators/type British Airways operates in the Mixed economic system as British Airways was privatised on February 1987 and the government has less intervention as it’s a private company the only intervention that the government would have is only setting the prices of the air tickets. What is Social Welfare: Social welfare is about how people, communicate and institutions in a society take action to provide certain minimum standards and certain opportunities. It is generally about helping people facing contingencies. Social welfare which British Airways does for its employees. Social Welfare Policy: Is basically to improve and protect the standard of living of the people or citizens as a whole. In the United Kingdom the Name “Social Policy” is used to apply to the policies that the government uses for welfare and social protection and the ways in which welfare is basically developed in a society. There are various social welfare policies that the United Kingdom’s adopts and they are: Social welfare policy that British Airways has adopted/follows: The impact that social welfare initiates on British Airways as well as the wider community is firstly that British Airways adopting the work place regulation is that it benefits the employees of British Airways and that the employees can work without any head aces as British Airways has provided all it employees with training in safety measures, plus rest time is given to the employees and to the crew members of British Airways accommodation is given because the crew is normally flying for endless hours/long journeys. The workers are also made alert about the basic terms and conditions of the organisation which are basically ethics, code of conduct, and the responsibility of the organisation. The other social welfare policy which British Airways provides its employees is social security for its employees similar to contribution benefits (Retirement pension, maternity allowances) and also non contributor benefits (social fund, working tax benefits) to its employees, which gives the employees the freedom to do whatever in their personal life. The Employment Law in British Airways states and illustrates the normal working hours, conditions, and the acts of the organisation. What is Industrial Policy: Industrial policy comprises all government interventions which consist of: Directed towards the supply side of the economy that consists of enterprises, industries, sectors). Aims to influence the industrial structure of the economy and its industrial changes. Industrial policy purposefully affects incentives to produce specific goods or incentives to enter or exit a specific goods market. It is not limited to manufacturing and includes all types of commercial economic activities. Industrial policy interventions have to be justified because if competitive markets worked adequately, any such intervention would: Distort optimal allocation, Distort dynamic competition and its benefits (innovation, flexibility, consumer’s sovereignty etc.). Privilege specific enterprises or industries or sectors at the expenses of others, Would disadvantage taxpayers and consumers. (An European industrial policy: concepts and consequences, Oliver Budzinski). Industrial policy is concerned; it is the government sponsored economic program in which the public and private sector coordinate their efforts to develop new technologies and industries. Government provides the financial support and capital to the private sector by direct subsidies, tax credits or government- run developmental banks. Industries policy emphasise cooperation between government, banks, private enterprise, and employees to strengthen the national economy. http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com Impact of Industrial policy on British Airways: In the United Kingdoms the Industrial policy has affected a lot of industries but the Industry that suffered the most was the aviation industry including all the airlines even British Airways. Therefore British Airways has changed its strategy of working and has been successful as British Airways adopted new policies. One of the policy that states to reduce Co2 emissions by 15% by all airlines and British Airways has decided to reduce by 50% as they are working on creating a new kind of fuel which is known as bio diesel which is pollution free and environment friendly. Fiscal Policy: Government spending policies that influences macroeconomic conditions. These policies affect tax rates, interest rates and government spending in an effort to control the economy. Monetary Policy: The action of a central, bank currency or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. Monetary policy is maintained through actions such as increasing the interest rate, or changing the amount of money banks need to keep in the vault or bank reserves. Impact of fiscal and monetary policy on airline industry as well as British Airways: The principles of economics tell us that governments can sometimes improve market outcomes. Methods of influencing market outcomes can come in the form of monetary and fiscal policies. Monetary policies influence shifts in aggregate demand for goods and services by increasing the money supply, reducing the equilibrium interest rates and stimulating investment spending or decreasing the money supply, raising equilibrium interest rates, lowering investment spending (Mankiw, 2004). Fiscal policies shift the aggregate demand curve by increasing or decreasing government spending or through the increase or decrease in taxes (Mankiw). Because these policies influence aggregate demand, the government uses such policies to try and bring stabilization to the economy. Such polices affect different industries on many different levels. Some industries have positive effects and some negative. In analysing how monetary and fiscal policies affect the airline industry, we can look at how these policies affect employment, growth of the industry, and product prices. Many fiscal policies directed toward the airline industry have had profound effects. One such policy is represented by the excise taxes and fees levied on air carriers. Such taxes and fees are allocated by the Government to fund improvements of airports, provide security for the airlines and airports, allocate funding for the FAA, provide for services for international customers, and support operations at airpark facilities. These fees represent roughly 26% or $52 of a standard 200-dollar round-trip airline ticket (Air Transport Association, 2005). Current economic conditions of the airline industry are dismal, especially due to the tragic events of September 11th. The Air Transport Association (ATA) argues that such fiscal policy in these trying times hinder the air carriers’ ability to right themselves through a self-help policy. The ATA further explains that in an effort to stabilize the industry, such taxes and fees can account for the elimination of over 129,000 jobs, forced many carriers into bankruptcy, and, because consumers react heavily to price increases in this industry, hinder their ability to allocate funds by raising ticket prices. With this current fiscal policy, air carriers have little manoeuvrability of funds to meet the demands of an operating budget. Mike Smith (personal communication, June 10, 2008), former owner of Pacific Crest Aviation in Big Bear Lake, CA, adds that governing agencies institute other fees to generate operating revenues for airports. On example of this is landing fees. Landing fees vary from airport to airport, but play a key role in the determination of where air carriers decide to base their operations. In attempts to accumulate more funding through fiscal policy, Mr. Smith explains that the FAA continues to suggest the implementation of user fees. Still to be determined how such a fee would impact the airline industry; present fiscal policies have air carriers screaming for reform. Deregulation is another fiscal policy that has considerably impacted areas of the airline industry. Since deregulation in 1979, the airline industry experienced substantial growth. With the emergence of new competition in the industry this created numerous amounts of jobs, drove ticket prices down, and expanded the available market for various air carriers. Through an industrial wide growth of over 200%, new carriers were able to open positions to thousands of new employees in various parts of the nation. Average ticket prices in 1979 remain relatively unchanged today. As an extremely competitive market emerged, the rally for passengers on each carriers flights kept ticket prices down as carrier created connecting flights through this new open sky policy; reaching more consumers, minimizing opportunity cost, and offering competitive pricing. The Airline industry continues to be affected by the overall condition of the nation’s economy. When healthy spending exists and pleasure travel is frequent, air carriers are able to fill flights, raise prices, and maintain a stable economic environment. However, when condition of the nation’s economy falls, so do the buying habits of the consumer. This is where the airline industry finds itself today. Struggling to fill flights in a slow economy and fighting heavy fiscal policy. Recent monetary policies made by the federal government to improve market conditions are sure to have an effect, but how it will impact employment, growth, and prices in the airline industry are still unknown. The most Recent monetary policy made by the government came in the form of economic stimulus checks. This in-flow of money into the economy in an attempt to stimulate the purchase of goods and services throughout the United States may help diminish the effects of our current sluggish economy. Little to no data exists to show how this has impacted any growth in the airline industry. So far, there seems to be little change in the spending habits of the consumer to travel via air. Because the economic position of the airline industry has been struggling for so long, improvements due to any single event may be impossible to track. Whether changes in fiscal policies, monetary policies, or internal carrier structure help to improve conditions in the airline industry, changes will happen slow and will reflect economic condition in the nation’s marketplace. By successfully managing opportunity cost, and adapting to an ever changing economic environment, airline industries can have economic success. However, the well-being of the nation’s economy will have a direct impact on the level of success experienced in the airline industry. During economic shortfalls in the nation’s economy, travellers will have fewer resources available to travel for pleasure. Contributing to the negative economic influences in the airline industry, future and existing policies targeting the airline industry will continue to hinder the industry’s ability to recover losses in periods of economic hardships. http://www.taxreformpanel.gov Makiw, N.G. (2004) Principles of economics (3rd edition). Chicago, 2: Thomson South-Western. PESTLE Analyses on British Airways: PESTLE Factors Key Points Implications for British Airways Political Heavy regulation (AEA, 2009). Increased security due to past terrorist threats (DFT, 2008) Compliance is essential if British Airways wants to continue. Sufficient security measures should be in place to ensure consumer confidence and competitive advantage in maintenance. Economic Global economic crisis: world growth is projected to just over 2 per cent in 2009 (IMF, 2008). Pound weakness especially against the Euro. Oil prices declined by 50% since their peak retreating to 2007 levels. Decline in fuel prises the dollar strengthens (IMF, 2008). UK Consumer spending saw its sharpest decline for 13 years between July and September 2008 (Channel 4, 2008) Possible reduction in the amount of business travel as companies are cutting costs and using alternative means of communication such as telecom fencing. British Airways is vulnerable as a United Kingdom operating airline to a poor exchange rate. Fluctuation in oil prices and exchange rates will directly affect British Airways cost base. More intense competition. Social The United Kingdom has an aging population. Increasing Unemployment Potential opportunities for growth as older generations have more time to spend on leisure activities such as international travel. Increased bargaining power as an employee. Technological A recent survey revealed that 34% of online consumers plan to use price- comparison sites more in 2009 (NMA, 2009) Online booking services and check-in is becoming increasingly used by the airline industry. Increased consumer awareness and therefore bargaining power. British Airways must ensure that they remain up to date with these technological advances whilst avoiding becoming overly reliant, as this may isolate certain consumer markets (i.e. the elderly) who don’t feel comfortable using such technology. Environmental/Ethical Noise pollution controls and energy consumption controls. Cancellations of flights and loss of baggage. New legislation (e.g. climate change bill) enforcing tighter environmental regulation may increase operational costs each year. Such ethical issues could have a detrimental effect on reputation if left unresolved. Legal Collusion and price fixing. Recognition of trade union and industrial action e.g. cabin crew strikes. Open skies agreement. Restriction on mergers will have an impact on British Airways proposed alliance with American Airlines. Good employee relations are essential if British Airways wants to avoid industrial action and interrupted operations. Opportunity for British Airways and its competitors to freely transport aircrafts between the European Union and the United States. Part 3 3) Investigate the behaviour of organizations and the market environment. What is Oligopoly: Oligopoly is a market which is normally dominated by a few numbers of large suppliers. The degree of market concentration is very high. Firms within an oligopoly produce branded products and also sometimes there is a barrier to new entries. Advantages as general: Firms or companies are able to reap economies of scale, due to large scale competition. – Products cannot produce by individual firms on a small scale. There is an incentive to engage in research and development. They have the ability to earn super normal profits and capture large market share. Firms enjoy lower costs due to technological improvement. This results in higher profits which will improve the firms or companies capacity to withstand price war. http://www.blurtit.com/q2774865.html Disadvantages as general: Firms and companies are concerned with the activities of their competitors. If one firm or company reduces its prices the other companies would have to. How oligopoly has impacted the airline market and British Airways: In the late 1990s the European airline market was liberalised, lowering the barriers to entry. Traditional firms then faced competition as firms could enter the market more easily. New entrants used leased aircrafts to keep costs low. Firms have merged (such as Liberia Airways and British Airways did in 2000) to improve the firms horizontal integration. What is monopoly: A situation in which a single company owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service. This would happen in the case that there is a barrier to entry into the industry that allows the single company to operate without competition. In such an industry structure, the producer will often produce a volume that is less than the amount which would maximize social welfare. www.investwords.com/3112/monopoly.html Advantages of monopoly as general: There is no risk of excess production. There is sufficient capital for research. Price of goods are reduced. The market can be controlled. Disadvantages of monopoly as general: The consumers are exploited. There is hardly and consumer choice. The price is high on products. As there is no competition it leads to inefficiency. The labour is exploited as the price charged is higher than the marginal cost. How monopoly has impacted the airline market and British Airways: There is no competition which would make the airlines inefficient. As there is no choice the consumer would have to take that one airline only. As the ticket prices could be high the consumers would prefer to take a train to their destination if the consumer’s destination is in Europe and this would cause a loss for the company. What is perfect competition: An ideal market structure characterized by a large number of small firms, identical products sold by all firms, freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and perfect knowledge of prices and technology. This is one of four basic, market structures. The other three are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that is not observed in the real world. While unrealistic, it does provide an excellent benchmark that can be used to analyse real world market structure. In particular, perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. http://www.amosweb.com. Advantages of perfect competition as general: Optimal allocation of resources. Competition encourages efficiency. Consumers charged a lower price. Responsive to consumer wishes, change in demand, leads extra supply. Disadvantages of perfect competition as general: Insufficient profits for investment. Lack of product variety. Lack of competition over product design and specification. Unequal distribution of goods and income. Externalities .e.g. pollution. How perfect competition impacts airlines market and British Airways: As in the Airlines Industry there are many airlines and there is competition there can be either positive effects as well as negatives effects the positive effects of perfect competition is that the resources of the airlines is allocated to the point as t British airways
Porter 5 Forces Analysis
Porter 5 Forces Analysis. I need an explanation for this Management question to help me study.
Porter 5 Forces Analysis
Objective: Learn and apply Porter 5 forces tool as a way to organize information on industry structure and gather insights about industry dynamics.
Pick the industry of a firm relevant to you; ideally the industry of your employer. My Industry is Beverage Industry such as (The Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Inc, Nestlé S.A…. etc.).
(Note: Porter is a tool to analyze an industry, not a particular firm in that industry. So, if your employer is a hospital, analyze the healthcare industry, not the particular hospital you work for.)
Perform a Porter 5 forces analysis on selected firm.
See Porter article and text chap 4 (textbook name is below)
See examples provided on the attached file for your reference.
Submit a written analysis; approximately 2-3 single spaced pages. Bullet point and graphical formats encouraged.
Strategic Management: Planning for Domestic & Global Competition, 2015, by John A. Pearce, II, and Richard B. Robinson, Jr, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 14th ed. ISBN 978007862510
Porter 5 Forces Analysis
Final Land Use Planning Assignment
Final Land Use Planning Assignment.
Assignment Questions(List any of the environmental public health assumptions about facility’s activities and/or water/wastewater/waste systems for the two scenarios described in this assignment that you may be making when answering the assignment questions below to help me understand the rationale for your answers.)1a.What Alberta Public Health legislation applies to the operations and facilities at the existing campground development?(5 points) (hint: list facilities and group under public health regulations that apply)1bWhat Alberta Public Health legislation applies to the operations and facilities being proposed for the new development?(hint: list facilities and group under public health regulations that apply) (5 points)1cIs there a difference between the types of facilities and their potential public health requirements between the existing development and the proposed development and if yes, why? (5 points) (hint:activities and intensity of use)2a.What other government or municipal agencies have regulatory jurisdiction and interest in the proposed campground development plans (List, and state why)?(5 points)2b. List 7 questions for additional information that you may require for your public health risk assessment and evaluation processes from the Carron County Planning and Development department to properly evaluate the Bigshot development proposal.(15 points)2c.What are potential environmental public health impacts to Lake Concordia from the proposed development, including recreational water use, and what other regulatory agencies, and regulations, have to be considered from a public health jurisdictional perspective? (5 points)3a.Are there any environmental public health issues with the existing campground operation?If yes, list and briefly explain what they are and why they are of public health concern. (20 points)3bAre there any environmental public health issues with the proposed campground development?If yes, list and briefly explain what they are and why they are of public health concern. (20 points)4.What Municipal District of Carron land use plans may be impacted by this proposed development and how could they Municipal District make those changes?(5 points).5.Write a 1-page letter to the Municipal District of Carron Planning Department that states your professional environmental health decision regarding the proposed application for this campground.(20 points)
Final Land Use Planning Assignment
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