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A paragraph for each.In the Introduction, Ferguson describes the cases “for” and “against” the British Empire. Which way does he seem to lean, and what leads you to that conclusion?Chapter 1 is titled “Why Britain?” What is Ferguson’s answer? Try to give at least three reasons, each supported by a quote from Empire.Focusing especially on Chapter 2-3, what role(s) did religion play in the British Empire?In Chapter 4, Ferguson writes about “the view from the hills,” by which he means the British view of the people they governed and came into contact with. How did the British view the people of their empire? Support your answer with at least 3 quotes from Empire.How was the empire at its height – as described in Chapter 5 – different from how the empire had been in its early years?What, for Ferguson, explains the decline of empire (see Chapter 6)?In a paragraph of not more than five sentences, summarize Ferguson’s “Conclusion.”One critic has characterized the book as a “glossy glorification of imperial violence.” Do you agree or disagree, and for what reasons?Pick one illustration in Empire and write a paragraph in which you describe it, analyze it, and offer some conclusion/insight about what it reveals and why it is important.Write down 3 people, events, places, or themes that caught your attention and that you are interested in learning more about.MUST HAVE PAGE NUMBERS AND DIRECT QUOTES FROM EMPIRE BY NEIL FERGUSONRequirements: 4-7 sentences per question

How Does Faith Interact with Feelings? A relationship, be it with another human being or with a divine entity in any religion, entails feelings and responsibilities. Taking a responsibility often involves rational reasoning, but feelings, on the other hand, are not precisely manageable. This characteristic makes them a source of confusion for many Christians. This essay will discuss what Christian faith says about handling feelings and emotions based on the “Paul’s Longing to See Thessalonians” excerpt. People are highly emotional creatures, and sometimes the power of what they feel surpasses their internal sources. In Christianity, a feeling or an emotion are not sinful in their nature as long as they are not acted upon (Laynton, 2015). In Thessalonians 2:17-20, Paul shows a prime example of having an intense longing for reuniting with his fellow Christians in Thessalonica, from whom he is separated for an undefined period of time. However, the grief of not having someone around does not crush him because his faith in Jesus Christ gives him much-needed solace and the certainty that God will take care of the situation. According to Clapper (2010), a person is capable of having fleeting feelings but trusting deeper emotions. Thus, the key to walking the fine line between experiencing an overwhelming feeling and succumbing to it is commitment. When a person makes a decision to give his life to Jesus Christ through baptism with the Holy Spirit, his or her top priority is no longer to serve their human interests merely but to build a deep and intimate relationship with God. Among many other benefits that firm faith offers are the ability to manage feelings and distinguish between what is temporary and what is right. When Paul longs for Thessalonians’ companionship, he puts Christ in the middle of their relationship and thus, gives his experiences a meaning. Engaging Culture The role of the church in spreading and upholding faith varies greatly depending on the branch of Christianity. For instance, Catholicism capitalizes on the ritualism and the involvement in the church community, which constitutes orthodoxy, whereas Protestantism prioritizes spiritual commitment over formalities. This essay will discuss the importance of orthodoxy and orthopraxy in church and how the church can be amended to provide better guidance to foster congruence. Admittedly, one should not dismiss the orthodoxal part of Christianity which gives a person’s convictions logical structure and the ideal. Orthopraxy is more of a practical commitment entailing making ethical choices and recreating the image of Christ in one’s life through every action. Moreover, what all branches of Christianity have in common is the encouragement of a righteous lifestyle both in and outside the church, which leads to the conclusion that the significance of orthopraxy surpasses that of orthodoxy. Yet, it is safe to say that in theology, theory and practice are inseparable, and the church should be the one to build a bridge between belief and conscious behavior. The power of conviction would only go as far as the church succeeds in enhancing its members’ engagement. In recent years, the numerical data on church participation revealed a certain decline (Voas
​Physio Endocrine Lab write.

Physio Endocrine Lab writeProduce a lab report for the PhysioEx Metabolism and Thyroid Hormone (Activities 1 Parts 1-4) from PhysioEx. (Will give that info to assigned tutor). I am providing you an outline, but your report should be in non-numeric, paragraph form.Your report should be in the format and style described below, clearly and formally written, have clearly identified sections (include headers for each section), and well-done graphs and tables (appropriate titles, labeled axis, and a short narrative describing the table or graph).1. Write an Introduction Section (3-4 paragraphs). A brief overview of metabolism should be included in this section. Make sure to include brief explanations of the role of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and thyroid in metabolism. State the purpose of the metabolic rate activities.2. Methods. Write 3-4 paragraphs which give an overview of how you did your experiment.Write a paragraph describing your test rats. How are they similar and how are they different?Write a paragraph explaining the establishment of baseline metabolic rates. Write a paragraph that gives a general overview of how you used the methods and data from baseline metabolic rates to study the effects of thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and propylthiouracil.3. Results. Include a table that summarizes the data from activity 1 and bar charts that summarize your Part 1-4 metabolic rate data for each rat. Each graph and table should have a descriptive title, labeled axis, and a 1-2 sentence narrative describing the table or graph. Each of the bar graphs for activities 2-4 should clearly show the difference between the control group rats (from Part 1, where you established Basal Metabolic Rate) and the experimental group rats of the activity from the different parts. Consult the figures in your lecture text for good examples of how to present figures, graphs, and tables.
​Physio Endocrine Lab write

A SEARCH OF BIO MACRO AND MICRO MINERAL RESOURCE IN ECOFRIENDLY INVERTEBRATE POWDER: Eudrilus eugeniae J. Anitha, R. Selvakumar and Indira A. Jayraaj Abstract Quantification of macro and micro nutrients from earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae) was aimed and successfully elucidated in the present study. Macro minerals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, nitrogen and sodium and micro or trace elements like iron, selenium, zinc, copper, sulphur, Nickel, Chromium and molybdenum was assayed using colorimeter, Micro-Kjeldahl method, flame photometer, EDTA Titrimetric method and specifically atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). From the study, it is evident that the earthworm powder of E. eugeniae is a rich source of macrominerals (Calcium and Magnesium) and trace elements (Iron and selenium) together with notable quantities of other important elements, indicating that this earthworm contain potentially useful quantities of many nutrients that are critical to the health of the humans and animals who consume them. Keywords: AAS, Earthworm powder, Eudrilus eugeniae, Metals, Macro minerals. Introduction Metals are nutrients in soil are absorbed by plants, transferred to animals and men by food chains, and finally return to the soil. Earthworms are found virtually worldwide and live in almost any type of soil that contains the right amounts of moisture and organic particles and of various sizes and colors [1]. It has dense nutritional content because of their soil based origin [2]. The earthworm is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine [3]. Although Wallace [4;5] reported more than 100 years ago the inclusion of earthworms in diets of Amerindian tribal) populations little is known about the nutritive value of those edible invertebrates [6]. Extracting medicinal compounds from the earthworm has traditionally been practiced by indigenous people throughout the world, more particularly in Asia [7]. Previous earthworm studies have shown its antimicrobial [3] hepatoprotective [4], anticancer [8] and scar wound healing characteristics [9]. The anti-inflammatory activity together with antioxidant properties seems to be due to the high polyphenolic content in earthworm tissue [10]. Moreover, crude earthworm extract has a thrombolytic effect that could significantly promote blood circulation to remove stasis [11]. Minerals are the nutrients that exist in the body, and are as essential as our need for oxygen to sustain life. Minerals are also found in organic and inorganic combinations in food. It plays a vital role for all mental and physical processes including for total well being. They are most important factors in maintaining all physiological processes, are constituents of the teeth, bones, tissues, blood, muscle, and nerve cells [12]. Therefore, since the drive of animal farmers worldwide is to source for cheaper means of nutritive dietary supplement which may replace fishmeal wholly or partly in animal diet and also supply micro and macro-nutrients [13]. Considering the above facts the present study was aimed to quantify macro and micro or trace mineral profile of earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae. Materials and methods Collection of earthworm The earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae was collected from Aarthi farms, Kondegoundanpalayam village, Pollachi Taluk, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected species were cultured under optimal conditions in compost yard at Kongunadu Arts and Science College Premises, Coimbatore – 641 029, Tamil Nadu, India, for further use. Processing of earthworm The earthworms were washed with running tap water to remove any dirt from body surface. The earthworms were kept in 0.5% NaCl at room temperature for 1-2h with few changes of solution until their digestive systems were clean. Cleaned earthworms are taken and dried at 65-800C in forced draught, stainless-steel lined ovens. Ground the samples completely to a particle size of less than 1mm, and mixed thoroughly before a sub sample of suitable size is stored for analysis. Store the samples in a clearly labelled, airtight, glass or polycarbonate containers to prevent samples from contamination. Storage at room temperature is sufficient, but long term storage of reference material requires freezing. Re-dry the samples at 650C for 12 hours prior to weighing for heavy metal analysis. Digestion of earthworm Weigh 0.5 – 1 g sample accurately into acid washed 250 ml digest tubes. Add 6 – 10 ml concentrated HNO3, swirl to mix sample and acid. Place tubes onto a Tecator 40 system, or similar set at 1000C for 2 hours. Reduce the total volume to 1 ml. The sample solution becomes thick slurry. Remove samples from digestion block; allow cooling and diluting to 10 or 20 ml with deionized water. Allow samples to settle (minimum 2 hours, preferably overnight), and filter through Whatman No. 40 filter paper or centrifuge at 6000 rpm for 15 minutes. Run at least two digest blanks with samples. The schematic representation of analytical procedure of minerals is given in figure1. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the micro and macro nutrient analytical procedure Method of mineral analysis The processed earthworm powder was subjected to quantification of macro minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, nitrogen and sodium) and micro or trace elements (iron, selenium, zinc, copper, sulphur, nickel, chromium and molybdenum) using the methods of Jackson [14] for spectrophotometer (Perkin elmer Lamada EZ201), flame photometer (Cole-Parmer, 500731), EDTA Titrimetric and specifically atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Hitachi Z9000) [15;16]. Results The selected earthworm species, E. eugeniae was successfully converted into powdered and subjected to mineral analysis in that six macro minerals namely calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium and eight trace elements like iron selenium, zinc, copper, sulphur, nickel, chromium and molybdenum was noticed and are depicted in table 1 and 2. Table 1: Macrominerals content in EWP (E. eugeniae) S.No Parameters Lyophilized earthworm powder (%) 1. Calcium 0.75 2. Magnesium 0.66 3. Phosphorus 0.36 4. Potassium 0.33 5. Nitrogen 0.29 6. Sodium (ppm) 0.19 Table 2: Microminerals or trace elements content in EWP (E. eugeniae) S.No. Parameters Lyophilized earthworm powder (%) 1. Iron 1.73 2. Selenium 0.96 3. Sulphur 0.22 4. Zinc 0.50 5. Copper 0.43 6. Nickel 0.14 7. Chromium 0.10 8. Molybdenum 0.02 The trend observed in macrominerals of E. eugeniae contained a higher concentration of calcium (0.75%) which is followed by magnesium (0.66%), phosphorous (0.36%), potassium (0.33%), nitrogen (0.29%) and sodium (0.19%) respectively. Among the trace elements, iron (1.73%) was found to be maximum followed by selenium (0.96%). Apart from these two micro elements the traces of zinc (0.50%), copper (0.43%), sulphur (0.22%), nickel (0.14%), chromium (0.10%) and molybdenum (0.02%) was also noticed. Discussion Now a day’s importance of minerals is clinical known and these minerals are inorganic chemical elements not attached to a carbon atom.There is a distinction between minerals and trace minerals. If the body requires more than 100 milligrams then that substance is labelled as a mineral. If the cellular body requires less than this, it is labelled a trace mineral. Trace minerals are generally needed in quantities of only a few milligrams (mg) or micrograms (µg) per day. The higher content of calcium in E. eugenia suggests that this species of earthworm probably has a higher capacity of storage of calcium in its tissues as suggested by the presence of calcium gland in it [17]. The earthworms also contain nutritionally significant amounts of calcium, which would be important for pregnant or lactating women, young children at risk of calcium-deficiency rickets and postmenopausal women in whom there might be concern about osteoporosis and fractures [6]. Earthworms require these minerals for their day to day physiological activities. It may be because they have to burrow or swallow their way through hard packed soil. For in order to perform these various physiological bioactivities, the earthworm must maintain a constant firing (electrical potential) of the nerve and muscle cells and needed for this is the higher calcium and magnesium concentration. Calcium and magnesium have been shown to be involved in regulating nervous excitability and muscular contraction i.e. maintaining the electrical potential in nerve and muscle cells [18]. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins) and also in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). The human body contains about 3% by weight of nitrogen, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen [19]. Phosphorous works with calcium to develop and maintain strong bones, teeth and enhances use of other nutrients. It plays a key role in cell membrane integrity, intercellular communication and for proper energy processing in the body. Potassium is important in DNA and protein synthesis, Apart from this potassium is important in cell volume regulation [20]. Sodium in EWP of E. eugeniae was found to be 0.19 ppm. Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid which in conjunction with potassium forms the Na -K pump which effectively maintains Na as an impairment extracellular solute [21]. Paloetti et al. [6] reported that all of the earthworm (kuru and motto) preparations were excellent sources of iron, having iron contents that ranged from 1050 µg-1 in kuru’s meat to 2990 µg-1 in motto’s meat. They compared the iron contents of these two earthworm preparations with those of some other meats. This means that, assuming good bioavailability of the iron in the earthworms, they could be a useful food source to mitigate the risk of iron-deficiency anaemia. Selenium is essential component of teeth, key antioxidant enzyme and necessary for normal growth and development. It has a function in detoxification of heavy metals such as mercury and plays an important role in the production of antibodies by the immune system. Zinc is an important antioxidant, which records 0.5% in the present study. It plays an essential part of more than 200 enzymes involved in digestion, metabolism, immune response and wound healing. Copper is an essential element for the formation of normal red blood cell and connective tissue formation. It acts as a catalyst to store and release iron to help form haemoglobin and also contributes to central nervous system function. Sulfur is involved in the formation of structural protein, including muscles and hair. It also severs critical role in liver detoxification. Its important function is to act as an antioxidant nutrient and oxygen handling role in growth. Nickel is found in all animal tissues and the highest concentration was noticed in nucleic acids, particularly RNA, and is involved in protein structure or function. It may activate certain enzymes related to the breakdown or utilization of glucose [22]. Chromium helps in glucose metabolism and aids to regulate blood sugar by potentiating insulin and serving as a component of glucose tolerance factor. Molybdenum contributes to normal growth and development. It is a key component in many enzyme systems involved in detoxification. In conclusion, the minerals in earthworm powder obtained from E. eugenaie are capable of satisfying a significant fraction in daily requirements of minerals which plays a significant role in human nutrition without any adverse side effects. References Ogbulie JN, Uwazuoke JC, Ogieho SI. Introductory Microbiology Practical. Springfield Publishers Nigeria. 1998; 70-120. Ansari AA, Sitaram K. An investigation into antimicrobial and antifungal properties of earthworm powder obtained from Eisenia fetida. American Journal of Food Technology 2011;6(4): 329-335. Balamurugan M, Parthasarathi K, Ranganathan LS, Cooper EL. Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Journal of Zhejiang University- Science B 2008;9(2):141–147. Cooper EL. CAM eCAM, bioprospecting: The 21st century pyramid. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005;2(2):125–127. Wallace AR. On the insects used for food in the Indians of the Amazon. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 1853;2:241–244. Wallace AR. A narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 1889. Paoletti MG, Buscardo DJ, Vander Jagt A, Pastuszyn Pizzoferrato L, Huang YS, Chuang LTM, Millson H, Cerda Torres F, Glew RH. Proceedings: The Royal Society of Biological Sciences, London. 2011;249-257. Ranganathan LS. Vermibiotechnology – from soil health to human health. Agrobios. 2006. Cooper EL, Ru B, Weng N. Earthworms: sources of antimicrobial and anticancer molecules. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2004;546: 359–389. Zhang M, Li X, Liu Y, Ye F, Qiu G. Effects of extract of Dilong (Pheretima) on the scalded skin in rats. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2006;26(1): 68–71. Cooper EL, Balamurugan M, Parthasarathi K, Ranganathan LS. Earthworm paste (Lampito mauritii, Kinberg) alters inflammatory, oxidative, haematological and serum biochemical indices of inflamed rat. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2007;11(2): 77– 90. Zhang ZX, Wang FF. Effects of crude extract of earthworm on promoting blood circulation to removing stasis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1992;12(12): 741–710. Alvarez S. The Magnesium: Importance of Minerals and Trace Minerals in Human Nutrition. 2002;Pp 22. Dedeke GA, Owa SO, Olurin KB. Amino acid profile of four earthworms species from Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am 2010;1(2): 97-102. Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice hall. Indian private limited. India.1973;498-516. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis (20th Ed.) USA. 1995. Lindsay WL, Norvell WA. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J 1978;42: 421-428. Owa SO. Taxonomy and Distribution of Nigerian earthworms of the family Eudrilidae and their use as possible indicators of soil properties. Ph.D thesis Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria. 1992. Ganong WF. A review of Medical Physiology (7th Ed). Prentice Hall New Jersey USA. 1995. Murray R, Harry K. Nitrogen Purfication: Pilot Plant Removal of Oxygen. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1957;49(5): 869–873. Bray JJ, Cragg PA, Maknight ADC, Mills RG. Lecture notes on human physiology, Blackwell science Ltd, UK. 1999;542. Maier RJ, Stephane L, Benoit, Seshadri S. Nickel-binding and accessory proteins facilitating Ni-enzyme maturation in Helicobacter pylori. Biometals 2007;20(3-4): 655–664.

General Motors and Global Market Evaluation Essay

General Motors and Global Market Evaluation Essay. Introduction General Motors is one of the most successful automobile firms in the global market. According to Bolman and Deal (1), the management of General Motors has exhibited unique capacity to penetrate the global market despite the hostile environmental conditions. The scholar notes that at a time when American firms were winding their operations in the Arab world due to the growing anti-American sentiments in the region, the General Motors was able to withstand the storm and even expand its operations. Egypt was one of the most attractive markets, and the firm established its production plant in the city of Cairo to serve the local population. The plant served the regional market of North Africa and Middle East. The Arab revolution that was forced by Hosni Mubarak, the long serving Egyptian strongman, led to instability in the country. The political turmoil in the neighboring markets of Tunisia, Libya, South Sudan and part of the Middle East worsened the situation. In this paper, the researcher will analyze the role of the leadership of this firm in managing this geo-political turmoil in the region. Geo-Political Events in the Arab World The Arab Spring started in Tunisia and forced the President Ben Ali to run out of the country to Saudi Arabia. This event inspired the Egyptians that were uncomfortable with the leadership of Hosni Mubarak. The unrest started in various cities in the country following the massive civilian protest. Business operations were brought to a standstill as the rowdy youth pelted cars and business premises with stones. The situation went on for 18 days. This forced the President Hosni Mubarak to resign his post. The military took over the leadership, but it did not stop the unrest. In Libya, another attractive market for General Motors, a new revolution started. The city of Tripoli became a battle field as the government forces clashed with the rebel fighters. The events in Libya were worse than what was taking place in Egypt. Unlike Egypt, where the civilians engaging the government forces were unarmed, in Libya the rebel forces had effective arsenal to engage the government military forces. The rebels managed to take over power after gunning down the then President Muhamar Gaddafi. In Egypt, things were not getting better even after the democratic election that saw Mohammed Mursi come to power as a new Egyptian president. He was accused of high-handedness. He was soon sent out of power and the military took over the leadership of the country once again. The Impact on Business These events had devastating impacts on the business community in Egypt. For four years, there was no political stability in a country that had been seen as an oasis of peace in a troubled Arab World. It was almost impossible to conduct businesses in such environments. The roads were impassible because of the activities of people trying to bring change to the government. They were barricaded using burning tyres and stones. The rowdy youth would pelt cars and business premises with stones, especially the business premises that were perceived to be owned by the government sympathizers. Many investors were considering other regions away from Egypt and the neighboring countries that were politically unstable. Security was not guaranteed as criminals took advantage of the unrest to loot from various premises. Some of the customers of General Motors, especially the organizational buyers, had frozen their activities due to the ongoing turmoil. They were also scared of the events and feared that their businesses could be destroyed. For almost one year, General Motors majorly relied on the government as the main organizational buyer of its products. The export to Tunisia, Libya and Sudan also dropped. The Approach Taken by the Leaders to Address the Problem General Motors has a long history of operation in Egypt since 1920s. That is why when it became apparent that the business environment in the country was getting worse, the top management unit had to act very swiftly. The chief executive officer of the firm, Dan Akerson, travelled to Egypt to assess the situation in February 2011 following the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. The top management did not expect such a serious twist in the country’s political structure. Akerson was met by the regional managers in Egypt, led by Rajeev Chaba. The team wanted to find a way of maneuvering in this important market that was facing serious security challenges. Before travelling back to the United States, Akerson, with the helpof Rajeev Chaba’s team, drew a plan on how to deal with the prevailing environmental conditions. The plan was the least expected move of the General Motors. The company announced that it would open its stores and continue with the operations despite the raging storm in almost all the major urban centers in the country. However, the production capacity was reduced because the local market was not very attractive. As Howard and Hussain (3) mention, Rajaav, with the blessings of the directors in Egypt, doubled its security at the production plants and the show rooms in order to facilitate the production and sale of its products. However, the management knew that it had to avoid being seen as a government sympathizer that did not care about the concerns of the public. As Prashad (4) notes, it was during this political turmoil that General Motors spent the highest amount of its profits in corporate social responsibility. It was one of the firms that were actively involved in giving aid to the protesting youths. They donated money to buy food and medicine in case someone was injured during the violent protest. One dilemma that the leadership faced was how to handle the rival groups. The government was at war with the rebels. The firm had first approached the government and requested for a security beef-up, a request that was gladly accepted by the military rulers. However, the locals were also very important in enhancing security because in most of the cases they are the causes of insecurity. It had to associate with these two warring groups without being seen as a sympathizer of either side. To do this, Mr. Akerson had to come up with a unique way of addressing the problem. Mr. Rajeev Chaba was instructed to focus on how to offer any humanitarian help to the locals as long as it did not facilitate them in any way in their fight against the government. On its side, the management in the United States maintained a close relationship with the government. It was very important as the firm reopened the production plant. The fact that most of the shares of the firm are owned by Egyptian and Saudi investors also gave it the impression that it is a local firm. It gave it the image of an Islamic firm even among the radicalized Muslim youths that were against the presence of large corporations from the West. The Performance of the Leadership in Addressing the Problem The performance of the leadership of General Motors in addressing this problem can be described as impressive. According to Grasso (2), GM is one of the few multinational corporations that were able to withstand the storm arising from the political revolution in the country. One area that expresses this impressive performance very clearly was the ability to relate well with both sides of the warring parties. This was done in a way that none of the parties considered the firm to betray their relationships or to be sympathizing with the opposing groups. The firm was always ready to offer help to the people affected in the streets during the protest. This made it to be seen as a firm that is in touch with the locals. At the corporate level, the relationship between the firm and the Egyptian leadership never deteriorated. The firm is steadily making progress in the Egyptian market at a time when other firms are restructuring following the relative peace witnessed in the recent past. Conclusion The geo-political environment in the Northern Africa following the Arab Spring affected many businesses in the region. General Motors was one of the affected firms in this turmoil. However, the leadership of the firm came up with a unique strategy that helped the firm to overcome the security threats posed by the rebellion. The firm is currently enjoying huge profits at a time when other multinationals are to get back on track following the relative calm that has been witnessed in the recent past. References Bolman LG, Deal TE. Reframing leadership. In: Gallos JV, editor. Business leadership: a Jossey-Bass reader. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2014. p 35-49. Grasso D. High-performance GM LS-series cylinder head guide. North Branch, MN: CarTech; 2014. 144 p. Howard PN, Hussain MM. Democracy’s fourth wave? Digital media and the Arab Spring. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2013. 144 p. Prashad V. Arab spring, Libyan winter. Oakland, CA: AK Press; 2012. 272 p. General Motors and Global Market Evaluation Essay

Behaviour in Economics Critical Essay

online homework help In his exploration of the organization of complexity, Herbert Simon brings out the understanding of economic rationality in, “The sciences of the artificial”. The book is more of Simon’s conception of complexity in terms of how it can be studied, adapted to and understood by human beings. With knowledge from diverse fields such as social science, economics, psychology, computer science and biology, Simon has well illustrated a theme that pervades these fields, namely, the complexity emerging from simplicity of a complex environment. He explores how human beings are viewed as behaving systems while the real thing is that the complexity of their behaviour is a reflection of the complexity of their environment. He defines economics as a theory of human rationality stating that decisions are usually made based on procedural and substantive rationality (Simon 1996, p.57). The author starts by describing the differences between artificial and natural; he explains that artificial is the one that is made by human including skyscrapers and software (Willemien 2006, p.181). It is through this statement the point is rarely discerned. In his explanation, he talks of how science deals with things as they are perceived. For instance, classical science only allows people to reason about the various properties of the structure they put in question; but what they do not tell straightforwardly is how to come up with a new structure from scratch with better designs that meet the needs of consumers. Also on the basis of design, accumulated knowledge is better as it gives rational view of things helping people make better decisions. The real world is usually satisfied by the strictness of standards generalized on matters (Simon 1996, p.129). It is for this reason that designers study old designs aiming at making better ones that meet the new demands. Therefore, economic rationality is a scientific reasoning mode that economists use to interpret the models and designs of future behaviours of socio-economic systems. On the other hand, Milton Friedman’s, “The methodology of positive economics” is cited as among the most influential and controversial pieces of methodological writings in the economics of the twentieth century. The essay is Friedman’s research based on John Neville’s distinction of normative and positive economics. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relation between positive and normative economics somehow brings out inevitable confusion, which has resulted in mischievous errors. Tautological completeness should not be the judging factor for a useful economic theory; instead, simplicity, fruitfulness, predictability and the ability to generate additional information on the matter should take the role; the more unrealistic the assumptions are, the more significant the theory is. The essay is a plea for a positivistic interaction of theories and observations (Friedman 1953, p.14). The essay primarily focuses on certain methodological problems that arise when constructing the so called “positive science”. In other words, the problem comes when determining whether a theory should be accepted as part of knowledge it emphasizes (Maki 2009, p.91). Assimilation of theories, unrealistic concepts, social constructions, predictive tests and explanatory unification are the concerning issues that Friedman raises. The author acknowledges the element of omission of details perceived to be irrelevant, and as a result, presents invalid predictions. What is more, the book provides an insight of useful heuristics of economics. It is in this book that the author talks of economics as a rationalized skill used to predict behaviours, and determining whether they are factual through perceptions. Reference list Friedman, M 1953, Essays in positive economics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Maki, U (ed.) 2009, The Methodology of Positive Economics: Reflections on the Milton Friedman Legacy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Simon, H 1996, The sciences of the artificial, MIT Press, Cambridge. We will write a custom Essay on Behaviour in Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Willemien, V 2006, The Cognitive Artifacts of Designing, Routledge, London.

FSE 375 EKU Fire Department of New York Human Resource Costs Research Paper & Presentation

FSE 375 EKU Fire Department of New York Human Resource Costs Research Paper & Presentation.

Personnel Costs Research Paper. APAmake a research and, Write a 2-3 page APA paper covering the personnel (Human Resources) costs for your dept.Choose any of the fire stations in America. 1. Identify staffing resources; how many personnel at each rank and include any civilian positions such as administrative assistants, IT personnel, etc.2. Identify and include budgeted amounts for specific expenses such as salaries, benefits, recruiting, etc. Explain any expense that is not self explanatory by it’s line item description.I will present your information orally in class. i need a short power point presentation.the file will help you to find some information.
FSE 375 EKU Fire Department of New York Human Resource Costs Research Paper & Presentation

University of Michigan The Bystander Effect Essay

University of Michigan The Bystander Effect Essay.

This week, you watched two videos on what is called the Bystander Effect. You also read the Parable of the Good Samaritan. Based on these two videos and the biblical reading—and having finished the reading for the week—reflect on the following two questions:Why do you believe that the Bystander Effect is a real thing? What prompts us to walk by people in need? How does Jesus teach on the Bystander Effect? What was Jesus’ approach to the ethics of helping in the Parable of the Good Samaritan?No less than 500 words. Video link: 1. 2.
University of Michigan The Bystander Effect Essay

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