Get help from the best in academic writing.

Piagets and Vygotskys explanation

In this essay I will be outlining the main differences and similarities between Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s explanation of cognitive development in children. Cognition is the study of the thought process or mental activity by which us individuals acquire and deal with knowledge. The study of the human cognition is a vast field and there are wide varieties of topics. The two most influential theories of cognitive development are from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Each of their theory has key aspects of cognitive development across childhood. Firstly, according to Siegler (1998), Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is considered the most important to emerge from the study of human development, and the most controversial theory as well, according to Beilin (1992). Piaget’s observations of children provide a remarkable inside for what cognitive development is supposed to be like (Siegler, 1998). He provided answers to questions regarding intelligence and how one develops their knowledge. He believed that children develop in reaction to their environment, and the rewards and punishments it provides, Piaget argued that children actively explore their worlds, and their thoughts are ultimately derived from the actions of the world. Children according to him construct their reality as they manipulate and explore their world, cognitive structures which Piaget termed schemes. A scheme is an interrelated set of memories, thoughts, or strategies which are employed to predict and understand the environment. He believed that as children grow, they develop and refine their schemes. Central to Piaget’s theory are two biological concept, adaption and organization. Organization refers to an individual’s tendency to organize their cognitive structures or schemes into efficient systems (Lutz and Sternberg, 1999). Organization can take place independent of any interaction with the environment. He believes that children naturally begin to link schemes together, creating more organized and interrelated cognitive system. For example, infants eventually begin to link together schemes developed for reaching, grasping and sucking objects, combining these into more complex structures that can be generalized to other situations and thus further their ability to negotiate the environment. Initially they can’t combine these actions, but through the process of organization they become able to do so. This brings us to the concept of adaption. Adaption involves the creation of cognitive structure or schemes through our interactions with the environment. Adaption is achieved through assimilation or accommodation (Piaget, 1952). Assimilation is the process of integrating the environment into ones current psychological structures (Lutz and Sternberg, 1999). When the child assimilates something, they mould it to fit in with their existing structures. Accommodation is the opposite process, it occurs when old schemes are adjusted to fit better fit with the demands of the environment. For example, the infant sees an object lying on the floor; they can assimilate into her experience, applying her grasping scheme. The infant then encounters another object, a smaller one this time such as a plastic token, they are then forced to accommodate to the object, altering their grasp in order to be able to pick up the token. According to Piaget (1952) there are times when we are able to assimilate most new experiences, other times we are forced to accommodate and adapt our structures to the environment and that’s when we enter into a state called cognitive disequilibrium, also known as, cognitive conflict. Both Piaget and Vygotsky believe that development started off with cognitive conflict. The process of equilibration, continual balance, leads to the development of more efficient cognitive structures (Lutz and Sternberg, 1999). Similarly Vygotsky developed his own theory of cognitive development in children. However, he made an emphasis on the cultural context in which human development occurs. Like Piaget, Vygotsky was strongly committed to the idea that children were active explorers of their world who tested their ideas against reality, seeking to expand their knowledge. It is said that Vygotsky compares a child to ‘an apprentice’, whereas Piaget compares them to ‘a scientist’. However, unlike Piaget, who viewed children essentially as solitary figures involved in the construction of knowledge, Vygotsky believed that the child’s social environment was an active force in their development, working to mould children’s growing knowledge in ways that were adaptive to the wider culture in which they grow up. Vygotsky’s perspective on child development is referred to as the socio-cultural view because of his emphasis on the child’s culture and the social environment as forces which shape development. Vygotsky was a strong advocate for the developmental method, unlike Piaget, who concentrated on the origins of mental processes and the transformations which they have to undergo. Vygotsky was obstinate in his belief that an individual’s cognitive development was largely a social process, and not an individualistic construction as Piaget believed. Also unlike Piaget, Vygotsky focused on interactions with parents, siblings, peers, and the wider culture, who were more highly skilled than the child. And he believed that through the interaction with the child and through the instruction and assistance they provided, the child’s cognitive development would be promoted. He believed that learning begins as an inter-personal activity. Whereby, gradually the learner is able to perform independently. Also his theory included the scaffolding learning, where the support is provided by teacher on specific task. It allows the learner to perform at a higher level. At any given point in the learning process, there is a difference between the level achieved when assisted and when alone, also known as the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The scaffolding learning of Vygotsky’s method is still being used in this century because all over primary schools, children are still being assisted; however when they progress unto a stage where they feel comfortable in their ability, the teacher or individual with higher knowledge gradually withdraws support according to process. He also believed that children acquire tools invented by society to support thinking in children, also known as the cultural tools, for example calculators, books and computers. Similarly to Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children’s egocentric speech was a part of their cognitive development. However, the two have different perspectives on how they viewed the purpose of egocentric speech. Piaget’s Egocentric speech suggests that the child’s self centred and unable to consider the point of view of others. Whereas, Vygotsky’s Egocentric speech is seen as a transition between the children’s learning language in a social communicative context and attempting to internalize it as a private inner thought. Alongside that Piaget developed stages of child development through clinical methods because he felt development precedes learning. The stages of cognitive development are, the sensori-motor period (0-2 years) where children achieve represential thought, the pre-operational period (2-7 years) children’s reasoning is often illogical, after is the concrete operational period (7-11 years), children are able to reason about current, concrete situations, lastly the formal operations stage (11-15) where children can reason about hypothetical situations. Piaget believed that the pre-operational stage is a time during early childhood when children start to reason, build concepts, and lay the foundation for concrete operations. “Operations are initialized sets of actions that allow the child to do mentally what was done physically before.” (Santrock, 2003). Piaget believed that illogical reasoning was due to: Animism, lack of reversibility, Egocentrism and Centration. Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky paid little attention to the role of the individual. He did not focus on the stages of development or the ages at which these might occur. However, like Piaget he did see the child as an active participant in learning rather than a passive recipient of information from other people. Both these theories share ideas about how a child starts to develop their cognitive skills. But they both understand it differently. The nature of Piaget’s investigations contrasts with the cultural-historical approach of Vygotsky’s research. Piaget is more concerned with the development of universal processes for the validation of knowledge, and Vygotsky is more focused on psycho-socio-historical genesis and its interpretations. Although these psychologists have received a lot of critics about which aspect of development they put more emphasis in, they have still contributed to our understanding of child cognitive development. It is only through their research and theory that others are able to progress onto finding out further details about how a child’s mentality develops. Vygotsky and Piaget are often presented as opposites. However, a careful read of their theories reveals that they are not as dissimilar as they are presented to be (DeVries; Matusov
JURI 600 Essay One.

In response to a rise in violence, the state of Wisconsin passes a law that enhances the penalty for any offense committed against a victim where the crime is committed “because of hatred for the victim’s race, sex, or religion.” Taking into consideration that hating your brother is prohibited in both the Old and New Testaments, explain whether this “hate crimes” enhancement is a proper exercise of the civil government’s jurisdiction according to the biblical worldview discussed in the class materials. Your essay must be at least 3–5 pages of research in current Bluebook format. It must include at least 3 scholarly sources in addition to the course textbook and the Bible.
JURI 600 Essay One

African Americans-Prejudice and Discrimination Essay

Introduction The history of African Americans can be traced back to 1600s. It is thought that the first African American set his foot in the U.S. between 3100-2100 B.C (Schaefer, 2011, p.14). The number of African American has since grown to over 42 million people according to the latest census report (Schaefer, 2011, p.14). This accounts for about 11% of the U.S. population making it one of the largest minority groups today. Furthermore, this number is projected to rise to over 100 million in the next 40 years due to increased immigration of African American into the United States. However, Schaefer (2011, p.18) notes that African Americans have faced many challenges ever since their arrival in the U.S. The challenges range from prejudice, discrimination, and racism among others that they have had to overcome during the last centuries. This paper discusses issues of prejudice and discrimination that African Americans have had to overcome over the last decades. African Americans have had to overcome a number of challenges since they were first brought to the U.S. by Europeans at about 1600s (Laouenan, 2010, p.3). Report indicates that the African Americans were brought into the U.S. as slaves to work in European farms and industries (Schaefer, 2011, p.21). Soon afterwards the white population flourished thereby increasing slavery. The increase in slavery also increased racism in which African Americans were being racially abused and battered by the white Americans. In fact, slavery was made legal in America in 1641 when the State of Massachusetts passed a law legalizing slavery (Laouenan, 2010, p.3). As slaves, the African Americans were subjected to hard labor in poor working environment. In fact, many African Americans perished because of hard labor they were being subjected to as slaves. As time progressed, Kain (1968, p.34) reveals that racism flourished in America in which African Americans were racially abused and harassed by the white Americans. This is based on prejudice in which African Americans were perceived to be a primitive populace that does not deserve mixing with the rest of the population. This was particularly witnessed in the famous Jim Crow era of 1890-1940, which is associated with prejudice against African Americans (Laouenan, 2010, p.11). During this era, several laws were enacted in America that allowed for segregation of public facilities for blacks and whites. In this regard, African Americans were barred from attending schools reserved for their white counterparts (Kain, 1968, p.36). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same applied to hospitals and transport facilities in which the front seats were a preserve for the whites. In addition, Jim Crow era saw blacks being deprived of voting rights, in addition to being deprived the right to pursue formal education (Laouenan, 2010, p.9). As a result, those who disobeyed these laws were brutally murdered by their white counterparts. African Americans also faced the challenge of racial discrimination in places of employments in which it was not easy for blacks to find good jobs. Those who were able to get jobs were poorly paid than their white counterparts (Kain, 1968, p.41). In addition, racial discrimination saw African Americans being denied access to decent housing as they were being forced to live in informal settlements. Despite all these forms of prejudice and discrimination, African Americans have managed to overcome quite a number. This began during the civil war in which African Americans stood to fight against prejudice and discrimination. It also took the effort of African American civil right activists such as Martin Luther King who fought tirelessly against oppression of African Americans (Kain, 1968, p.42). In fact, America can today be seen as a single society without discrimination and prejudice. Conclusion It is undeniable that African Americans have faced many challenges in the U.S. ranging from prejudice to racial discrimination. Nevertheless, African Americans have overcome most of these challenges making America one of the best countries to live in and work. This is because many African Americans today hold senior positions in America, something that was not possible in the past. This is also evident from the fact that today America is led by President Barack Obama whose father happened to hail from Kenya in Africa. References Kain, J. (1968). Housing segregation, Negro employment, and metropolitan decentralization. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 82 (1), 32-59. Laouenan, M. (2010). Prejudice and Wage Discrimination against Blacks in the US: Spatial Mismatch at the National Level. GREQAM

Woodhaven High School Physical Environment and Impact Health Discussion

help writing Woodhaven High School Physical Environment and Impact Health Discussion.

Activity 8Physical Environment A community assessment begins with a basic windshield survey where each community subsystem is explored. The physical environment is often the first subsystem assessed and provides guidelines to identify characteristics in the physical environment that can impact health.Click on the Enter Sentinel City® and continue your virtual experience by taking a bus tour of Sentinel City®. Since this is your second tour, feel free to choose any bus speed and/or get off the bus at any time to walk around. As you take the tour, write down your observations, specifically focused on the subsystem: physical environment. Meet with Mayor Hill to discuss the subsystem: physical environment. Compile your observations and any demographic information addressing each item listed in the first column of the rubric. You are encouraged to add other relevant characteristics you observe that may not be listed in the first column as you complete this activity. Reading and ResourcesHarkness & DeMarco (2016) Read Chapters 4 & 5Visit World Health Organization – Determinants of HealthVisit Healthy People 2020 Determinants of HealthVisit Healthy People 2020 ObjectivesVisit Health DisparitiesFind the health rankings for the county where your practice learning site is located by visiting: “Health Rankings for Your State & County” Watch the Levels of Prevention VideoAdditional Instructions:All submissions should have a title page and reference page.Utilize a minimum of two scholarly resources.Adhere to grammar, spelling and punctuation criteria.Adhere to APA compliance guidelines.Adhere to the chosen Submission Option for Delivery of Activity guidelines.Submission Options:Choose One:Instructions:Paper1 to 2-page paper. Include title and reference pages.Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation4 to 6 slides. Add title and reference slides.Follow Rules of 7.Other media (Prezi, etc.) presentation4 to 6 slides with speaker notes. Add title and reference slides.Follow Rules of 7.Video Presentation3 to 5-minute video presentation.Attach reference page or include in video.Professional appearance and background.Video submissions must include a script in Word format, submitted through Turnitin for an Originality Report.TableTable with appropriate columns and headers.Include title and reference pages.Graphs or other illustrationsGraphs or illustrations with appropriate labels. Include title and reference pages.PosterPoster utilizing any applicable poster template. Include visual graphics/images/other formats for visual appeal. Include appropriate title and references on poster.Population Health – Physical Environment Description: The baccalaureate graduate nurse will apply leadership concepts, skills, and decision making in providing care in a variety of settings.Course Competencies: 5) Utilize information from available data bases to assess community health needs. 7) Conduct a windshield survey. 8) Develop a plan to meet an identified need in the community. QSEN Competencies: 1) Patient-Centered Care 3) Evidence-Based Practice 5) Safety BSN Essential IIArea Gold Mastery SilverProficient Bronze Acceptable Acceptable Mastery not DemonstratedObservationsAre there clear boundaries- natural (river, terrain change, etc.) or do you see economic differences (conditions of the homes or yards)?Trees, flowers, cement?Bike/walking paths?Are there sidewalks/condition of sidewalks?Where do residents shop? Are there any common areas- group hangouts?What types of group “hang-outs”?Is there a sense of territoriality or openness to strangers?Graffiti or Billboards Gang signs-taggingAll of the listed observations are clearly addressedand discussed in a comprehensiveand detailedmanner with 2or more specificexamples. Additional issues, not listed are addressed.Three or more of the listed observations are not present or discussed in depthTwo or less of the listed observations are not present or discussed in depthDoes not include dentify characteristics of the environment that can impact health. Describe specific health conditions impacted by the physical environment. Identify characteristics of the environment that can impact health. Describe specific health conditions impacted by the physical environment.Identify characteristics of the environment that can impact health. Superficially describes specific health conditions impacted by the physical environment.Identifycharacteristics of the environment that can impact health. Does not describe specific health conditions impacted by the physical environment.Does not identify characteristics of the environment that can impact health or describe specific health conditions impacted by the physical environment.APA, Grammar,Spelling, and PunctuationNo errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.One to three errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.Four to six errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.Seven or more errors in APA, Spelling, and Punctuation.References Provides two or more references.Provides two references.Provides one references.Provides no references.
Woodhaven High School Physical Environment and Impact Health Discussion

United States University New Health Care Start Up Analysis

United States University New Health Care Start Up Analysis.

As a continuation of your healthcare venture, you want to
explore more innovative tools and be able to enhance and optimize your
strategies to compete in healthcare. In order to accomplish this task, you need
to perform an analysis using quantitative and qualitative measures to determine
the proper course of action. Will this require your firm to collaborate with external
stakeholders? In addition and being a proactive and forward thinker, you want
to bring on new products and services. Explain what you would do to accomplish
this and how you would deploy such a strategy?As a continuation of your healthcare venture, you want to
explore more innovative tools and be able to enhance and optimize your
strategies to compete in healthcare. In order to accomplish this task, you need
to perform an analysis using quantitative and qualitative measures to determine
the proper course of action. Will this require your firm to collaborate with external
stakeholders? In addition and being a proactive and forward thinker, you want
to bring on new products and services. Explain what you would do to accomplish
this and how you would deploy such a strategy?As a continuation of your healthcare venture, you want to
explore more innovative tools and be able to enhance and optimize your
strategies to compete in healthcare. In order to accomplish this task, you need
to perform an analysis using quantitative and qualitative measures to determine
the proper course of action. Will this require your firm to collaborate with external
stakeholders? In addition and being a proactive and forward thinker, you want
to bring on new products and services. Explain what you would do to accomplish
this and how you would deploy such a strategy?
United States University New Health Care Start Up Analysis

Temple College Analysis of Population Growth and Urban Development Research Paper

Temple College Analysis of Population Growth and Urban Development Research Paper.

Analysis on the Effects of Population GrowthOverviewImagine you have been hired as a consultant for the United Nations. You have been asked to write an analysis on how global population growth has caused the following problem and how it affects a developing country of your choosing:A growing global population that consumes natural resources is partially to blame for the release of greenhouse gases since human consumption patterns lead to deforestation, soil erosion, and farming (overturned dirt releases CO2). However, the critical issue is the burning of fossil fuels (hydrocarbons) such as coal oil and natural gas to produce energy that is used for things like electricity production, and vehicle, heating, and cooking fuels.InstructionsThe U.N. has asked that you choose a developing country from the World Bank Classifications for Developing Countries list.The U.N. has also given you the following guidelines.ContentThe U.N. has asked that your paper contain three sections. It has asked that each section be one page (or approximately 300 words) in length and answer specific questions, identified in the outline below. It also asks that you use examples from your developing country when answering the questions.IntroductionProvide an introduction of half a page minimum that addresses points points 1–5 below:Explain the problem the U.N. has asked you to address in your own words.Identify the three sections your paper will cover.Identify the developing country you will consider.Telly the U.N. which causes of greenhouse gases you will explore.Provide a one-sentence statement of your solutions at the end of your introduction paragraph.Section I. BackgroundWhat are greenhouse gases?How do greenhouse gases contribute to global warming?Section II. How Emissions Causes Problems for the Developing WorldWhich countries produce the most greenhouse gases?What are the economic challenges of these emissions (include examples from your chosen country)?What are the security challenges of these emissions (include examples from your chosen country)?What are the political challenges of these emissions (include examples from your chosen country)?Section III. Causes and Solutions of Greenhouse GasesName two causes of greenhouse gases.What are potential solutions to address each of the causes you identified?What is the relationship between population control and greenhouse gases?ConclusionProvide a conclusion of half a page minimum that includes a summary of your findings that the United Nations can use to inform future policy decisions.Success TipsIn answering each question, use examples from your developing country to illustrate your points.The U.N. needs facts and objective analysis on which to base future policy decisions. Avoid personal opinion and make sure your answers are based on information you find through research.Formatting RequirementsMake sure your paper consists of 4–6 pages (1,200 words minimum, not including the cover page, reference page, and quoted material if any).Create headings for each section of your paper as follows:Section I. Background.Section II. How Emissions Causes Problems for the Developing World.Section III. Causes and Solutions for Greenhouse Gases.Use and cite at least five credible sources in your research. A list of potential resources is available below.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Potential ResourcesOpinion: The Pernicious Climate Dictum—Don’t Mention Population.The Five Mass Extinctions That Have Swept Our Planet.Does Population Growth Impact Climate Change?A Very Grim Forecast.
Temple College Analysis of Population Growth and Urban Development Research Paper

Essay Writing at Online Custom Essay

5.0 rating based on 10,001 ratings

Rated 4.9/5
10001 review

Review This Service




Rating: